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GREAT  WAR  1861 -'65. 




(Lieut. -Colonel  Seventieth  Regiment  N.  C.  T.  ) 

VOL.  II. 




GOLDSBOBO,    N.    C. 




Seventeenth  Regiment,  by  Lieutenant.  WUeon  G.  Lamb 1 

Eighteenth  Regiment,  by  Jid^utant  WiUianL  H.  McLaurin 16 

Eighteenth  Regiment,  by  Piirale  Thomas  H.  SuUon 65 

Nineteenth  Regiment,  (Second  Cav.)  by  Captain  W.  A.  Oraham.  . .  79 
Nineteenth   Rbqiment,    (Second  Oav.  )  by  Brigadier- General  Wil- 
liam P.   Roberts 99 

Twentieth  Regiment,  by  Brigadier-Oeneral  Thomas  F.  Toon Ill 

Twenty-First  Regiment,  by  Major  James  F.  Beall 129 

Twenty-First  Regiment,  by  Lieutenant  L.  E.  Powers     147 

Twenty-Second  Regiment,  by  Adjutant  Oraham  Daves  161 

Twenty-Thiud  Regiment,  by  Captain  V.  E.  Turner  and  Sergeant  H. 

a  Wall 181 

Twenty-Fourth  Regiment,  by  Coi-poral  W.  N.  Rose 269 

Twenty-Fifth  Regiment,  by  Lieutenant  Oarland  S.  Ferguson 291 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment,  by  Assistant  Surgeon  Oeorge  0.   Underwood  303 

Twenty-Seventh  Regiment,  by  Captain  James  A.  Graham 425 

Twenty-Eighth  Regiment,  by  Brigadier- General  J.  H.  Lane 465 

TwENTY-NiNTtt  Regiment,  by  Brigadier-Oeneral  Robert  B.  Vance....  485 

Thirtieth  Regiment,  by  Colonel  P.  M.  Parker 495 

Thirty-First  Regiment,  by  Adjutant  E.  K.  Bryan  and  Sergeant  E. 

H.  Meadows 507 

Thirty-Second  Regiment,  by  Private  Henry  A.  London 521 

Thirty-Third  Regiment,  by  Major  J.  A.   Weston 537 

Thirty-Fourth  Regiment,  by  Lieutenant  T.  D.  Liattimore 581 

Thirty-Fifth  Regiment,  by  Captain  William  H.  8.  Burgioyn  591 

Thirty-Sixth  Regiment,  (Second  Art.  )  by  Colonel  William  Lamb  639 

Thirty-Seventh    Regiment,  by  Lieutenant  Oclavius  A.   Wiggins....  658 

Thirty-Eighth  Regiment,  by  Lieutenant- Colonel  Oeorge  W.  Flowers  675 

Thirty-Ninth  Regiment,  by  Lieutenant  Theo.  F.  Davidson 699 

Thirty-Ninth  Regiment,  by  Lieutenant  John  M.  Davidson 727 

Fortieth  Regiment  (Third  Art.),  by  Sergeant  T.  C.  Davis 745 

Forty-First  Regiment  (Third  Cav.),  by  Sergeant  Joshua  B.  Hill..  767 

Forty-Second  Regiment,  by  Major  T.  J.  Brown 789 


1.  William  F.  Martin,  Colonel. 

2.  John  C.  Lamb,  Lieut.-Colonel, 

3.  Wilson  G.  Lamb,  ad  Lieut.,  Co.  F. 

4.    Gilbert  Elliott,  1st  Lieut,  and  Adjt. 
(Builder  of  the  "Albemarle.") 


By  WILSON  G.   LAMB,  Second  Lieut.  Company  F. 

With  the  exception  of  two  companies  garrisoning  Fort  Bar- 
tow on  Roanoke  Island,  the  Seventeenth  Regiment  was  cap- 
tured at  Fort  Hatteras  on  the  27th  of  August,  1861,  by  the 
United  States  naval  and  land  forces,  commanded  respectively 
by  Commodore  Stringliam  and  General  B.  F.  Butler.  The 
Seventeenth  Regiment  was  officered  as  follows: 

W.  F.  Maetiw,  Colonel. 

Geokge  W.  Johnson,  Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Heney  a.  Gilliam,  Major. 

Gilbert  Elliott,  Adjutant. 

John  S.  Dancy,  Quartermaster. 

L.  D.  Staeke,  Commissary. 

Wyatt  M.  Beown,  Surgeon. 

Fort  Clark,  commanded  by  Captain  John  C.  Lamb,  a  mile 
up  the  beach,  and  Fort  Hatteras,  near  the  inlet,  under  the  im- 
mediate command  of  Colonel  Martin,  constituted  the  defenses 
of  Hatteras  Inlet.  The  garrison,  numbering  less  than  1,000 
men,  was  attacked  by  the  overwhelming  land  and  naval  forces 
of  the  Federals,  and  after  an  heroic  defense  surrendered  as 
prisoners  of  war.  Shortly  thereafter  the  enemy,  under  Gen- 
eral Burnside,  moved  upon  Roanoke  Island.  The  two  com- 
panies constituting  the  balance  of  the  Seventh  Regiment  gar- 
risoned Fort  Bartow,  and,  under  the  splendid  leadership  of 
Captain  Fearing  and  Lieutenant  C.  G.  Elliott,  the  latter  af- 
terwards the  gallant  and  efficient  Adjutant  General  to  Gen- 
erals Martin  and  Kirkland,  succeeded  by  the  accurate  fire  of 
their  guns  in  keeping  back  the  Federal  fleet,  and  only  surren- 
dered after  the  landing  of  the  Federal  troops  upon  another 
part  of  the  island,  pushing  back  the  Confederates  under 

2  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Colonel  Shaw,  and  completely  flanking  the  fort.  I  am  in- 
debted to  Captain  C.  G.  Elliott  for  an  incident  of  this  bat- 
tle which  is  worthy  of  being  preserved.     He  writes : 

"During  the  bombardment  of  Fort  Bartow  a  cannon  shot 
cut  down  the  flag-staff.  Instantly  Lieutenant  Thomas  H. 
Gilliam  sprang  upon  the  parapet,  amid  the  storm  of  shot  and 
shell,  and  firmly  planted  the  beautiful  silk  color  of  the  John 
Harvey  Giiards  which  waved  until  the  order  to  retire  was  re- 
ceived." An  historical  parallel  to  the  brave  act  of  Sergeant 
Jasper  at  Fort  Moultrie. 

Thus  the  whole  regiment  in  these  two  engagements  be- 
came prisoners  of  Avar.  After  being  exchanged,  the  Seventh 
Volunteers  (as  it  was  first  called)  was  re-organized  at  Camp 
Mangum  and  became  the  Seventeenth  Regiment  N.  C.  T. 

The  organization  was  as  follows : 

Colonel,  W.  F.  Martin;  Lieutenant-Colonel,  John  C. 
Lamb;  Major,  Thos.  H.  Sharp;  Adjutant,  Gilbert  Elliott; 
Sergeant  Major,  Wilson  G.  Lamb ;  A.  Q.  M.,  John  S.  Dancy ; 
Commissary,  L.  D.  Starke;  Surgeon,  E.  K.  Speed. 

Company  A — Captain  William  Biggs. 
Company  B — Captain  James  J.  Leith. 
Company  C — Captain  William  B.  Wise. 
Company  D — Captain  J.  M .  C.  Luke. 
Company  E — Captain  John  L.  Swain. 
Company  F- — Captain  George  B.  Daniel. 
Company  G — Captain  Thos.  J.  ISTorman. 
Company  H — Captain  Stewart  L.  Johnson. 
Company  I — Captain  A.  J.  M.  Whitehead. 
Company  K — Captain  Howard  Wiswall. 
Company  L — Captain  Lucius  J.  Johnson. 

The  Adjutant  of  the  regiment,  Gilbert  Elliott,  was  detailed 
and  under  his  supervision  the  iron-clad  ram  "Albemarle," 
which  contributed  so  largely  to  the  capture  of  Plymouth,  was 
constructed.  Lieutenants  M.  A.  Cotten  and  Wilson  G.  Lamb 
filled  his  place  as  Adjutant  of  the  regiment.  The  Seven- 
teenth was  assigned  to  service  in  Eastern  North  Carolina  and 

Seventeenth  Regiment.  3 

performed  picket  duty  watching  the  enemy  at  New  Bern, 
Washington  and  Plymouth.  In  December,  1862,  a  detach- 
ment from  the  regiment  with  a  squadron  of  cavalry  from 
Colonel  Evans'  regiment  (Sixty-third  North  Carolina)  and 
Moore's  Battery,  all  under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lamb,  cap- 
tured Plymouth.  Another  detachment  drove  the  enemy  from 
Washington,  N.  C.  Many  minor  raids  and  surprises  of  the 
enemy's  outposts  cleverly  managed  by  Captain  William 
Biggs,  Lieutenants  Hardison,  Grimes,  Cotten  and  others  gave 
indication  of  what  might  be  expected  of  the  regiment  when  it 
should  have  the  opportunity  of  displaying  its  fighting  quali- 

In  1863  the  regiment  was  brigaded  with  the  Forty-second, 
Fiftieth,  and  Sixty-sixth  Regiments,  and  placed  under  the 
command  of  Brigadier-General  James  G.  Martin,  and  sta- 
tioned at  Fort  Branch,  Kinston  and  Wilmington,  and  was 
thoroughly  drilled  and  disciplined  by  that  splendid  organizer 
find  disciplinarian. 

On  the  2d  of  February,  1864,  the  regiment  under  com- 
mand of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lamb  with  the  Forty-second, 
Colonel  Brown,  P  arris'  Battery  of  six  guns  and  a  squadron  of 
cavalry,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Jeffords,  the  whole  under  com- 
mand of  General  J.  G.  Martin,  attacked  the  enemy's  forts  at 
Newport.  After  the  capture  of  their  block  houses  and  driv- 
ing in  of  their  outposts,  the  command  moved  upon  their 
,forts  and  entrenchments.  The  Seventeenth  N.  C.  on  the 
right  assailed  their  columns  in  splendid  style  and  pouring 
over  the  works  captured  their  guns  and  barracks.  The  brave 
Captain  Leith  of  Company  B,  was  killed.  The  enemy  fled  in 
dismay  over  the  river  and  did  not  stop  until  safely  under  the 
guns  of  Fort  Macon.  Ten  pieces  of  artillery,  78  prisoners 
and  a  large  qiiantity  of  stores  were  the  fruits  of  this  victory. 
The  railroad  bridge  was  burned  and  the  railroad  occupied 
to  prevent  re-inforcements  from  Beaufort  and  Fort  Macon 
being  sent  to  New  Bern.  Owing  to  the  failure  of  General 
Pickett's  command  to  capture  New  Bern,  General  Martin's 
troops  were  withdrawn  the  next  day.  In  reference  to  this 
battle  I  quote  from  the  official  report  of  the  Federal  General, 

4  ;N"oeth  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

J.  M.  Palmer,  commanding  at  ISTew  Bern  under  date  of  Feb- 
ruary  7,  1864. 

"Martin  performed  his  part  well." 

The  great  campaign  of  1864  was  now  about  to  open  and 
the  desperate  struggle  to  capture  the  capital  of  the  Confed- 
acy  to  begin.  Grant  crossed  the  Eapidan  on  the  4th  of 
May,  with  his  army  of  140,000  men  and  moved  overland 
upon  Richmond.  Butler,  with  30,000  men  and  a  large  naval 
armament,  ascended  the  James  and  occupied  the  Bermuda 
Hundreds  Peninsula,  threatening  both  Richmond  and 
Petersburg.  To  meet  this  movement  the  Confederate  forces 
operating  in  IvTorth  Carolina  with  troops  from  South  Caro- 
lina and  Georgia  were  rapidly  concentrated  at  Richmond  and 
Petersburg  and  placed  under  General  Beauregard's  com- 

On  the  11th  of  May,  the  Seventeenth  (1,100  strong)  fol- 
lowed by  the  Forty-second  and  Sixty-sixth  N.  C,  marched 
through  the  streets  of  Petersburg  with  their  bright  bayonets 
reflecting  the  morning  sunlight  to  join  in  the  mighty  struggle 
then  impending.  The  battle  of  Drewry's  Bluff  on  the  17th 
resulted  in  forcing  Butler  back  upon  his  fortified  base  at  Ber- 
muda hundreds.  On  the  20th  the  Confederates  were  or- 
dered to  assault  this  line  of  entrenchments.  Mai*tin's  bri- 
gade was  upon  the  extreme  Confederate  right,  and  the  Seven- 
teenth, IST.  C,  was  Martin's  right  regiment  sO'  it  devolved 
upon  this  regiment  to  lead  the  assault.  Them  its  thorough 
drilling  and  discipline  proved  of  great  value.  Emerging 
from  the  woods  into  the  open  field  with  unbroken  front  and 
without  a  halt,  at  double  quick  step,  its  onset  was  not  stopped- 
until  the  enemy's  works  were  won  and  the  Confederate  ban- 
ner waved  in  triumph  over  Butler's  stronghold.  The  charge 
was  taken  up  along  the  line  with  equal  gallantry  and  success 
and  Butler's  forces  were  driven  to  shelter  under  the  pro- 
tection of  their  gunboats  in  the  James  and  Appomattox. 
Thus  the  "bottling  up  of  Butler,"  so  graphically  detailed  by 
General  Grant,  was  complete.  The  regiment  suffered  very 
heavily  in  this  assault,  losing  about  175  ofiicers  and  men 
killed  and  wounded.     The  brave  and  youthful  Lieiitenant- 

Seventeentpi  Regiment.  5 

Colonel  Lamb  fell  mortally  wounded  upon  the  enemy's  works 
and  died  a  few  days  thereafter.  • 

Our  fighting  commissary,  Captain  L.  D.  Starke, .  now  of 
Norfolk,  Va.,  is  entitled  to  special  notice,  having  sent  his 
wagons  to  the  rear  and  joined  the  boys  in  the  front,  and  par- 
ticipated in  the  battle  with  distinguished  bravery.  A  more 
gallant  soldier  never  lived. 

By  the  death  of  Colonel  Lamb,  Major  Sharp  became  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, and  Captain  Lucius  J.  Johnson,  Company  L, 
became  Major. 

A  division  was  created  for  General  R.  F.  Hoke  composed 
of  the  brigades  of  Martin,  Colquitt,  Hagood  and  Clingman 
and  was  ordered  to  report  to  General  R.  E.  Lee. 

The  battles  of  the  Wilderness  and  Spottsylvania  had  been 
fought,  and  Grant  in  his  turning  movement  had  ordered 
Sheridan's  cavalry,  supported  by  Warren's  Corps,  to  seize 
the  heights  at  New  Cold  Llarbor. 

"Anderson  came  up  on  the  first  of  June,  with  Kershaw's 
and  Hoke's  Divisions,  and  attacking  Sheridan  drove  him 
back  toward  Old  Cold  Harbor,  and  secured  the  heights  around 
JSTew  Cold  Harbor  and  Gaines'  Mill,  which  he  at  once  pro- 
ceeded to  fortify."  The  importance  and  value  of  this  suc- 
cess can  only  be  realized  when  it  is  understood  that  had 
Grant's  order  been  carried  out  the  Federals  would  have  occu- 
pied the  ridge,  and  the  Confederates,  instead  of  defending, 
would  have  been  compelled  to  assail  them,  inasmuch  as  it  was 
the  key  to  the  Confederate  Capital.  The  great  and  decisive 
battle  of  Cold  Harbor,  on  3  June,  followed  these  prelim- 
inai'y  engagements,  and  resulted  in  the  bloodiest  repulse 
of  the  Federals  known  in  the  history  of  the  war.  The  Seven- 
teenth was  upon  the  right  of  the  line,  and  supported  Grandy's 
(Va.)  battery.  In  its  front  the  enemy's  dead  were  so  thickly 
strewn  that  one  could  have  walked  on  tlieir  bodies  its  whole 
extent.  In  this  battle  Lieutenant  M.  A.  Gotten  and  Private; 
Benjamin  Andrews  greatly  distinguished  themselves,  bring- 
ing into  our  works  the  flag  of  a  New  York  regiment,  of  Ty- 
ler's Brigade.  The  enemy  assaulted  our  lines  several  times, 
and  during  the  interval  between  the  assaults,  this  flag  was 
brought  in  and  temporarily  planted  upon  our  works.     This 

6  ISToETH  Oaeolina  Teoops^  1861-'65. 

incident  unquestionably  misled  the  brave  Hancock,  who  in 
his  official  report  of  the  battle  claimed  that  his  troops  had 
carried  our  line,  "having  seen  through  his  field  glasses  the 
Stars  and  Stripes  floating  from  the  enemy's  works." 

After  the  battle  of  Cold  Harbor  General  Grant  transferred 
his  army  to  the  south  bank  of  the  Appomattox  and  attempted 
a  coup  d'etat  at  Petersburg. 

General  Lee,  on  the  14th,  moved  Hoke's  Division  near 
Drewry's  Bluff,  in  order  that  it  might  be  in  position  to  act  as 
reserve  for  his  army  or  go  to  the  support  of  General  Beaure- 
gard  at  Petersburg.  The  Federals  under  General  Smith  had 
advanced  to  within  a  few  miles  of  Petersburg  and  had  swept 
away  all  our  forces  in  their  front  and  the  city  was  in  im- 
minent danger  of  capture.  The  brigades  of  Hagood  and 
Colquitt  had  been  sent  forward  by  rail  and  Martin  with 
Clingman  was  pressing  forward  by  forced  marches  and  ar- 
rived  after  midnight  of  the  15th  and  commenced  to  entrench. 

The  Confederates  now  numbered  about  10,000  men  behind 
their  hastily  entrenched  line.  The  Federal  General  Smith 
had  been  reinforced  by  Bumside's  Corps  which  came  up  at 
noon  and  raised  the  Federal  forces  to  66,000. 

The  morning  of  the  16th  was  spent  in  skirmishing  and 
artillery  fire.  In  the  afternoon  General  Hancock,  now  in 
command  of  the  Federals,  assailed  with  all  his  forces  and 
just  at  sunset  broke  through  General  Wise's  lines,  whose 
troops  went  streaming  to  the  rear.  These  brave  men  had 
fought  unceasingly  for  two  days  and  were  much  exhausted 
and  only  yielded  when  completely  overwhelmed.  As  many 
of  the  men  of  our  division  as  could  be  spal-ed  were  hastily 
gathered  from  various  points  on  the  line  and  with  the  rem- 
nant of  Wise's  brigade  being  organized  in  a  compact  body 
were  hurled  upon  the  victorious  Federals — the  right  wing 
of  the  Seventeenth  joining  in  the  attack.  The  Federals  were 
driven  out  and  our  line  re-established.  Warren's  Corps  had 
now  come  up,  which  increased  the  Federal  army  to  four  corps 
— numbering  90,000 — and  no  reinforcements  had  reached 
General  Beauregard  from  General  Lee. 

The  battle  re-opened  on  the  17th,  at  noon.  Three  times 
were  the  Federals  repulsed  but  as  often  resumed  the  offen- 


1.    L.  J.  Johnson,  Major  2.    Geo.  B  Daniel,  Captain,  Co  F 

3     William  Biggs,  Captain,  Co.  A. 

Seventeenth  Regiment.  7 

sive.  At  dusk  on  the  extreme  right  our  lines  "were  again 
broken  and  partially  restored  by  the  timely  arrival  of  Gracie's 
Brigade,  the  conflict  raging  until  11  o'clock. 

During  these  engagements  Beauregard's  engineers  had 
been  at  work  selecting  a  line  nearer  the  city — shorter  and 
stronger,  being  the  line  afterwards  held  during  the  siege.  Af- 
ter midnight  our  troops  were  withdrawn  to  this  new  line.  Our 
skirmishers  being  left  in  the  old  works  with  instructions  to  de- 
lay the  advance  of  the  enemy  in  order  to  gain  as  much  time 
as  possible  for  our  troops  to  fortify  the  new  line.  The  writer 
of  this  had  the  honor  of  commanding  the  skirmishers  of  his 
regiment  and  can  testify  to  their  brave  and  determined  resist- 
ance, in  connection  with  other  commands,  which  resulted  in 
keeping  back  the  enemy  until  3  o'clock  p.  m.  of  that  day 

Fortunately  about  this  time  Field's  and  Kershaw's  Divis- 
ions of  General  Lee's  army  arrived,  which  swelled  the  Con- 
federate forces  to  20,000  against  90,000  of  the  enemy's. 

About  3  p.  m.  a  general  and  final  assault  was  given.  It 
was  urged  with  as  great  pertinacity  and  was  resisted  with 
equal  determination  as  those  preceding.  Before  dark  it 
ended  in  a  complete  repulse  of  the  Federals  along  the  whole 
of  our  front.  In  these  series  of  engagements  the  regiment 
lost  many  of  its  most  valued  officers  and  brave  men.  Lieu- 
tenants Perry,  Hobbs,  Pope  and  others  were  among  the 

The  writer  would  desire  to  appear  not  ungrateful  to  his 
comrade  and  friend.  Lieutenant  W.  J.  Hardison  (now  sheriff 
of  Martin  county)  and  at  the  risk  of  being  personal,  wishes 
to  place  on  record  the  act  of  his  brave  friend,  who,  at  the  risk 
of  his  own  life,  sprang  over  our  breastworks  during  the  ene- 
my's last  assault  and  bore  his  wounded  friend  in  his  arms  to 
safety  behind  them. 

I  am  indebted  to  General  Hagood's  recent  address  for 
much  information  as  to  data,  etc.,  of  these  battles  and  note 
with  pleasure  his  closing  words :  "I  have  told  the  story  of 
Petersburg  without  comment.      The  narrative  itself  is  an  im- 

8  NoETH  Caeolina  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

mortelle  and  a  reverently  lay  it  upon  the  tomb  of  Beaure- 
gard, the  soldier." 

Foiled  in  his  attempt  to  carry  Petersburg  by  storm  Gen- 
eral Grant  now  laid  siege  to  the  city.  I  cannot  better  de^ 
scribe  the  hardships  endured  by  the  brave  soldiers  than  to 
make  extracts  from  the  recent  address  of  Captain  Elliott. 

"At  the  beginning  of  the  siege,  June  20th,  the  report  of 
Martin's  Brigade  occupying  Colquitt's  salient  showed  2,200 
men  for  duty.  In  September,  when  they  were  relieved,  the 
total  force  was  700,  nothing  but  living  skeletons.  Occupy- 
ing the  sharp  salient,  the  work  was  enfiladed  on  both  flanks 
by  direct  fire  and  the  mortar  shells  came  incessantly  down 
from  above.  Every  man  was  detailed  every  night,  either  on 
guard  duty  or  to  labor  with  pick  and  spade  repairing  works 
knocked  down  during  the  day.  There  was  no  shelter  that 
summer  from  sun  or  rain.  JSTo  food  could  be 'cooked  there 
but  the  scanty  provisions  were  brought  in  bags  on  the  shoul- 
ders of  men  from  the  cook  yard  some  miles  distant.  The 
rations  consisted  of  one  pound  of  pork  and  three  pounds  of 
meal  consisted      'iwcbe 

meal  for  three  days — no  coffee,  no  sugar,  no  vegetables,  no 
grog,  no  tobacco,  nothing  but  the  bread  and  meat.  No  won- 
der that  the  list  of  officers  was  reduced  to  three  Captains  and 
a  few  Lieutenants  with  but  one  staff  officer,  (spared  through 
God's  mercy)  to  this  brigade  of  700  skeletons.  But  every 
feeble  body  contained  an  unbroken  spirit  and  after  the  Fall 
months  came  those  who  had  not  fallen  into  their  graves  or 
been  disabled,  returned  to  their  colors  and  saw  them  wave 
in  victory  in  their  last  fight  at  Bentonville." 

In  July  their  beloved  Brigade  Commander,  General  Mar- 
tin, was  transferred  to  North  Carolina  and  General  Kirkland 
became  his  successor.  General  Martin  was  greatly  beloved 
by  his  soldiers.  They  had  the  most  tmbounded  confidence 
in  his  military  skill  and  admiration  for  his  personal  bravery 
illustrated  on  every  battlefield  where  they  had  followed  him. 
In  October  the  brigade  was  sent  to  the  Kichmond  front  and 
participated  in  the  minor  engagements  of  Henrico  C.  H., 
Charles  City  Road  and  others,  maintaining  its  high  reputa- 
tion for  bravery. 

Advices  having  reached  General  Lee  of  the  preparation  by 

Seventeenth  Regiment.  9 

the  Federals  of  a  land  and  naval  expedition  for  the  capture 
of  Fort  Fisher,  Hoke's  division  was  sent  to  its  relief.  The 
Seventeenth  and  parts  of  the  Forty-second  and  Sixty-sixth 
reginaents  were  the  advance  of  the  division  and  reached  Wil- 
mington at  1  a.  m.  on  24  December,  and,  after  being 
lunched  at  the  depot  by  the  patriotic  ladies  of  that  city, 
took  up  the  line  of  march  for  Fort  Fisher,  the  Seventeenth 
bivouacking  there  on  the  night  of  the  same  day.  The  enemy 
having  edEEected  a  landing  at  Fort  Gatling  on  the  ocean 
side,  the  regiment  was  withdrawn  from  Fort  Fisher  on  the 
morning  of  the  25th,  and  moving  down  the  military  road 
were  ordered  to  attack  Butler's  troops.  ISTorman's  company 
in  front,  supported  by  the  balance  of  the  regiment,  deployed 
as  skirmishers,  assailed  the  enemy.  General  Kirkland  in  his 
official  report  said : 

"Lieutenant-Colonel  Sharp,  Seventeenth  N".  C,  pressed 
close  upon  and  drove  their  skirmish  line  back  upon,  their 
main  body,  which  was  covered  by  the  guns  of  at  least  thirty 
men  of  war  lying  broadside  to  the  beach.  Captain  Norman, 
Company  G,  deserves  special  notice." 

A  Lieutenant  and  ten  men  were  captured.  The  regiment 
lost  three  men  killed  and  twenty  wounded  in  this  engage- 

Before  the  arrival  of  the  balance  of  our  division,  Butler 
had  re-embarked  his  troops  and  thus  ended  the  powder-ship 
fiasco  and  the  military  career  of  this  modern  Falstaff — he 
being  relieved  by  General  Grant. 

The  ease  with  which  this  land  and  naval  attack  was  re- 
pulsed, undoubtedly  created  in  the  mind  of  General  Bragg 
an  undue  feeling  of  security.  Not  anticipating  a  renewal  of 
the  attack  on  Fort  Fisher,  unfortvinately  the  division  was 
withdrawn  to  Wilmington. 

On  the  afternoon  of  14  January,  whilst  the  regiments 
of  the  division  were  on  dress  parade  in  Wilmington,  the 
enemy  had  reappeared  before  Fort  Fisher  and  were  land- 
ing their  forces,  and  before  the  division  could  be  transported 
to  Sugar  Loaf,  the  bulk  of  the  Federal  forces  had  landed  and, 
pushing  that  night  across  the  peninsula,  constructed  a  line 
of  field  works  from  the  ocean  to  the  Cape  Fear,  thus  cutting 

10  ISToETH  Oaeoliwa  Teoops,  1861-'65. 

off  all  land  eominuiiication  between  Hoke's  Division  and  Fort 
Fisher.  This  line  of  works  was  held  by  a  negro  division, 
commanded  by  General  Paine  and  a  white  brigade  tinder 
General  Joseph  C.  Abbott,  who  afterwards  misrepresented 
North  Carolina  in  the  United  States  Senate. 

At  4  o'clock  on  the  afternoon  of  the  15th,  the  skirmishers 
of  Kirkland's  Brigade,  which  was  on  the  left  of  our  line, 
under  command  of  Lieutenant  Lamb,  were  ordered  to  drive 
back  the  enemy's  pickets  to  enable  Generals  Bragg  and  Hoke, 
to  make  a  reconnoissance  of  the  enemy's  position.  The  effort 
was  only  partially  successful,  owing  to  several  of  the  enemy's 
ships  which  were  lying  close  to  the  shore,  having  opened  a 
terrible  enfilading  fire  upon  our  skirmishers  so  soon  as  they 
appeared  on  the  open  sand  beach;  but  further  to  the  right 
where  the  small  undergrowth  was  some  protection,  the  ene- 
my's skirmish  line  was  driven  in  and  their  rifle-pits  occu- 
pied, giving  opportunity  for  an  examination  of  the  enemy's 
position.  The  writer  recalls  the  calm  and  heroic  bearing  of 
the  modest  and  gallant  Hoke  who  withdrew  from  the  recon- 
noissance with  two  bullet  holes  through  his  coat.  For  rea- 
sons satisfactory,  I  presume,  to  General  Bragg,  no  assault 
was  made,  notwithstanding  at  this  moment  the  enemy  had 
withdrawn  Abbott's  Brigade  and  a  portion  of  Wright's  negro 
Brigade  to  join  in  the  assaunlt  upon  Fort  Fisher,  which  was 
then  in  progress. 

The  troops  at  the  time  in  our  front  were  all  negroes  and 
did  not  number  more  than  2,500,  defending  a  line  of  a  mile 
in  extent.  That  evening  Fort  Fisher  after  a  most  gallant  de- 
fense, surrendered,  and  the  last  port  of  the  Confederacy  was 
closed  forever. 

Several  small  engagements  approaching  closely  to  the  dig- 
nity of  battles  followed  the  fall  of  Fisher,  in  all  of  which  the 
enemy  were  repulsed.  The  rapid  advance  of  Sherman  from 
the  South  made  the  evacuation  of  Wilmington  a  mere  quesr 
tion  of  time  and  on  22  February,  Kirkland's  Bri- 
gade, forming  the  rear  guard  of  our  army,  marched  sadly 
and  leisurely  through  the  streets  of  our  "City  by  the  Sea," 
and  Wilmington  passed  under  Federal  control.  Continuing 
our  retreat  up  the  Wilmington  and  Weldon  Railroad,  the 

Seventeenth  Eegiment.  11 

army,  after  crossing  the  North  Kiver,  halted  for  the  night. 
The  enemy's  cavalry  pursued  up  to  this  point  and  attempted 
by  sudden  dash  to  prevent  the  burning  of  the  bridge  over  the 
railroad.  They  were  promptly  encountered  by  our  rear 
guard,  under  the  brave  Captain  0.  G.  Elliott,  and  were  re- 
pulsed, sustaining  heavy  loss.  The  next  day  the  march  was 
resumed  and  without  further  fighting  the  army  reached 
Groldsboro  a  few  days  thereafter. 

And  now  the  closing  scenes  of  the  bloody  drama  of  the 
Civil  War  was  to  be  enacted  upon  the  soil  of  N"orth  Carolina. 
Goldsboro  became  the  objective  point  of  three  armies.  Sher- 
man with  T0,000  men  was  advancing  northward.  Schofield 
with  his  army  corps  of  21,000  raised  the  Federal  forces  to 
30,000  at  Wilmington ;  and  Cox's  Division  arriving  at  New 
Bern  increased  Palmer's  command  to  15,000.  These  differ- 
ent armies  aggregating  115,000  men,  if  allowed  to  concen- 
trate, would  make  short  work  of  the  Confederate  forces  whose 
total,  including  the  remnant  of  Hood's  army,  did  not  reach 
40,000  men.  The  hope  of  successful  resistance  was  indeed 
forlorn  and  the  only  chance  of  any  success  was  to  fight  these 
armies  separately. 

The  column  under  General  Cox  advancing  from  New  Bern, 
was  encountered  near  Wise's  Fork  on  the  8th  of  March,  by 
Hoke's  Division,  reinforced  by  the  Sixty-seventh  and  Sixty- 
eighth  North  Carolina,  and  the  Junior  and  Senior  reserves. 
Leaving,  at  midnight,  tlieir  entrenchments  along  the  line  of 
a  creek,  Kirkland's,  Hagood's  and  Colquitt's  Brigades  under 
the  guide  of  Colonel  Nethercut  of  the  Sixty-sixth  North  Car- 
olina, (who  was  familiar  with  the  country)  found  themselves 
at  day  dawn  on  the  flank  and  rear  of  the  enemy,  and  forming 
line  of  battle  in  echelon  of  brigades,  Kirkland's  leading,  burst 
upon  the  surprised  enemy  and  drove  them  in  rapid  flight  to 
the  rear,  capturing  1,000  prisoners  and  4  pieces  of  artillery. 
The  enemy  had  been  driven  nearly  a  mile  when  Palmer's 
Division  appeared  upon  our  right  flank.  The  Seventeenth  was 
on  our  extreme  right  and  its  advance  having  thus  become 
arrested  immediately  changed  front  to  meet  the  enemy,  and 
not  knowing  their  force,  boldly  charged  the  division  and 
drove  back  that  part  of  it  in  our  front,  wounding  their  com- 

12  ISToETH  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

mander,  General  Palmer.  Finding  itself  overlapped  right 
and  left,  it  deployed  as  skirmishers  with  both  wings  reversed, 
and  held  its  position  until  reinforcements  were  brought  up 
under  the  personal  command  of  General  Hoke,  and  thus  had 
the  honor  of  preventing  the  flanking  of  our  army.  Later  a 
congratulatory  order  from  General  Kirkland  was  read  to  the 
regiment  on  dress  parade  at  Goldsboro  complimenting  it 
upon  its  splendid  achievement. 

The  enemy  proceeded  to  fortify  their  position,  and  on  the 
10th  General  Bragg  sought  to  employ  the  same  strategy  in 
again  attacking  the  enemy.  It  was  contemplated  by  recon- 
noissance  in  force  to  develop  the  enemy's  extreme  left  and 
renew  our  turning  movement  of  two  days  before.  Kirk- 
land's  Brigade  was  assigned  this  duty,  supported  by  the  other 
brigades  of  the  division.  Our  skirmishers  were  thrown  out, 
supported  by  the  brigade,  and  engaging  the  enemy's  pickets, 
drove  them  rapidly  before  us.  The  enemy's  works  were  de- 
veloped and,  not  knowing  that  it  was  intended  that  we  should 
not  assault,  we  rushed  upon  the  works  under  the  heaviest  fire 
which  we  had  ever  received.  Notwithstanding  the  brigade 
had  lost  one-half  of  its  number,  it  reached  the  abatis  and 
slashing  and  held  its  position  until  ordered  to  withdraw.  In 
this  assault  the  heroic  Captain  Elliott  added  another  gem  to 
the  crown  of  his  military  fame.  The  gallant  Lieutenant 
Grimes,  distinguished  in  many  battles,  had  been  desperately 
wounded  and  became  a  prisoner.  This  is  the  only  battle  in 
which  the  regiment  was  ever  repulsed,  and  even  here  it  felt 
that  if  it  had  received  support  its  colors  would  have  been 
planted  upon  the  enemy's  works.  Sherman  having  reached 
Averasboro  it  became  necessary  to  concentrate  all  available 
troops  in  his  front  and  Hoke's  Division  was  withdrawn  and 
sent  by  rail  to  Smithfield  Depot  and  marched  thence  via 
Smithfield  to  Bentonville.  The  army  of  General  Sherman 
was  moving  from  Averasboro  to  Goldsboro,  upon  two  roads 
running  parallel  and  about  ten  miles  apart.  Otir  division 
swelled  our  army  to  about  15,000  men,  against  Sherman's  70,- 
000.  On  tlie  morning  of  the  19th  Jefferson  C.  Davis'  and  Slo- 
cum's  Corps,  numbering  about  35,000  men  were  attacked  by 

Seventeenth  Regiment.  13 

our  troops  and  driven  back  a  considerable  distance,  three 
guns  and  nine  hundred  prisoners  falling  into  our  hands. 

The  other  corps  of  Sherman's  army  came  up  and  v^^ere 
thrown  on  our  left  flank,  which  had  become  much  advanced 
in  the  battle  of  the  previous  day.  In  consequence  of  this 
movement  it  became  necessary  to  change  the  position  of  our 
army.  The  brigade  of  Kirkland,  deployed  as  skirmishers, 
held  the  enemy  in  check  while  the  entire  army  changed  front, 
and  thereafter  occupied  a  position  in  the  centre  and  joined 
in  the  repulse  of  the  many  and  furious  charges  of  the  Feder- 
als. In  this  battle  Captain  William  Biggs,  Company  A,  was 
greatly  distinguished  for  his  intrepid  bravery.  The  brigade 
received  the  special  commendation  of  General  Jos.  E.  John- 
son for  its  valued  services  in  this  engagement. 

Thus  closes  the  volume  of  the  bloody  record  of  the  Seven- 
teenth North  Carolina  troops  and  their  brave  companions  of 
associated  commands. 

The  army  was  withdrawn,  retiring  through  Raleigh  and 
Chapel  Hill  and  was  surrendered  to  General  Sherman  at 
Centre  Church,  Randolph  county,  at  the  final  capitulation. 

Supplementing  this  record  it  would  not  be  amiss  to  state 
that  the  flag  of  the  Seventeenth  North  Carolina  Troops 
saved  at  the  surrender  by  Private  Abel  Thomas,  of  Com- 
pany A,  was  unfurled  at  the  unveiling  of  the  Confederate 
monument  at  Raleigh  on  20  May,  1895,  and  beneath  its 
tattered  and  bulletrriddled  folds  the  veteran  survivors 
marched  to  do  honor  to  their  dead  heroic  comrades. 

Wilson  G.  Lamb^ 
Second  Lieutenant  Company  Y. 

WiLLIAMSTON,    N.    C, 

26  April,  1901. 


1.    John  D.  Barry,  Colonel.  4.    Win.  H.  McLaurin,  let  Lient.  and  Adjt 

8.    E.  H.  Cowan,  Colonel.  5.    Evander  N.  Robeson,  1st  Lieut    Co  K 

3.    Marcus  W.  Buie,  Captain,  Co.  B.  6.    Alex.  E.  Smith,  Sergeant  Co  P 


By  WILLIAM  H.  McLAURIN,  Adjutant. 

In  the  stirring  times  of  1860-61  North  Carolina  was  de- 
votedly attached  to  the  American  Union. 

Her  election  in  August,  1868,  for  State  officers  showed  the 
bias  of  her  people,  and  when  Governor  Ellis  in  February, 
1861,  issued  a  call  for  a  convention  and  election  of  delegates 
thereto,  they  not  only  voted  down  the  convention,  but  elected 
a  majority  of  delegates  who  were  pronounced  unionists, 
many  of  them  the  most  trusted  leaders  of  the  State.  Had 
they  assembled  in  Convention  their  deliberations  would  have 
been  on  broad  lines  and  fearless. 

Our  action  encouraged  Virginia  and  Tennessee,  whose  con- 
ventions deliberated  long  and  well. 

"Let  us  reason  together"  was  the  method  of  North  Carolina, 
and  she  sent  peace  commissioners  to  Washington  not  to  cringe 
and  fawn  but  to  use  every  honorable  means  to  avoid  bloody 
war.  All  that  could  be  done  was  unavailing,  and  all  the  ave- 
nues of  adjustment  were  closed  by  President  Lincoln  on  the 
15  April,  1861,  by  calling  for  75,000  troops  to  coerce  the 
seceding  States. 

This  effectually  settled  all  differences  of  opinion  with  us 
as  to  what  should  be  done.  The  most  ardent  union  men  of  the 
State  joined  the  most  fiery  secessionist,  in  saying  to  our  sis- 
ter States,  "Thy  people  shall  be  my  people,  thy  God  my  God," 
and  right  nobly  did  they  redeem  the  pledge. 

On  receipt  of  the  call  for  troops,  Virginia  promptly  passed 
her  ordinance  of  secession,  and  Tennessee  followed  in  a  few 

The  call  for  a  convention,  and  election  of  delegates,  was 
sustained    with    practical    unanimity,  .  and    on    20    May, 

16  North  Carolina  Troops.   1861-65. 

1861,  North  Carolina  seceded.  Volunteer  companies  had 
been  formed  all  over  the  State,  and,  generally,  waited  for 
State  authority  for  mobilization.  Some  companies  and  reg- 
iments, however,  went  to  the  front  as  soon  as  formed. 

The  Legislature  which  met  1  May  provided  for  ten  regi- 
ments of  State  troops  for  the  war,  the  officers  appointed  by  the 
governor  and  ten  regiments  of  Volunteers  for  one  year,  the 
officers  elected  by  companies,  and  field  officers  elected  by  com- 
pany officers. 

Of  the  companies  that  assembled  around  Wilmington,  on 
the  Cape  Fear  defences,  four  from  the  coimty  of  New  Hano- 
ver (three  of  them  from  Wilmington),  two  from  Bladen,  one" 
from  Robeson,  and  one  from  Richmond  were  formed  into  the 
Eighth  Regiment  of  volunteers,  viz : 

Company  A — Captain  C.  Cornehlson,  Wilmington. 
Company  B — Captain  Robert  Tait,  Bladen. 
Company  C — Captain  Forney  George,  Colimibus. 
CoiEPANY  D — Captain  William  S.  Norment,  Robeson. 
Company  E — Captain  John  R.    Hawes,   jSTew   Hanover, 
(now  Pender). 

Company  F — Captain  Charles  Malloy,  Richmond. 
Company  G — Captain  Henry  Savage,  Wilmington. 
Company  H — Captain  I).  H.  Gore,  Columbus. 
CoiiPANY  I — Captain  O.  P.  Meares,  Wilmington. 
Company  K — Captain  George  Tait,  Bladen. 

Of  these  companies  A,  G,  and  I  were  organized  companies 
many  years  before  the  war. 

Company  A,  "The  German  Volimteers,"  Avas  the  only  com- 
pany in  the  State  of  distinctively  foreign  citizenship.  Com- 
pany G,  "The  Wilmington  Light  Infantry,"  and  Company  T, 
"The  Wilmington  Rifle  Guards,"  being  up  on  tactics,  fur- 
nished many  officers  for  companies  and  regiments  throughout 
the  State,  and  the  personnel  of  their  officers  and  men  were 
frequently  changed.  At  one  time  Company  I  was  composed 
of  one  hundred  men  ranging  from  16  to  22  years  of  age,  and 
only  one  married  man  among  them. 

Company  F,  "The  Scotch  Boys,"  when  mustered  into  ser- 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  17 

(^ice  had  94  ofRcers  and  men.  Sixty  of  them  were  6  feet  to 
6  feet  4  inches  high,  24  over  5  feet  10  inches,  7  over  5  feet  8 
inches,  and  3  under  5  feet  8  inches,  making  an  average  height 
for  the  whole  company  of  6  feet  1%  inches,  believed  to  be  un- 
precedented for  so  large  a  company,  in  the  Confederate  or 
Federal  armies,  if  it  does  not  challenge  the  armies  of  the 
world,  for  a  company  not  especially  selected. 

Nine  of  the  above  companies  were  moved  from  their  sev- 
eral rendezvous  to  Camp  Wyatt,  named  in  honor  of  H.  L.  Wy- 
att,  the  first  soldier  killed  in  regular  battle  in  the  Southern 
army,  on  the  lands  of  James  Burriss,  near  the  head  of  the 
sound  (about  one  mile  from  the  present  site  of  Carolina 
Beach,  a  popular  resort),  and  about  1  July  elected  field  of- 

Major  James  D.  Radcliff,  who  had  been  a  principal  of  a 
military  school  in  Wilmington  for  several  years,  and  was 
then  connected  with  the  engineer  department  of  the  Cape 
Fear  defences,  was  elected  colonel.  Captain  0.  F.  Meares, 
Company  I,  was  elected  lieutenant-colonel,  and  Captain 
George  Tait,  of  Company  K,  who  was  stationed  at  a  bat- 
tery near  Federal  Point  lighthouse,  was  elected  Major. 

Charles  D.  Myers,  of  Company  G,  was  appointed  Adju- 
tant; Anthony  D.  Cazaux,  Company  I,  was  appointed  Cap- 
tain, and  A.  Q.  M. ;  Duncan  McNeill,  Company  F,  Captain 
and  A.  C.  S. ;  Dr.  James  A.  Miller,  Company  G,  Surgeon ; 
Dr.  Charles  Lesesne,  Company  K,  Assistant  Surgeon ;  Dr. 
Simpson  Russ,  Company  K,  Assistant  Surgeon;  Rev.  Colin 
Shaw,  Company  K,  Chaplain. 

Colonel  Radcliffe  was  an  excellent  drill  master  and  disci- 
plinarian, and  soon  had  the  regiment  in  good  shape. 

About  the  middle  of  September,  Companies  F  and  I'  were 
sent  to  Fort  Fisher,  and  Company  K  from  its  vicinity,  was 
sent  across  New  Inlet  channel  to  a  battery  on  Zeke's  Island. 
A  few  weeks  later  the  other  seven  companies  joined  F  and  I 
and  engaged  in  laying  the  foundation  of  Fort  Fisher,  that 
later  proved  to  be  one  of  the  strongholds  of  the  Confederacy. 

Confusion  arising  from  numbering  both  classes  of  troops 
from  1  to  10,  it  was  decided  by  the  State  authorities  to  change 
the  numbers  of  tlie  volunteer  regiments,  enumerating  them 

18  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

from  11  to  20.  Thus  the  Eighth  volunteers  became  the 
Eighteenth  ISTorth  Carolina  troops,  and  was  afterwards  th\is 

On  7  November,  orders  were  received  to  go  to  the  aid 
of  Port  Royal,  S.  C,  and  in  a  few  hours  all  of  our  equipage 
was  on  the  banks  of  the  Cape  Eear,  at  Sugar  Loaf 
Landing,  awaiting  transportation,  where,  by  a  miscarriage 
of  orders,  steamer  after  steamer  passed  us  by,  and  we  re- 
mained thirty-six  hours.  During  this  time  Company  K, 
that  was  to  remain  on  Zeke's  Island,  kept  its  water-craft  busy 
crossing  the  inlet,  and  offered  all  sorts  of  inducements  to  any 
company  to  exchange  places,  but  no  proposition  would  be  en- 
tertained by  either  company  or  any  individual  to  remain.  We 
had  acquired  the  soldier  habit  of  complaining  that  we  were 
not  supplied  with  camp  necessities,  but  in  the  light  of  after 
experiences  our  baggage  and  kitchen  equipment  was  simply 

It  is  safe  to  say  that  our  nine  companies  had  more  cooking 
utensils  than  A.  P.  Hill's  corps,  to  which  we  afterward  be- 
longed, had  at  any  time  in  1863-64-65. 

At  Wilmington  we  were  again  delayed  a  day,  also  at 
Charleston,  S.  C.  Here  we  heard  of  the  downfall  of  Beau- 
fort. Our  disappointment  was  great.  Enthusiastic  expecta- 
tion changed  to  abject  despair.  Would  the  war  really  close 
before  we  got  a  chance  at  battle  ?     Alas !  no.  ' 

We  disembarked  at  Pocataligo,  midway  between  Charles- 
ton and  Savannah,  and  spent  the  winter  at  Camp  Stephens, 
on  Huguenin's  farm,  drilling  and  guarding  the  lagoons  of 
the  coast  below  the  Coosahatchie,  assisted  by  Trenholm's  bat- 
tery and  Colonel  John  C.  Calhoun's  regiment  of  cavalry,  a 
part  of  the  time  under  the  command  of  Brigadier-General 
Robert  E.  Lee,  whose  headquarters  were  two  or  three  miles 

The  amateur  talent  of  the  regiment  relieved  the  monotony 
of  camp  life  with  entertainments — drama,  charade,  bur- 
lesque. Especially  enjoyable  was  a  "Review  of  the  Army," 
in  which  oiir  Irish  wit,  Ned  Stanton,  "riding  on  an  ass'  colt," 
easily  took  rank  as  the  burlesque  reviewer  of  the  war. 

Altogether,  we  spent  a  pleasant  winter,  playing  soldier  in 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  19 

that  genial  clime,  though  greatly  disappointed  several  timos 
by  the  cavalry  making  false  alarms  of  the  Yankees  landing, 
and  pillaging  the  coast  plantations. 

Coloned  Radcliffe  put  a  stop  to  these  alarms  by  sending 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Meares  down  the  coast  with  three  com- 
panies and  a  week's  rations. 

The  first  night  Corporal  W.  H.  McLaurin  Avas  in  charge  of 
the  outpost  at  a  landing  near  Donkey  Island,  which  outpost 
was  reached  by  a  dam  across  the  marsh,  and  a  hundred  yards 
or  more  from  high  land.  About  10  o'clock  the  "yanks"  be- 
gan assembling  at  the  island.  The  cavalryman,  who  was  on 
duty  to  act  as  courier,  explained  their  tactics,  and  the  posi- 
tion of  the  different  landings.  Splash !  Splash ! !  Splash ! ! ! 
Their  oars  are  distinctly  heard  coming  our  way. 

Let  me  go  for  the  reserve,  plead  the  cavalryman.  Wait 
till  we  see  something  was  replied.  There  was  a  lull  in  the 
oaring,  which  was  accounted  for  by  him  as  landing  a  part  be- 
low us,  when  a  part  would  go  to  a  landing  above,  and  cap- 
ture all  of  us.  This  appeared  to  be  true — the  oaring  began 
again,  nearly  all  the  boats  taking  a  different  channel  from 
the  one  we  wore  on. 

The  cavalryman  started  for  his  horse,  on  the  mainland,  ro 
go  for  the  companies,  and  was  so  persistent  that  we  had  to 
threaten  to  shoot  him  to  get  him  back.  The  men  were  ar- 
ranged so  as  to  receive  them,  warmly,  at  the  landing.  We 
all  lay  flat  on  our  corntops,  taken  from  a  nearby  corn  field, 
and  arranged  behind  an  embankment  to  keep  us  out  of  the 
mud,  only  one  head  above  the  bank  as  an  outlook.  The  oar- 
ing again  ceased.  "Thes  lan-lan-landing !  le-le-let  me  go  mis- 
ter !"  The  reply  was  in  equally  jerky  tones.  "Sta-sta-stay-right 
there."  A  death-like  silence  reigned  around,  except  that  the 
loose  ends  of  the  cornstalks,  from  some  cause,  rustled  like  a 
cane-brake  in  a  storm.  Scared,  but  determined,  we  lay 
awaiting  the  landing  of  the  raiders.  A  minute  seemed  an 
hour — the  tension  is  at  last  relieved.  Splash !  Splash : ! 
Splash ! ! !  A  school  of  porpoises  rose  in  front  of  our  land- 
ing, and  went  ^merrily  on  their  way. 

We  welcomed  our  midnight  relief,  laughed  heartily  at  the 
cavalryman  and  had  no  more  alarms. 

20  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'U5. 

In  March,  1862,  Major  George  Tait  resigned  and 
Captain  Forney  George,  Company  C,  was  promoted 
Major;  Lieutenant  C.  C.  Gore  became  Captain  of  Compa- 
ny C. 

On  14  March  orders  came  for  the  regiment  to  go  to 
ISTew  Bern,  IST.  C,  and  in  a  few  hours  everything  was  on 
the  cars,  and  speeding  for  that  ill-fated  Athens  of  JSTorth 
Carolina.  At  Wilmington  we  heard  of  its  fall.  Here  wo 
were  joined  by  Captain  T.  J.  Purdie,  with  Company  K,  froin 
Zeke's  Island.  The  regiment  proceeded  to  Kinston,  where 
the  New  Bern  garrison  was  encamped,  under  command  of 
General  L.  O'B.  Branch.  These  troops  with  the  reinforc<i' 
ments  sent  them  were  formed  into  two  brigades  the  last  days 
of  March,  the  First  brigade  commanded  by  General  Robert 
Ransom  and  the  Second  by  General  Branch.  The  latter  was 
composed  of  the  Seventh,  Eighteenth,  Twenty-eighth,  Thirty- 
third  and  Thirty-seventh  North  Carolina  regiments,  from 
that  time  to  the  close  of  the  war. 

On  24  April,  1862,  the  regiment  was  reorganized,  with 
almost  an  entire  change  of  officers.  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Robert  H.  Cowan,  of  the  Third  North  Carolina,  was  elected 
Colonel.  Captain  Thomas  J.  Purdie,  Company  K,  was 
elected  Lieiitenant-Colonel  and  Major  Forney  George  was  re- 

Lieutenant  Samuel  B.  Waters,  of  the  Third  North  Caro- 
lina, was  appointed  Adjutant,  Captain  A.  D.  Cazaux  remained 
as  Quartermaster,  ex-Captain  Robert  Tait  was  appointed  A. 
C.  S.,  Dr.  James  A.  Miller  remained  Surgeon,  with  former 
assistants.  Chaplain  Colin  Shaw  became  Chaplain  to  the 
Sixty-first  North  Carolina  regiment. 

Private  Thomas  W.  Brown,  Company  I,  was  elected  Cap- 
tain of  Company  A,  Lieutenant  Wilie  J.  Sikes,  Company  B, 
elected  Captain ;  Lieutenant  W.  K.  Gore  was  elected  Captain 
of  Company  C ;  First  Sergeant  M.  C.  Lee  was  elected  Cap- 
tain of  Company  D ;  Second  Lieutenant  Fred  Thompson  was 
elected  Captain  of  Company  E;  Second  Lieutenant  Daniel 
M.  McLaurin  was  elected  Captain  of  Company  F;  Captain 
Henry  Savage  was  re-elected  Captain  of  Company  G;  Lieu- 
tenant M.  A.  Byrne  was  elected  Captain  of  Company  H ;  Pri- 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  21 

vate  John  D.  Barry  was  elected  Captain,  of  Company  I ;  Lieu- 
tenant R.  M.  DeVane  was  elected  Captain  of  Company  K. 

A  few  of  the  Lieutenants  were  retained  in  the  same  or  ad- 
vanced to  a  higher  grade,  but  generally  new  men  were  selected 
for  officers. 

On  2  May  the  brigade  broke  camp  and  embarked  for 
Virginia  in  sections.  The  Eighteenth  Regiment  left  on 
the  7th  and  arrived  at  Richmond  next  day,  bivouaced  a 
couple  of  days  at  Howard's  G-rove,  then  on  the  outskirts  of 
the  incorporation,  now  a  populous  section  of  the  city,  and  ar- 
rived at  G-ordonsville  on  the  10th.  In  a  few  days  we  marched 
towards  the  valley  to  join  Stonewall  Jackson.  Every  foot 
moved  with  a  light  and  steady  step  and  the  expression  of  sat- 
isfaction was  on  the  countenance  of  all. 

When  about  to  cross  the  Blue  Ridge  at  Massanutten  Gap 
orders  were  received  to  return  to  Gordonsville.  The  next 
week  the  same  route  was  gone  over.  A  few  days  after  our 
second  return  our  baggage  was  loaded  on  the  train  and  wo 
started  towards  Richmond.  At  Hanover  Court  House  we 
again  went  into  camp.  Here  Branch  was  reinforced  with 
Colonel  Hardeman,  Forty-fifth  Georgia,  part  of  Latham's 
artillery  and  some  of  Robertson's  regiment  of  cavalry. 

The  sick,  and  the  extra  aaggage,  were  sent  to  Richmond, 
and  on  the  26th  Branch  marched  towards  the  Chickahominy, 
Johnston's  left  camping  that  night  between  Peake's  turnout 
and  Slash  Church. 

On  the  27th  Branch  fought  the  battle  of  Hanover  Court 
House  with  about  4,000  men,  engaging  General  Porter's  reg- 
ulars and  Sedgwick's  command  of  about  12,000.  Colonel 
James  H.  Lane,  with  the  Twenty-eighth  Regiment,  was  sent 
back  to  hold  the  crossing  at  Taliaferro's  Mill,  where  two 
companies  of  the  Thirty-seventh  were  on  duty. 

Porter  came  in  between  the  brigade  and  the  Twenty- 
eighth  Regiment  on  a  road  leading  towards  Mechanicsville. 
The  Eighteentli  and  Thirty-seventh  Regiments  were  sent  to 
Lane's  relief  and  found  Porter's  pickets  at  Peake's,  which 
they  drove  back  upon  the  line  of  regulars  at  the  aforemen- 
tioned road. 

Colonel  Cowan  was  placed  with  the  Eighteenth  on  the 

22  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

right  of  the  Hanover  road  and  Colonel  Lee  with  the  Thirty- 
seventh  was  sent  through  a  wood  to  his  right  to  attack  Por- 
ter's flank.  About  this  time  a  train  arrived  with  the  Twelfth 
North  Carolina,  Colonel  Wade,  which,  with  the  Thirty-third, 
was  placed  on  the  left  of  the  road,  and  drove  back  to  the  road 
the  flankers  put  out  by  Porter.  As  Porter  had  no  line  be- 
yond the  road  these  regiments  had  no  further  engagement. 

The  Eighteenth  Regiment  made  a  splendid  attack  on  Por- 
ter's front  line  and  drove  it  back  to  the  Mechanicsville  road, 
where  the  ditch  bank  and  wicker  fence  afforded  fine  defen(\^. 
From  this  cover  Porter's  volleys  did  great  damage,  and  th'^ 
Eighteenth  was  compelled  to  move  by  the  right  flank  to  a 
wood  some  200  yards  to  the  right,  to  get  some  protection. 
From  this  wood  the  unequal  fight  was  carried  on.  The 
Thirty-seventh  was  further  to  our  right  and  engaged  with  lis 
till  ordered  to  withdraw. 

We  lost  very  heavily  in  this  action,  some  companies  losing 
50  per  cent,  in  killed  and  wounded.  Our  first  experience  in 
war  was  a  bloody  baptism.  "The  Bloody  Eighteenth"  was  a 
well  earned  title. 

General  Branch,  in  his  report,  says  of  it :  "Colonel  Cowan 
with  the  Eighteenth  made  the  charge  most  gallantly,  but  the 
enemy's  force  was  much  larger  than  had  been  supposed,  and 
strongly  posted,  and  the  gallant  Eighteenth  was  compelled  to 
seek  shelter.  It  continued  to  pour  heavy  volleys  from  the 
edge  of  the  woods  and  must  have  done  great  execution.  The 
steadiness  with  which  this  desperate  charge  was  made  re- 
flects the  highest  credit  on  officers  and  men.  The  Thirt;y- 
seventh  found  the  xindergrowth  so  dense  as  to  retard  its  pro- 
gress, but  when  it  reached  its  position  it  po^lred  a  heavy  and 
destructive  fire  upon  the  enemy.  This  combined  volley  from 
the  Eighteenth  and  Thirty-seventh  compelled  the  enemy  to 
leave  his  battery  for  a  time,  and  take  shelter  behind  a  ditcli 

After  stating  the  positions  of  his  forces  and  the  purposes 
of  his  engagement,  continuing,  he  says:  "Finding  I  could 
no  longer  remain  without  being  surrounded,  and  hearing  of  no 
remforceanents,  and  feeling  assured  from  the  firing  that  Lane 
had  made  good  his  retreat  to  Hanover  Coxirt  House,  I  deter- 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  23 

mined  to  draw  off.  This,  always  difficult  in  the  presence  of 
a  superior  enemy,  was  rendered  comparatively  easy  by  the 
precaution  I  had  taken  not  to  engage  my  whole  force.  Camp- 
bell was  ordered  to  place  the  Seventh  across  the  road  so  as  to 
receive  the  enemy  if  they  should  attempt  to  follow.  Orders 
were  then  sent  to  Lee  and  Cowan  to  withdraw  in  order.  They 
were  hotly  engaged  when  the  order  was  received,  but  promptly 
withdrew.  Colonel  Cowan,  in  an  especial  manner,  attracted 
my  attention  by  the  perfect  order  in  which  he  brought  out  his 
regiment,  notwithstanding  the  severe  and  long  continued  fire 
he  had  received  from  both  infantry  and  artillery.  The  regi- 
ment marched  to  the  rear  without  haste  or  confusion  and 
went  up  the  Ashland  road." 

The  command  reached  Ashland  during  the  night,  and  the 
next  day  marched  to  the  left  of  Johnson's  line,  inside  the 
Chickahominy,  near  Chamberlain's.  The  Eighteenth  guard- 
ed the  crossing  several  days.  Here  an  occurrence  took  place 
that  had  its  influence  on  this  and  other  North  Carolina  bri- 
gades during  the  war,  perhaps  accounting  for  their  scant 
newspaper  notoriety,  in  contrast  with  certain  other  com- 

When  Richmond  papers  came  into  camp  two  of  them  had 
communications  relative  to  the  engagement  of  the  Twenty- 
seventh,  gingerly  criticising  General  Branch  for  withdrawing 
without  fighting  all  his  force  for  all  they  were  worth,  vigor- 
ously protesting  that  that  was  what  the  troops  were  there  for, 
etc.     This  was  breezy. 

Greneral  Branch  sent  his  aide.  Major  Blount,  to  the  edi- 
tors, and  got  each  article,  then  sent  for  Captain ,  of 

the  Thirty-seventh,  and  Lieutenant  ,  of  the  Thirty- 
third,  to  come  to  headquarters. 

He  received  them  in  that  open,  easy  manner  of  which  he 
was  master,  and  entertained  them  with  such  courtesy  as  put 
them  entirely  at  ease.  Handing  each  his  communication  he 
asked  "Is  that  your  signature  for  the  purpose  therein  ex- 
pressed," with  the  deliberation  of  a  clerk  in  chancery  probat- 
ing, a  paper. 

They  recognized  that  a  condition,  not  a  theory,  confronted 

24  North  Carolina  Troops,  18t)l-'65. 

them,  sweated  the  great  sweat  of  confusion  and  acknowl- 
edged their  deeds. 

He  then  handed  Captain the  following  and  asked 

him  to  read  it  aloud : 


June  3rd,  1862. 
Brigadier  General  L.  O'B.  Branch,  Commanding,  Etc. : 

The  report  of  your  recent  engagement  with  the  enemy  ft 
Slash  Church  has  been  forwarded  by  Major  General  Hill.  I 
take  great  pleasure  in  expressing  my  approval  of  the  manner 
in  which  you  have  discharged  the  duties  of  the  position  in 
which  you  were  placed,  and  of  the  gallant  manner  in  which 
your  troops  opposed  a  very  superior  force  of  the  enemy.  I 
beg  you  will  signify  to  the  troops  of  your  command,  which 
were  engaged  on  that  occasion,  my  hearty  approval  of  their 
conduct,  and  hope  that  on  future  occasions  they  will  evince  a 
like  heroism  and  patriotic  devotion. 

I  am  very  respectfully  your  obedient  servant. 

RoBEET  E.  Lee. 

Through  Major  General  A.  P.  Hill. 

They  frankly  deferred  to  the  opinion  of  General  Lee,  as 
to  the  merits  of  Branch's  actions  in  the  engagements  of  the 
27th,  and  the  pardon  they  asked  he  freely  gave  them. 

They  returned  to  their  commands  with  a  changed  opinion 
as  to  what  they  knew  about  war,  fully  resolved,  thereafter,  to 
attend  to  the  duties  that  lay  next  to  their  door.    , 

General  Lee's  letter  of  approval  was  read  that  evening  to 
each  regiment  of  Branch's  brigade  on  dress  parade,  and  there 
were  two  men  who  looked  very  intently  at  something  on  the 
ground  in  front  of  them  during  its  reading. 

The  story  spread  through  camp  and  we  had  no  more 
war  correspondents. 

Wait  till  you  hear  from  General  Lee  was  the  rule  with 
the  North  Carolina  troops,  leaving  to  others  to  make  reputa- 
tion by  printers  ink. 

Colonel  Lane  with  the  Twenty-eighth,  had  hard  fighting  to 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  25 

keep  from  capture,  and  being  cut  off,  made  quite  a  detour  to 
get  into  the  line  of  the  Chickahominy,  taking  two  or  three 
days.  After  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines,  on  the  31st,  in  which 
General  Joseph  E.  Johnston  .was  severely  wounded.  General 
R.  E.  Lee  was  placed  in  command  of  the  Army  of  Northern 
Virginia.  Brigadier-General  Ambrose  Powell  Hill,  for  gal- 
lantry in  that  battle,  and  others  of  the  Peninsular  campaign, 
was  made  Major-General,  and  six  brigades  assigned  to  his 
division,  that  of  Branch  among  them. 

From  Chamberlain's  we  were  moved  to  Brook  Church  on 
the  pike  near  Richmond,  and  did  duty  at  Crenshaw,  Meadow 
Bridge  and  telegraph  road  crossings. 

On  25  June  the  brigade  moved  to  Crenshaws,  and 
next  morning  crossed  the  Chickahominy  above  the  Meadow 
Bridge  road.  Near  Atlee's  station,  a  part  of  the  Seventh  and 
Thirty-third  Regiments,  in  driving  in  the  enemy,  had  a  few 
men  wounded.  They  captured  a  flag  and  a  lot  of  prisoners. 
This  was  the  first  blood  spilled,  and  trophy  of  the  gory  seven 
day's  fight.  Branch  turning  their  right  caused  the  Yankees 
alarm,  and  A.  P.  Hill  crossed  the  division  at  the  lower  roads 
with  comparative  ease. 

McClellan  made  a  stand  at  Mechanicsville,  and  a  brisk  en- 
gagement was  carried  on,  till  night  put  a  stop  to  it.  The 
Eighteenth  was  on  the  left  of  the  line,  under  cannonading, 
from  which  we  lost  three  men. 

During  the  night  the  enemy  withdrew  their  main  forces, 
and  their  rear  guard  only  was  encountered  next  morning. 
Pursuit  was  made,  and  the  enemy  found  at  Gaines'  Mill, 
or  Cold  Harbor,  where  General  McClellan  had  concentrated 
his  troops  in  a  naturally  very  strong  position. 

Branch's  brigade  was  among  the  first  in  the  battle  and 
did  good  service.  The  Eighteenth  fought  on  the  right  of  a 
road,  crossing  a  swamp,  and  found  the  enemy  strongly  en- 
trenched on  the  high  bluff  on  the  opposite  side,  with  abatis  iti 
front  We  charged  with  vigor,  but  did  not  succeed  in  carry- 
ing the  position.  Falling  back  into  the  marsh  we  would  re- 
form and  return  to  the  charge,  with  like  result. 

Colonel  Cowan  in  his  report  of  the  battle,  says :  "Friday 
afternoon  at  4  o'clock  we  were  put  in  the  fight  at  Cold  Harbor. 

26  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

By  your  order  my  line  of  battle  was  formed  on  tlie  right  o£ 
the  road  and  in  this  order  I  advanced  through  the  dense 
woods,  in  which  the  enemy  were  posted.  A  small  ravine, 
deep  and  boggy,  compelled  ug  to  flank  still  further  to  the 
right.  By  this  means  I  became  separated  from  the  remain- 
der of  the  brigade,  Avhich  had  been  formed  on  the  left,  and  for 
a  long  time  was  wholly  without  assistance  in  my  attempts 
upon  the  enemy's  position.  Again  and  again  was  that  posi- 
tion assailed,  and  again  and  again  were  we  repulsed  by  vastly 
superior  numbers.  Regiment  after  regiment  sent  into  the 
same  attack,  shared  the  same  fate,  and  it  was  not  until  late  in 
the  afternoon  when  the  continuous  arrival  of  fresh  troops 
had  given  xis  something  like  an  equality  of  forces,  that  any 
decided  impression  was  made  upon  the  enemy.  His  posi- 
tion was  carried  in  that  last  charge  which  swept  his  whol'} 
army  from  the  field  in  a  perfect  rout.  In  this  fight  though 
I  was  perfectly  satisfied  with  the  conduct  of  my  regiment,  the 
position  of  the  enemy  was  such  that  we  were  exposed  to 
heavy  fire  from  the  flank  as  well  as  from  the  front,  and 
though  the  regiment  was  frequently  broken,  and  compelled 
to  fall  back,  yet  I  did  not  once  lose  command  of  it.  The 
men  re-formed  with  alacrity,  and  my  commands  were  obeyed 
with  the  promptness,  if  not  the  precision  of  drill." 

In  the  last  charge  that  we  made  the  writer,  with  others, 
passed  through  the  abatis,  and  got  protection  from  the  ene- 
my's fire,  under  the  bank  their  breastworks  were  on.  Though 
the  regiment  did  not  capture  their  strong  position,  as  it  re- 
tired we  had  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  the  Yanks  abandon 
their  works — a  drawn  fight,  as  it  were. 

We  ascended  the  hill  to  the  field  in  rear  of  their  breast- 
works, and  were  there  when  Whiting's  division  of  Jackson's 
forces,  came  on  the  field  in  column,  the  Texas  brigade  in 

We  looked  up  our  kinsman,  Lieutenant  James  T.  McLau- 
rin.  Company  B,  Fourth  Texas,  and  marched  along  with 
him  some  quarter  of  a  mile  or  more,  before  retiirning  to  our 
command.  The  enemy  appeared  to  have  abandoned  their 
works,  for  at  least  a  half  a  mile  along  this  swamp,  as  the  re- 
sult of  the  determined  attacks  that  had  been  made  upon 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  27 

them,  and  had  fallen  back  behind  a  deep  ravine  running  into 
it,  where  Whiting  found  them.  Tliere  was  little  firing  any- 
where at  that  time. 

Soon  after  I  left  the  Texas  brigade,  the  battle  was  opened 
by  AVhiting,  and  the -rattle  of  musketry  was  incessant  till 
well  in  the  night,  such  as  was  rarely  heard  on  any  battle 
field.  The  Confederates  displayed  their  fighting  qualities 
on  all  this  field  but  to  Whiting's  division  belongs  the  credit  of 
the  rout  of  ''the  little  giants" — mighty  men  of  valor,  not 
that  his  troops  did  it  alone,  but  he  gave  them  the  grand 
bounce — the  Texas  brigade  being  the  first  to  break  their  lines 
and  with  the  assistance  of  gallant  comrades  McOlellan's  army 
was  kept  moving.  Night  put  distance  between  him  and  that 
horrible  rebel  yell,  and  he  abandoned  much  valuable  army 
supplies.  The  field,  next  day,  gave  abundant  evidence  of 
desperate  fighting  on  both  sides.  Saturday  was  spent  in 
burying  the  many  dead  upon  the  field,  and  gathering  the 
trophies  of  battle. 

Monday  evening,  the  30th,  the  enemy  was  overtaken  at 
Frazier's  farxn  and  about  4  p.  m.,  our  brigade  was  engaged 
on  the  right  of  the  road,  charging  the  enemy's  line  that  was 
strongly  posted  and  well  defended.  Sweeping  across  an 
open  field,  the  Eighteenth  Kegiment  charged  a  battery  in  the 
yard  of  a  farm  house,  strongly  supported  by  infantry.  They 
gave  us  a  warm  reception  with  grape,  canister,  and  minie, 
and  were  greatly  aided  by  those  on  their  left,  who  gave  us  a 
galling  flank  fire — so  trying  at  all  times — ^before  becoming 
engaged  with  those  on  our  right,  who  did  not  advance  as 
quickly  as  we  did.  With  a  yell  and  a  rush,  everything  was 
carried  before  us,  and  at  a  fearful  cost  in  killed  and  wounded. 
At  the  woods  beyond  the  house  the  regiment  was  re-formed 
and  advanced  again,  with  the  brigade,  through  a  strip  of 
woods,  and  another  field,  routing  the  enemy.  On  Tuesday, 
1  July,  we  were  not  actively  engaged  at  Malvern  Hill — 
simply  held  the  position  assigned  us,  when  we  came 
on  the  field  in  the  afternoon.  We  were  under  fire  of 
the  land  batteries  and  the  gunboats,  a  shell  from  the  latter 
wounding  a  few  men.  The  rest  of  the  week  we  spent  on  Mc- 
Olellan's flank  clearing  it  of  straggling  parties  and  on  Sunday 

28  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

bivouaced  near  Charles  City  C.  H.,  in  a  thicket  of  old  field 
pines.  Here  a  strange  accident  occurred.  A  musket  fell 
from  a  stack  of  guns  and  was  discharged,  wounding  Lieuten- 
ant George  W.  Huggins,  Company  I,  in  the  foot.  He  was 
asleep.  It  was  a  rude  awakening,  and  from  it  he  goes  limp- 
ing through  life.  There  was  no  one  near  the  guns,  and  on 
being  examined  it  was  at  half-cock,  and  very  hot.  Had  the 
hammer  been  on  the  cap  it  would  have  been  readily  accounted 
for,  by  its  hitting  the  ground.  It  was  evidently  a  rare  case 
of  sunheat-shooting.  Had  any  one  been  reasonable  near  it 
would  have  been  too  strong  a  case  of  circumstantial  evidence 
for  him  to  have  escaped  punishment. 

From  Charles  City  C.  H.,  we  returned  to  near  Richmond 
and  remained  in  camp  till  the  first  week  of  August,  when  A. 
P.  Hill's  division  reinforced  Stonewall  Jackson,  who,  in  com- 
mand of  two  divisions,  had  gone  to  the  vicinity  of  Orange  C. 
H.,  to  watch  Pope's  advance,  threatening  our  railroad  con- 
nections at  G-ordonsville.  Hill  reached  Orange  on  the  7th, 
and  on  the  8th  only  a  few  miles  march  was  made,  the  weather 
being  oppressively  hot,  and  there  being  some  misunderstand- 
ing of  the  order  of  march. 

On  the  evening  of  the  9th,  was  fought  the  battle  of  Cedar 
Mountain.  Branch's  Brigade  came  on  the  field  after  the  bat- 
tle began,  and  was  hastily  formed  on  the  left  of  the  Culpep- 
per road,  to  support  Jackson's  first  line,  and  ordered  to  ad- 
vance. It  had  gone  but  a  little  distance  when  it  met  the 
"Stonewall  Brigade,"  that  splendid  body  of  troops  that  at 
First  Manassas  gave  renown  and  "a  name"  to  the  idol  of  the 
army,  fleeing  in  iitter  rout  and  confusion  before  an  exultant 
foe.  Nothing  daunted  by  the  imfavorable  condition  of  af- 
fairs Branch's  "Tar  Heels"  met  the  enemy  unflinchingly,  and 
drove  them  back  in  great  disorder. 

Of  this  charge  General  Branch  in  his  report,  says:  "My 
brigade  opened  upon  them,  and  quickly  drove  the  enemy 
back  from  the  woods  into  a  large  field. 

"Following  up  to  the  edge  of  the  field,  I  came  in  view  of 
large  bodies  of  the  enemy,  and  having  a  very  fine  position,  I 
opened  upon  them,  with  great  effect.  The  enemy's  cavalry 
attempted  to  charge  us  in  two  columns,  but  the  fire  soon  broke 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  29 

them,  and  sent  them  fleeing  across  the  field  in  every  direction. 
The  infantry  then  retreated  also.  Advancing  into  the  field, 
I  halted  near  the  middle  of  it,  in  doubt  which  direction  to 
take.  Just  at  that  moment.  General  Jackson  came  riding  up 
from  my  rear,  alone.  I  reported  my  brigade  as  being  solid, 
and  asked  for  orders.  My  men  recognized  him,  and  raised 
a  terrific  shout,  as  he  rode  along  the  line  with  his  hat  off.  He 
evidently  knew  how  to  appreciate  a  brigade  that  had  gone 
through  a  hot  battle,  and  was  then  following  a  retreating 
enemy,  without  having  broken  its  line  of  battle,  and  remained 
with  me  directing  my  movements  until  the  pursuit  ceased. 
*  *  *  *  We  gained  a  splendid  victory,  and  the  credit 
is  due  to  my  brigade.  I  was  among  my  men  all  during  the 
fight  and  they  were  brave  and  cool." 

Branch's  success  enabled  General  Taliaferro,  on  the  right 
of  the  road,  to  reform  his  left,  that  was  giving  away,  and  hold 
his  ground. 

Generals  Pender  and  Archer  were  forming  on  Branch's  left 
and  advanced  before  they  were  properly  aligned ;  success  at- 
tended an  advance  on  the  whole  line  and  the  field  was  ours. 
Jackson  started  for  Culpepper  that  night,  but,  after  going 
two  or  three  miles,  went  into  camp,  his  scouts  reporting  that 
Pope  hiid  rec'.'ived  heavy  reinforceiments. 

The  dead  were  buried  and  in  a  few  days  Jackson  took 
position  south  of  the  Rapidan,  the  Eighteenth  camping  near 
Orange  C.  IT. 

On  the  20th  the  Rapidan  was  again  crossed,  and  we  had  a 
skirmish  near  Brandy  Station. 

The  fords  of  the  Rappahannock  were  strongly  guarded  by 
Pope's  command,  Jackson  forced  a  crossing  at  one  of  them 
and  attracted  their  attention  in  that  direction  whilst  by  such 
defiles  as  afforded  cover,  he  ascended  the  right  bank  to  War- 
renton  Springs  and  on  the  22nd  crossed  over  a  small  com- 
mand. In  that  engagement  the  Eighteenth  supported  a  bat- 
tery on  the  south  side  and  sustained  but  slight  injury.  The 
troops  were  v.  ithdra'wn  from  the  north  side  and  on  the  morn- 
ing of  the  2Cth,  before  day,  Jackson  "lit-out"  with  his  foot- 
cavalry  to  go  aroimd  Pope.  When  we  reached  Hazel  river 
we  waded  up  that  stream  to  keep  the  dust  of  the  road  from 

30  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

betraying  oar  route,  and  crossing  the  Blue  Eidge  we  got  a 
few  hours  rest  that  night  around  Orleans.  JSText  day  JSTew 
Salem  was  passed  and  the  Blue  Ridge  recrossed  at  Thorough- 
fare Gap.  That  night  about  1  o'clock  Jackson  camped  in 
Pope's  rear  around  Bristoe  Station. 

On  the  morning  of  27  August,  Branch's  brigade 
had  a  briish  with  cavalry  and  artillery  near  Manassas  Junc- 
tion, running  it  back  across  Bull  Run,  captuidng .  sozne  200 

The  Eighteenth  regiment  was  not  in  the  pursuit,  being 
detached  after  tlie  fight  to  guard  Manassas  depot,  and  hun- 
dreds of  cars  loaded  with  supplies  for  Pope's  army — a  rich 
trophy  indeed. 

Supplies  were  taken  out,  not  only  for  Jackson's  troops,  but 
also  for  Lee's  army  that  was  following,  and  had,  two  days  af- 
terward to  fight  its  way  through  Thoroughfare  Gap.  All 
the  supplies  were  taken  that  could  be  disposed  of  and  the 
torch  applied,  about  midnight,  to  that  which  could  not  be  util- 
ized. At  1  o'clock  a.  m.  the  Eighteenth  followed  Jackson 
across  Bull  Run  and  in  the  early  morn  reached  the  fortifi- 
cations at  Centreville  erected  in  1861.  After  resting  a  few 
hours  the  march  was  resumed,  and  we  recrossed  Bull  Run  at 
the  Stone  bridge  taking  position  in  line  similar  to  that  occu- 
pied by  the  Federals  in  1861,  at  the  First  Manassas  battle. 
We  were  under  heavy  artillery  firing  for  some  time,  and 
had  some  casualties.  The  Eighteenth  was  again  detached 
from  the  brigade  and  sent  to  the  right  to  the  support  of  a 
part  of  EWell's  command. 

Ewell's  troops  repulsed  the  attack  on  them  before  our  arri- 
val and  we  returned  without  being  actively  engaged.  On 
the  morning  of  the  29th  we  made  quite  a  march,  returning 
during  the  day  near  where  we  started  from,  too  fatigued  for 
the  hard  service  that  fell  to  our  lot.  We  were  placed  on  the 
left  near  Sudley  Ford,  behind  the  unfinished  Alexandria 
and  Manassas  Gap  Railroad  and  being  in  the  second  line,  as 
supports,  had  ample  action  in  different  places  without  any 
protection.  Branch's  brigade  was  fought  that  day  in  sec- 
tions, and  like  foot-cavalry,  was  at  all  parts  of  the  line.  The 
Eighteenth  was  sent  across  the  railroad  to  cheek  a  flank  move-  ■ 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  31 

ment,  then  to  the  assistance  of  Gregg's  brigade,  that  occupied 
the  key  to  Jackson's  position,  where  desperate  fighting  had  to 
be  done  to  hold  it  against  the  hosts  that  were  hurled  upon  it, 
in  a  vain  effort  to  rum  Jackson's  left.  Again  the  Eighteenth 
was  sent  to  A.  P.  Hill's  right,  to  the  support  of  Archer's  and 
a  Louisiana  Brigade,  which  occupied  a  railroad  cut.  The 
Eighteenth  fought  iu-an  open  oak  woods  imniediately  in  their 
rear,  and  when  an  attack  was  repulsed,  we  could  not  charge 
and  follow  them.     Jackson  held  his  ground. 

It  was  evidently  Pope's  intention  to  overwhelm  Stonewall 
and  crush  him  before  Lee  could  come  to  his  assistance. .  Long- 
street  met  vigorous  resistance  at  Thoroughfare  Gap,  but 
forced  his  way  through,  and  by  pressing  in  the  direction  of 
Jackson's  guns,  arrived  on  his  right  near  Groveton  in  time 
to  give  needful  help.  Every  part  of  the  line  was  held,  and 
Pope's  efforts  frustrated.  On  the  30th  we  were  to  the  left 
of  the  heavy  fighting,  not  actively  engaged,  simply  holding 
the  place  assigned  us.  The  attacks  of  the  enemy  were  re- 
pulsed, and  in  the  afternoon  an  advance  along  the  line  drove 
them  back  on  Bull  Run.  The  Confederates  were  victors  on 
almost  the  identical  ground  from  which  the  Federals  were 
driven  pell-mell  in  1861. 

During  the  night  Pope's  army  crossed  Bull  Run,  more  de- 
liberately than  it  was  crossed  in  1861,  but  equally  defeated. 

A  heavy  rain  falling  that  night,  pursuit  was  not  made. 
The  31st  was  used  in  burying  the  dead  and  gathering 
the  spoils  of  war,  principally  by  Longstreet,  as  Jackson 
crossed  the  historic  Bull  Run  at  Sudley  Ford  and  camped 
that  night  near  Little  River  Turnpike.  On  1  September 
marched  along  the  pike  towards  Fairfax  Court  House.  At 
Ox  Hill  the  enemy  was  met  that  afternoon,  advancing  from 
the  direction  of  Centreville.  Branch  was  formed  parallel  to 
the  pike,  and  advancing  through  a  field,  drove  the  enemy 
from  a  wood  into  a  large  field  beyond.  In  the  edge  of  this 
opening.  Branch  halted  and  held  his  position  (which  was 
apart  from  the  brigade  that  advanced  with  him,  but  on  a 
diverging  line)  though  heavily  assailed  in  front  and  flank. 
Our  ammunition  being  exhausted  and  the  ordnance  wagons 
not  accessible,  we  were  ordered  to  hold  our  position  at  the 

32  North  Gakolina  Tkoops,  1861-65. 

point  of  the  bayonet.  The  battle  was  on,  during  a  blinding 
wind  and  rain-storm,  and  the  enemy  was  satisfied  with  the 
assaults  made  upon  us.  Towards  night  we  were  withdrawn, 
and  rested  on  the  pike.  On  the  5th  the  army  crossed  the 
Potomac  above  Leesburg,  Va.,  and  camped  a  week  on  the 
Monacacy,  near  Frederick  City,  Md.  Here  the  Eighteenth 
received  a  large  number  of  raw  recriiits  from  North  Caro- 
lina, without  arms  or  accoutrements. 

On  13  September,  Jackson  was  off  on  another  flank 
movement,  and  crossing  the  Potomac  at  Williamsport,  came 
down  upon  Martinsburg,  which,  after  some  resistance  was 
evacuated,  leaving  a  good  quantity  of  supplies  in  our  hands. 

General  White  retreated  to'  Harpers  Ferry,  which  Jackson 
attacked  the  evening  of  the  14th.  Night  put  an  end  to  it, 
and  was  taken  advantage  of  to  get  into  position.  It  was 
after  midnight  when  Branch  got  in  the  rear  on  Boiivar 
Heights,  and  some  brigades  had  equally  as  great  difiiculty  in 
getting  into  position.  When  the  fog  lifted  on  the  15th  and 
Jackson's  artillery  opened  from  the  heights,  theretofore  con- 
sidered inaccessible,  it  was  not  long  before  the  white  flag  was 
raised  and  12,000  surrendered,  with  a  splendid  equipment  of 
guns,  ammunition  and  supplies.  Our  raw  recruits  were  sup- 
plied with  guns.  Up-to-date  Springfield  rifles,  replaced  our 
smooth-bores,  and  A.  P.  Hill's  division  was  left  to  guard  the 
post,  parole  prisoners,  etc.  Stonewall  Jackson  rejoined  the 
army  with  the  rest  of  his  conraiand,  and  the  heavy  firing  that 
could  be  distinctly  heard  proclaimed  his  need.  On  the  17th, 
Hill's  light  division  was  marched  rapidly  to  Sharpsburg, 
crossing  the  Potomac  at  Shepherdstown,  and  arrived  on  the 
field  just  in  time  to  save  Lee's  lines,  that  were  giving  away 
at  all  points  on  the  right  and  centre.  An  half  hour  later 
would  have  been  fatal. 

Branch's  brigade  fought  about  midway  between  Sharps- 
burg and  the  Antietam,  in  a  com  field  running  northerly  from 
the  creek  to  the  town. 

The  Eighteenth  was  left  in  reserve,  at  first,  behind  a  ridge 
near  some  straw  stacks,  in  a  stubble  field.  The  corn  was  visi- 
ble from  these  straw  stacks,  to  the  Antietam,  as  we  approach- 
ed. About  the  time  that  Branch  ordered  the  Eighteenth  into 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  33 

action  he  was  killed  near  these  stacks.  The  Eighteenth 
crossed  the  ridge  to  the  left  of  the  stacks  and  as  we  descended 
into  the  valley  beyond,  we  saw  the  thin  gray  line  retreucing 
from  a  wooded  ridge,  some  300  yards  over  the  corn,  into  a 
valley  that  extended  towards  the  town,  with  Burnside's  victo- 
rious blue  coats  in  vigorous  pursuit.  The  lines  met  in  this 
corn-covered  valley,  and  the  conflict  was  terrific,  decisive. 
Burnside  was  hurled  back  and  a  rout  prevented.  There  was 
no  more  fighting  that  evening.  The  Eighteenth  fought 
apart  from  the  rest  of  the  brigade,  and  re-formed  on  the  edge 
of  the  corn  field  behind  a  part  stone,  and  part  rail  fence 
with  skirmishers  in  the  valley.  About  night  the  brigade  was 
gotten  together  by  Colonel  James  H.  Lane,  of  the  Twenty- 
eighth  North  Carolina,  and  formed  on  an  extension  of  this 
fence, with  the  Eighteenth  on  its  left,  nearer  the  town,  where 
we  lay  all  next  day  roasting  in  a  scorching  September  sun,  or 
drenched  by  downpours  of  rain,  with  now  and  then  a  minie 
ball  salute  from  the  wooded  ridge  beyond  the  corn.  Our 
hard  march  from  Harper's  Ferry,  wading  the  Potomac  in 
fours,  our  clothing  saturated  with  water  from  the  hips  down, 
the  effort  to  close  up  to  the  head  of  the  column,  making  it  an 
up-hill  foot-race  from  the  river  to  the  battle-field,  caused  none 
but  those  of  unquestioned  endurance  to  be  there  to  go  into 

Burnside's  corps  was  on  the  field  all  day  resting.  That  was 
its  first  action,  and  flushed  with  victory,  it  should  have  swept 
us  off  the  earth,  the  mere  handful  that  we  were  to  thciu  in 
numbers.  How  Hill's  divisioii  stood  before  them  -"xas  won- 
derful, but  it  liad  gone  there  to  fight  and  was  too  tirotl  to 
run.  There  was  no  pursuit.  Nature  has  its  limits,  and  we 
had  reached  ours,  with  fearful  sacrifice. 

Lee  with  his  army,  matchless  by  equal  numbers,  lay  on  the 
field  during  the  18th,  and  was  not  attacked  by  the  vastly  out- 
numbering foe.  During  the  night  Lee  withdrew  his  forces 
and  crossed  the  Potomac  into  Virginia.  Branch's  brigade, 
commanded  by  Colonel  Lane,  covered  the  retreat.  Repulsing 
the  enemy,  then  falling  back  till  pressed  again,  the  rear  was 
effectively  covered.  We  crossed  the  ford  below  Boteler's 

34  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

mill  in  good  order,  under  fire  of  a  pursuing  enemy,  and  went 
into  camp  two  or  three  miles  away. 

During  the  night  the  enemy  crossed  a  corps,  and  on  the 
morning  of  the  20th,  A.  P.  Hill's  division  was  sent  back  to 
attend  to  it.  The  heights  on  the  Maryland  side  command 
the  Virginia  side,  and  were  bristling  with  artillery.  A  few 
rounds  showed  that  our  artillery  was  not  in  it,  and  it  got  out 
of  range,  so  that  it  was  purely  an  infantry  fight  on  our  part. 
Hill  charged  with  three  brigades,  supported  by  the  other 
three,  and  drove  the  enemy  to  the  river,  capturing  many 
prisoners.  From  the  start  the  artillery  had  our  range,  accu- 
rately, and  their  shells  plowed  through  the  Eighteenth  several 
times  during  the  advance..  Reaching  the  river  the  Eigh- 
teenth occupied  a  bluff  overlooking  Boteler's  mill  dam,  and 
from  it,  shot  blue  coats  crossing  the  dam,  till  a  detail  sent 
down  captured  all  under  the  bluff. 

The  artillery  practice  became  so  accurate  that  they'd  hit  a 
litter  carrying  oft'  our  wounded  or  our  canteen  men,  going 
across  a  ridge  in  our  rear  for  water.  We  had  to  lie  close  all 
day,  and  withdraw  after  night.  The  enemy  that  got  across 
the  river  had  also  to  lie  close  in  the  canal  all  day.  It  was 

We  camped  aroiind  Bunker  Hill,  and  in  October  worked  a 
few  days  on  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad,  beyond  Mar- 
tinsburg,  and  left  a  couple  of  sections  about  Hedgersville 
and  North  Mountain  depot  in  splendid  disorder.  Colonel 
Lane  was  promoted  brigadier,  and  assigned  to  the  com- 
mand of  Branch's  brigade,  and  remained  with  it  during  the 
war.  Colonel  Robert  H.  Cowan,  of  the  Eighteenth  Regi- 
ment, resigned,  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Thomas  J.  Purdie 
became  Colonel,  Major  Forney  George,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
and  Cajrtain  John  D.  Barry,  Company  I,  Major  of  the  regi- 

About  the  middle  of  November  the  Eighteenth  had  an  en- 
gagement with  the  enemy  at  Snicker's  Gap,  and  the  last  days 
of  the  month,  Jackson  followed  Tjongstreet  towards  Fred- 
ericksburg to  meet  Burnside's  movements.  There  was  an 
abundance  of  rain,  sleet  and  snow  during  the  march,  and 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  35 

many  of  the  men  were  barefooted,  as  well  as  thinly  clad,  but 
they  had  the  stuff  of  heroes  in  them. 

On  10  December  we  camped  below  Fredericksburg,  near 
the  Massaponax,  and  on  the  12th  went  into  line  above 
that  stream,  A.  P.  Hill's  right  being  at  Hamilton's 
crossing  and  his  left  near  Deep  Run;  Fields,  Archer,  Lane 
and  Pender  in  the  front  and  Gregg  and  Thomas  in  the  second 
line  as  supports.  From  Hamilton's  the  railroad  is  the 
cord  of  the  curving  ridge  that  extends , from  that  place  to  Fred- 
ericlcsburg  and  runs  between  the  foothills  and  the  Port  Royal 

Archer  occupied  a  part  of  the  railroad  track,  and  to  his  left 
was  a  stretch  of  wooded  marshland,  500  or  600  yards  between 
his  left  and  Lane's  right.  This  gap  Lane  and  Archer  tried  to 
get  filled,  and  subsequent  results  showed  the  unwise  neglect  of 
their  superiors  in  not  heeding  their  entreaties. 

The  railroad  track  to  the  left  of  the  marshland,  wliich 
Lane  occupied,  ran  through  a  low  place  with  a  ridge  to  the 
right,  some  seventy-five  or  a  hundred  yards,  high  enough  to 
shut  out  a  view  of  the  plain  in  front,  from  all  of  the  brigade, 
save  part  of  the  Thirty-seventh  on  the  right,  and  the  Seventh 
on  the  left.  Several  pieces  of  artillery  were  on  this  ridge  in 
front  of  the  Seventh  and  of  Pender  on  its  left. 

When  the  fog  lifted  on  the  13th,  the  artillery  duel  from 
the  enemy,  with  these  guns  and  those  on  the  ridge  in  our  rear, 
put  lis  under  a  heavy  fire.  When  the  enemy  advanced,  tliey 
were  repulsed  at  the  crest  of  the  ridge  in  our  front.  The  gap 
between  Lane  and  Archer  was  discovered  and  in  their  next 
advance,  a  heavy  force  against  that  part  of  the  line,  forced 
back  Archer's  left  and  Lane's  right,  and  penetrated  to  Gregg's 
line.  Lane's  right  regiments  held  their  ground  tenaciously, 
each  retiring  only  as  compelled  to  do  so.  Colonel  Purdie 
threw  back  the  right  wing  of  the  Eighteenth  to  the  woods 
some  seventy-five  or  one  hundred  yards  in  our  rear,  and  made 
a  determined  stand.  Here  the  enemy  was  checked,  Thomas 
coming  to  our  assistance. 

Gregg  was  said  to  have  been  killed  before  he  knew  that  the 
troops  advancing  on  him  were  enemies.  His  gallant  brigade 
rcovered  from  a  temporary  confusion  and  joined  with  Law- 

36  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

ton  and  Hoke  were  sent  to  Archer's  relief,  and  Thomas  and 
Lane  on  its  left.  The  whole  line  advanced,  and  drove  back  the 
enemy  with  great  loss.  Reaching  the  railroad  the  left  of  the 
Eighteenth  and  the  Seventh,  that  had  held  their  position, 
joined  in  the  advance.  The  division  was  reformed  on  the 
railroad  line  and  gotten  in  readiness  for  a  night  attack.  At 
nightfall  we  took  position  at  the  crest  of  the  rising  ground 
in  front  and  were  ready  at  the  appointed  time,  but  Jack- 
son's desire  for  a  night  attack  was  overruled,  and  the  order 
was  countermanded  in  the  nick  of  time.  We  occupied  thi 
front  line  till  about  midday  of  the  14th,  when  we  were  sent 
back  to  the  top  of  the  ridge  for  a  night's  rest. 

On  the  15th  we  were  again  in  line,  ready  for  any  emer- 
gency. On  that  night,  Burnside  withdrew  his  forces  to  the 
north  side  of  the  Eappahannock.  Jackson's  corps  moved 
down  the  Port  Eoyal  road  to  Corbin's  Neck,  and  went  into 
winter  quarters. 

On  30  April  camp  was  broken,  and  we  marched  to  Fred- 
ericksburg, and  next  day  we  engaged  with  the  enemy  across 
the  Orange  plank  road,  near  Chancellorsville. 

On  the  morning  of  2  May,  1863,  I  was  sent  to  recall  our 
skirmishers,  and  follow  to  the  left.  Jackson  marched  by 
the  left  flank,  going  by  the  Iron  Furnace,  around  Hook- 
er's army,  and  crossed  the  Orange  plank  road  some  three 
miles  west  of  Chancellorsville.  Facing  east  the  line  was 
ready  to  advance  and  no  time  was  lost.  Striking  the  Elev- 
enth corps  in  flank  and  rear,  it  was  routed  and  driven  back, 
and  by  sundown  Jackson's  troops  were  near  Chancellorsville. 
Part  of  A.  P.  Hill's  division  marched  in  column  do-wn  the 
plank  road  and  at  sundown  Lane  was  ordered  to  form  his  bri- 
gade across  the  road,  and  charge  Chancellor's  Hill,  on  which 
Hooker  was  massing  his  artillery,  and  forming  his  line,  with 
troops  that  had  not  been  engaged. 

Our  artillery  opened  on  them,  and  was  replied  to  by  the 
guns  in  position.  A  severe  cannonading  prevented  Lane 
from  forming  line  till  our  artillery  was  stopped  and  the  firing 

The  Eighteenth  and  Twenty-eighth  was  formed  on  the  left 
of  the  road  and  the  Seventh  and  Thirty-seventh  on  the  right, 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  37 

the  Thirty-third  was  thrown  forward  as  skirmishers,  covering 
the  brigade.  The  Eighteenth  and  Twenty-eighth  were  moved 
forward  near  the  skirmishers  (which  we  did  not  know  at  that 
time  were  in  our  front) ,  and  before  the  Seventh  and  Thirty- 
seventh  were  brought  opposite  us,  a  Yankee  officer  came  into 
the  right  regiment  and  asked  wjiat  troops  it  was.  Waving  a 
handkerchief,  he  claimed  flag  of  truce  rights,  but  was  not 
allowed  to  go  back.  Lane  was  informed  at  once  of  the  troops 
moving  on  his  right  flank  and  went  to  investigate  before  ad- 
vancing, though  Jackson  and  Hill  had  again  ordered  the 
advance.  ■  We  had  orders  at  first  to  be  careful  as  our  cavalry 
would  cross  at  Ely's  or  U.  S.  Fords,  and  might  come  in  from 
its  circuit  in  our  front.  Later  we  had  orders  to  shoot  any- 
thing from  the  front. 

Whilst  General  Lane  was  investigating  the  situation  on 
his  right,  which  took  some  time,  and  resulted  in  retaining 
the  ofiicer  who  was  parleying,  and  the  capture  of  his  regi- 
ment— One  Hundred  and  Twentieth  Pennsylvania — Colonel 
Purdie,  hearing  something  in  our  front,  called  me  with  him, 
and  we  went  forward  carefully  on  the  edge  of  the  road  some 
50  or  60  yards,  and  found  Captain  George  W.  Sanderlin,  of 
the  Thirty-third,  who  gave  us  our  first  information  that  that 
regiment  was  deployed  as  skirmishers.  We  told  him  of  our 
orders,  and  the  complication  that  had  arisen  on  the  right.  He 
crossed  the  road  with  us  where  Lieutenant-Colonel  Cowan 
was  and  whilst  talking  with  him  Captain  Joe  Sanders  came 
up  looking  for  Colonel  Avery  to  tell  him  of  the  troops  moving 
on  the  right  of  his  skirmish  line.  In  a  few  minutes  a  few 
shots  were  fired,  apparently  two  or  three  hundred  yards  in 
our  front,  to  the  right  of  the  road,  then  extending  towards 
the  right  of  the  brigade.  At  this  juncture  Colonel  Purdie 
and  myself  started  for  our  line,  making  our  steps  fast  and 
long.  Firing  began  along  the  brigade.  Before  we  reached 
the  Eighteenth  it  fired  a  terrific  volley.  How  we  escaped 
was  wonderful.  Horses  with  riders,  and  horses  without, 
came  into  the  line  with  us. 

We  are  friends,  cease  firing !  rang  out,  but  too  late.     Stone- 

38  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

wall  Jackson  and  some  of  the  staff  wounded,  and  some  two  or 
three  couriers  killed,  was  the  result  of  that  volley. 

Lane's  ambulance  corps  was  in  our  immediate  rear,  and 
was  called  into  use.  A  blanket  was  placed  over  General 
Jackson  to  keep  his  wounding  from  being  known,  as  he  was 
carried  to  the  rear. 

I  pulled  the  cape  of  his  overcoat  over  the  head  of  one  of 
Hill's  couriers,  that  fell  about  where  I  had  last  seen  Colonel 
Purdie.  They  were  about  the  same  size  and  resembled  each 
other  very  much.  In  the  darkness  I  was  mistaken.  Purdie  was 
safe  and  sound  at  the  left  of  the  regiment.  About  a  half  hour 
after  the  wounding  of  Jackson,  another  firing  took  place 
along  the  line,  and  A.  P.  Hill,  who  had  gone  to  the  front  on 
foot  to  look  for  something  that  was  left,  where  Jackson  was 
wounded,  was  shot  in  the  calf  of  his  leg.  Hill  was  much 
displeased,  and  was  reproving  us  for  firing  at  a  noise,  etc.  A 
company  B  back-woodsman  laconically  remarked :  "Every- 
body knows  the  Yankee  army  can't  run  the  'Light  Division,' 
and  one  little  general  needn't  try  it."  This  sally  restored 
him  to  normal  condition  and  he  limped  down  the  road,  stay- 
ing on  the  field  till  General  J.  E.  B.  Stewart,  the  chivalrous 
cavalryman,  came  from  near  Ely's  ford  when  he  turned  the 
command  over  to  him.  Hill  may  have  had  a  contiision  from 
a  bursting  shell  as  mentioned  by  various  writers  of  the  inci- 
dent, but  he  certainly  got  a  minie  ball  in  his  leg  after  Jack- 
son was  wovinded. 

How  Jackson  and  Hill,  their  staff  and  couriers  got  in  front 
was  never  satisfactorily  explained.  Neither  of  them  was  in 
the  habit,  day  or  night,  of  riding  or  otherwise  going  in  front 
of  the  skirmishers,  or  line,  when  they  ordered  an  advance, 
and  the  enemy  known  to  be  at  a  short  distance  on  that  night 
they  certainly  woiild  not  knowingly  have  put  themselves  be- 
tween the  lines  at  such  a  time.  Such  a  body  of  horsemen 
could  not  have  ridden  through  any  part  of  Lane's  brigade 
that  night  without  its  being  known.  We  were  never  more 
on  the  alert,  and  wide  awake  than  that  night,  and  I  don't  re- 
member to  have  ever  heard  of  a  member  of  the  brigade  say- 
ing that  he  knew  they  had  gone  in  our  front. 

My  recollection  is  that  when  Hill  and  Jackson  came  for- 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  39 

ward  to  know  why  Lane  did  not  advance  and  again  directed 
him  to  do  so,  they  went  to  the  rear,  to  a  large  field,  on  the  left 
of  the  road,  where  Rodes,  Colston,  Trimble  and  others  were 
reforming  their  commands.  It  was  more  than  probable  that 
the  delay  occurring  by  the  complication  on  Lane's  right, 
caused  them  to  ride  forward  on  the  mountain  road,  leading 
towards  Chancellorsville,  passing  beyond  Lane's  left,  and 
they  were  thus  in  our  front,  when  the  firing  began.  What- 
ever may  be  the  true  statement  of  how  they  got  in  that  posi- 
tion, there  was  nothing  more  certain  than  that  they  came 
from  our  front  when  the  firing  began. 

It  was  generally  conceded  that  the  Eighteenth  Regiment 
fired  the  fatal  shots.  None  regretted  the  occurrence  more 
than  we  did,  and  the  army  did  not  blame  us  for  the  manner 
or  measure  of  our  discharge  of  our  duty,  though  others  did. 

The  Eighteenth  and  Twenty-eighth  were  transferred  to 
the  right  of  the  brigade  about  11  o'clock  and  repulsed  an  at- 
tack made  upon  that  flank,  capturing  many  prisoners  in  addi- 
tion to  the  regiment  captured  there  earlier  in  the  night.  The 
skirmish  lines  were  not  far  apart,  and  the  least  noise  brought 
on  a  volley. 

With  empty  stomachs  we  slept  on  our  arms,  as  best  we 
could,  between  the  firings. 

Our  ears  caught  the  rumbling  of  artillery  wheels  and  the 
clatter  of  many  axes,  making  us  painfully  aware  that  Clian- 
eellorsville  Hill  was  fortified  for  the  morrow's  work.  Stu- 
art gave  orders  that  the  attack  be  made  at  4  o'clock  next  morn- 
ing. At  early  dawn  Hill's  division,  commanded  by  Heth, 
was  put  in  motion.  The  right  of  Lane  being  deflected  was 
wheeled  to  the  left  to  get  in  line.  The  first  and  second  breast- 
works were  carried  before  sunrise.  Hill's  right  brigades 
found  the  enemy  entrenched  where  Lane  had  fought  them  the 
night  before,  and  had  to  fight  into  position  to  advance.  Be- 
ing thtis  detained  Lane  was  exposed  on  his  right,  and  lost 
heavily  at  the  second  breastworks. 

Colonel  Purdie  was  killed,*and  Lieutenant-Colonel  George 
wounded.  Major  Barry  had  a  captain  left  to  command  the 
right  and  a  lieutenant  to  command  the  left  wing  of  the  regi- 
ment, a  fearful  loss,  and  he  was  the  only  one  of  thirteen  regi- 

40  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

mental  officers  present  with  the  brigade,  not  killed  or 
wounded.  Color  Bearer  Richardson,  of  the  Eighteenth, 
was  wounded  in  the  night  fighting,  and  Prophet  and  Ed- 
wards were  killed,  successively,  at  the  second  breastworks 
next  morning. 

The  writer  was  wounded,  through  the  upper  third  of  left 
thigh,  just  as  these  works  were  carried,  and  got  nearly  ofE 
the  field  by  using  two  muskets  as  crutches,  before  the  enemy 
rallied  and  retook  the  works.  Out  of  ammunition  and  no 
reinforcements  arriving,  the  brigade  was  unable  to  hold  its 
position,  and  retreated  to  the  first  line  of  works,  where  it 
remained  till  supplied  with  ammunition.  The  enemy  rein- 
forced, and  stubbornly  held  this  strong  position,  repulsing 
several  attacks  made  upon  it.  It  was  near  10  o'clock  before 
Chancellor's  Hill  was  carried,  when  Lee's  and  Stuart's  line 
were  joined  and  Hooker's  army  forced  beyond  the  Planl?;  road 
into  the  tangle  of  that  wilderness  country,  from  which  he  re- 
crossed  the  Eapidan.  Lane's  loss  in  this  fight  was  909,  about 
one-third  of  the  loss  of  Hill's  division. 

In  his  book  clearing  up  the  odium  that  attached  to  the 
Eleventh  corps  for  its  disaster  in  this  battle,  Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel A.  C.  Hamlin,  brother  of  Vice-President  Hannibal  Llam- 
lin,  historian  of  that  much  abused  command,  says  of  Lane's 
brigade:  "This  brigade  faced  the  Federal  front  in  line  of 
battle,  and  although  twice  exposed  to  the  fire  of  forty-three 
cannon,  it  never  faltered,  nor  called  for  help,  until  its  flank 
and  rear  were  threatened  by  Sickles  about  midnight.  The 
history  of  this  command  under  its  dauntless  leader,  through- 
out the  war,  and  ending  at  Appomattox,  will  always  be  ad- 
mired, and  respected  by  those  who  believe  in  American  man- 
hood. And  the  student  who  seeks  to  discover  a  higher  degree 
of  courage  and  hardihood  among  the  military  organizations 
of  either  army  will  look  over  the  true  records  of  the  war  for 
a  long  time,  if  not  in  vain.  Investigation  shows  that  the  bri- 
gade was  composed  of  young  men,  of  the  best  stock  the  Old 
North  State  contained,  and  sent  to  represent  it,  in  that  bul- 
wark of  secession,  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia.  The  rec- 
ords show  that  it  was  in  all  of  the  principal  battles  of  the 
Army  of  Northern  Virginia,  and  that  its  blows  were  severe 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  41 

and  its  losses  were  frightful.  In  the  battles  around  Rich- 
mond in  1862,  the  brigade  lost  800  men,  killed  and  wounded, 
at  Chancellorsville  it  lost  nearly  800  men  killed  and  wounded, 
and  of  its  thirteen  field  officers,  all  but  one  were  struck  down. 
At  Gettysburg  it  formed  the  left  of  Longstreet's  charge 
and  although  it  had  lost  nearly  40  per  cent,  in  its 
three  days  fighting,  it  marched  off  the  field  in  excel- 
lent order  when  Pickett  was  routed  and  took  position 
in  support  of  the  rebel  (Confederate)  batteries,  which 
some  of  the  brigades  of  that  charge  did  not  do.  This  organ- 
ization was  among  the  last  soldiers  of  Lee's  army  to  re- 
cross  the  Potomac  after  both  Antietam  and  Gettysburg. 
North  Carolina  furnished  more  men  than  any  other  State 
of  the  Confederacy,  and  lost  more  in  action  than  any  of  its 
sister  States,  and  the  records  show,  or  seem  to  show,  that  her 
mountaineers  struck  many  of  the  hardest  blows  the  army  of 
the  Potomac  received  from  the  Army  of  JSTorthern  Virginia." 

These  generous  words  from  a  foe,  are  true,  and  show  that 
those  who  met  us  on  the  field  of  battle,  could  recognize  "foe- 
men  worthy  of  their  steel." 

His  figures  of  killed  and  wounded  are  supposed  to  be  taken 
from  the  Surgeon  General's  Hospital  report,  and  the  differ- 
ence between  that  and  the  brigade  and  the  regimental  reports 
is  accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  a  great  many  slightly 
wounded  men  never  passed  through  the  hospitals,  where  a 
record  was  kept. 

Jackson's  corps  returned  to  its  camp  and  after  his  death,  it 
and  Longstreet's  were  reorganized  and  three  corps  formed, 
under  Longstreet,  Ewell  and  A.  P.  Hill.  When  A.  P.  Hill 
was  made  Lieutenant-General,  Brigadier-Generals  W.  D. 
Pender  and  Harry  Heth  were  made  Major-Generals.  Colonel 
Alfred  M.  Scales  succeeded  Pender  as  Brigadier-General.  To 
Major-General  Pender's  "Light  Division"  was  assigned  the 
Worth  Carolina  brigades  of  Lane  and  Scales,  McGowan's  (S. 
C.)  and  Thomas'  (Georgia)  brigades. 

Being  a  member  of  the  ISTorth  Carolina  Legislature,  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Forney  George  resigned,  and  Major  John  D. 
Barry  became  Colonel.     Captain  John  W.  McGill,  Company 

42  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

B,  was  promoted  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  Captain  Thos.  J. 
Wooten,  Company  K,  major. 

Lee  put  his  army  in  motion  and  on  25  June  crossed  the 
Potomac  at  Shepherdstown.  On  1  July  the  brigade 
marched  from  Cashtown  to  Gettysburg  and  formed  on  the 
left  of  the  pike.  After  advancing  a  mile  or  more,  it 
was  transferred  to  the  right  to  support  Heth,  and 
again  advanced.  The  lines  diverging,  Lane  became  uncov- 
ered, and  met  the  enemy  in  his  own  front,  forcing  his  lines 
back  towards  Cemetery  Heights.  On  the  2nd  the  Eighteenth 
was  sent  to  support  a  battery,  near  the  Theological  college, 
and  was  again  with  the  brigade  in  its  advance  in  the  even- 

On  the  3rd  Heth's  division,  under  Brigadier-General  Pet- 

tigrew  and  Lane's  and  Scales'  brigades,  temporarily  under 
Major-General  Trimble,  were  sent  to  Longstreet,  who  placed 
Pettigrew  in  front,  supported  by  Trimble,  whilst  Pickett  with 
two  brigades  in  front  on  line  with  Pettigrew,  was  supported 
by  his  third  brigade,  and  Wilcox's  brigade  attached  to  him  to 
protect  his  flank. 

It  was  a  high  compliment  to  Lleth's  division  and  Pender's 
two  brigades,  who  had  done  hard  service  on  the  1st  and  2nd, 
to  be  selected  to  make  the  attack  on  the  3rd,  and  be  pitted 
with  Pickett's  division  that  was  fresh  upon  the  field,  and 
had  not  had  a  good  whiff  of  powder  since  the  battle  of  Cold 
Harbor  in  June,  1862.  It  did  duty  arovind  Petersburg,  and 
in  JvTorth  Carolina,  and  had  missed  the  hardships  of  the 
Maryland  campaign,  and  the  battles  of  Fredericksburg  and 
Chancellorsville.  Thoroughly  recruited  and  full,  it  was  in 
fine  condition  for  this  fight.  Pettigrew's  brigade  was  simi- 
larly fortunate,  as  to  the  last  year's  campaign,  but  at  the 
reorganization  of  the  corps,  was  taken  f  roan  its  picnic  grounds 
and  put  into  the  division  of  Heth,  with  which  it  had  fought 
on  the  1st  and  2nd.  (One  regiment  of  Pettigrew's  brigade, 
and  one  brigade  of  Pickett's  division  was  left  in  Virginia. ) 

The  first  arrangement  and  order  of  battle  was  for  Hill's 
troops  to  support  Longstreet's  Corps,  in  its  attack,  but  by  the 
final  arrangement  two  of  Longstreet's  divisions  were  not  put 
in  and  Pickett  had  but  two  brigades  on  the  front  line. 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  43 

The  whole  of  Heth's  division  under  Pettigrew  was  on  the 
front  line,  and  only  two  brigades  of  Pender's  under  Trimble, 
to  support  it.  When  the  advance  was  made  Pickett  and  Pet- 
tigrew's  lines  diverged,  Pettigrew's  supports  uncovered,  and 
Pickett's  supports  also.  Pickett's  front  brigades  and  supports 
became  so  far  apart  when  the  fighting  line  was  reached 
that  General  Stannard  seeing  the  opportunity,  threw  his 
command  forward  from  the  Federal  lines,  and  cutting  a  part 
off,  made  large  captures.  Having  about  half  the  distance  to 
go  Pickett  reached  musketry  range  before  Pettigrew  and  was 
repulsed,  whilst  Pettigrew  was  advancing.  When  Pettigrew 
reached  the  works  he,  like  Pickett,  was  without  support,  on 
account  of  difference  of  direction  of  his  line  and  support 
some  diverging,  some  crowding,  and,  when  his  support 
(Trimble,  with  Lane's  and  Scale's  brigades)  passed  beyond 
and  reached  the  works  it  was  like  Pickett  and  Pettigrew,  un- 
able to  live  in  that  maelstrom  of  death. 

Each  command  broke  the  enemy  at  some  point  in  its  front, 
and  Trimble's  and  Pettigrew's  dead  and  wounded  were  found 
in  the  orchard  beyond  the  stone  fence,  and  at  the  stone  fence, 
the  height  of  a  man's  chin,  eighty  yards  further  in  their 
front  than  the  stone  fence  about  21/2  feet  high,  in  front  of 
Pickett's  line. 

When  leaving.  Lane's  brigade  rallied  its  remnant  in  the 
hollow  by  the  Emmettsburg  road,  and  marched  off  in  order, 
the  last  troops  to  leave  the  field. 

This  charge  of  the  Confederates  stands  out  in  history  in 
its  uniqueness  for  boldness  and  gallantry  and  the  chaplet  of 
honor  should  encircle  the  brow  of  all  the  troops  engaged  in  it. 
Those  who  were  there  and  surrendered  deserve  credit ;  those 
who  were  there  and  fought  with  their  commands,  can  not  be 
sufiiciently  rewarded,  and  those  who  so  gallantly  poured  out 
their  life  blood,  a  libation  on  their  country's  altar,  should 
be  immortalized  in  song  and  story  as  the  highest  type  of 
American  manhood. 

There  is  no  disposition  on  the  part  of  those  engaged  to  de- 
tract from  the  merit  of  Pickett's  men,or  dim  the  lustre  of  the 
charge.  As  a  whole  the  charge  was  brilliant — in  isolated  in- 
stances it  was  not  what  it  ought  to  have  been.     Brocken- 

44  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

brough's,  Va.,  brigade  did  not  come  up  to  its  usual  standard, 
and  the  shafts  of  detraction  were  hurled  at  all  its  comrades 
under  Pettigrew,  on  that  account. 

General  Gr.  E.  Pickett  made  the  mistake  of  not  going  with 
his  division.  His  presence  would  have  been  helpful,  and 
might  have  saved  his  large  number  of  prisoners.  His  briga- 
diers did  as  well  as  they  could,  but  a  division  needs  its  com- 
mander to  get  its  best  result. 

The  casualties  of  each  command  is  the  test  of  services,  and 
Pettigrew's  command  welcomes  the  token,  as  the  statistics  of 
Gettysburg  show,  viz. : 

Pickett  and  his  support  lost:  Killed,  266  ;  wounded,  1,546  ; 
total  killed  and  wounded,  1,812;  prisoners,  1,756;  grand 
total,  3,568. 

Pettigrew  and  his  supports  lost:  Killed,  554;  wounded, 
2,470;  total  killed  and  wounded,  3,024;  prisoners,  627; 
grand  total,  3,651.  More  than  twice  as  many  killed,  nearly 
twice  as  many  wounded  and  a  little  more  than  one-third  as 
many  prisoners. 

Pickett's  heaviest  loss  was  in  Armistead's  brigade  of  Vir- 
ginia: Killed,  84;  wounded,  491;  total  killed  and  wounded, 
575 ;  prisoners,  643 ;  grand  total,  1,218.  Five  regiments 
more  than  half  prisoners. 

Pettigrew's  heaviest  loss  was  in  his  own  brigade  of  ISTorth 
Carolina:  Killed,  190;  wounded,  915;  total  killed  and 
wounded,  1,105 ;  prisoners,  00 ;  four  regiments  and  no  pris- 
oners.    Killed  and  wounded,  nearly  2  to  1. 

One  regiment  of  this  brigade,  the  Twenty-sixth  North  Car- 
olina, lost:  Killed,  86  ;  wounded,  502  ;  killed  and  wounded, 
588 ;  prisoners,  00 ;  grand  total,  588 ;  or  13  more  killed 
and  wounded  than  Armistead's  brigade. 

Nearly  half  of  Pickett's  loss  was  prisoners,  whilst  Petti- 
grew lost  but  one-sixth  in  prisoners,  viz :  Archer,  517 ; 
Scales,  110;  total,  627. 

These  figures,  obtained  from  volume  26,  part  2,  pages  339, 
343,  4,  5,  Official  Eecords  Union  and  Confederate  Armies, 
show  that  Pickett's  charge  did  not  fail  because  he  was 
not  supported  by  Pettigrew,  and  that  Pettigrew  really  did  the 
fighting  of  the  day. 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  45 

North  Carolinians  were  satisfied  with  doing  their  duty  and 
"We  envy  not  others  their  merited  glory." 

Lee  withdrew  from  the  field  on  the  night  of  the  4th  and  re- 
mained at  Hagerstown  a  week.  On  the  13th  crossed  the  Po- 
tomac at  Falling  Waters  where  Lane  acted  as  rear  guard. 
The  Eighteenth  and  part  of  the  Twenty-eighth  were  deployed 
as  skirmishers  and  those  of  the  Twenty-eighth  were  the  last 
to  cross.  A  week  was  spent  in  camp  near  Culpepper  Court 
House,  when  the  army  returned  to  the  line  of  the  E,apidan, 
the  Eighteenth  camping  near  Orange  Court  House. 

After  the  death  of  Major-General  Pender  from  wounds  at 
Gettysburg,  Brigadier-General  Cadmus  M.  Wilcox  was  pro- 
moted, and  assigned  to  his  command.  On  22  September 
the  Eighteenth  marched  with  the  command  and  was 
at  a  skirmish  at  Jack's  Shop,  near  Madison  Court  House, 
and,  after  that,  camped  at  Liberty  Mills,  the  left  of  the  army. 
On  the  9  th  the  army  advanced,  Hill  marching  by  Madison 
Court  House  and  Warrenton  to  Bristoe  Station  where  Heth 
had  a  fight  with  the  enemy.  Cooke's  and  Kirkland's  North 
Carolina  brigades  were  sent  against  a  strong  position  on  the 
railroad,  and  gallantly  went  into  a  slaughter  pen.  Before 
reinforcements  could  go  to  their  assistance  they  were  deci- 
mated. Wilcox  was  under  shelling  from  the  enemy's  artil- 
lery with  slight  casualties.  We  again  had  a  job  on  the  rail- 
road, and  destroyed  it  to  the  Rappahannock,  and  camped  a 
week  on  its  south  side. 

After  leaving  Brandy  Station  on  the  8th  the  Yankee  cav- 
alry pursued  in  force.  We  laid  an  ambush  for  them  near 
Culpepper,  using  one  of  the  North  Carolina  companies  of 
the  Eleventh  Virginia  cavalry  as  decoys.  It  played  its  part 
well,  fighting  better  than  cavalry  was  expected  to,  and  nearly 
succeeded  in  drawing  a  regiment  of  blue-coat  cavalry  into  a 
field,  where,  covered  by  some  woods,  the  Eighteenth  was 
placed  to  get  in  their  rear.  The  trap  was  discovered  in  time 
to  escape  with  a  lot  of  empty  saddles,  and  a  loss  to  the  Eigh- 
teenth of  one  killed  and  a  half  dozen  wounded. 

The  Eighteenth  returned  to  Liberty  Mills,  and  built  com- 
fortable winter  quarters.  On  28  November  marched  to 
Mine  Run,  where  Meade  had  crossed.    We  lay  in  line  of  bat- 

46  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

tie,  and  built  breastworks,  but  were  not  engaged,  more  than 
on  the  skirmish  line.  The  weather  was  fearfully  cold,  and  the 
pickets  were  relieved  every  two  hours,  as  they  could  not  stay 
longer  without  fire.  The  skirmish  lines  were  not  far  apart, 
and  exposure  was  dangerous.  In  a  thicket  of  old  field  pines, 
between  the  lines,  a  flock  of  wild  turkeys  lit  down.  A  fine, 
large  gobbler  lost  his  life  there  by  this  rashness,  and  lay  in 
full  view  of  both  picket  lines.  Disregarding  the  danger, 
each  side  determined  to  capture  that  turkey,  and  several  men 
were  gobblerized  during  the  day.  After  sun  down  George  W. 
Corbett  in  charge  of  the  Eighteenth  skirmishers,  played  tac- 
tics to  bring  him  in.  Picking  a  man  to  help  him,  they  ap- 
proached in  different  directions,  and  succeeded  in  bagging  the 
game,  as  well  as  in  getting  a  new  overcoat  and  blanket  off  of 
an  equally  venturesome,  but  less  successful  blue-coater  that 
lay  near  by.  The  pot  boiled  that  night.  A.  P.  Hill's  division 
was  massed  Tuesday  night,  1  December,  to  attack  next  morn- 
ing, but  during  the  night  Meade  recrossed  the  river.  We 
gladly  returned  to  our  winter  quarters  at  Liberty  Mills  and 
spent  the  winter  there. 

Who  that  saw  it,  will  ever  forget  the  snow-ball  battle  that 
started  in  fun,  and  spread  from  regiment  to  brigade,  then 
division  and  corps,  till  the  line  from  Liberty  Mill  to  Orange 
Court  House  was  engaged  in  the  exhiliarating  sport  ? 

Some  disgruntled  spirit,  at  last,  threw  a  rock  in  his  snow- 
ball and  brought  blood.  This  dastardly  act  was  promptly  re- 
sented, and  went  to  such  an  extent  that  the  men  rushed  for 
their  arms,  and  it  took  the  best  efforts  of  the  officers  and 
level-headed  men  for  a  while  to  prevent  the  rebel  yell,  and 
snow-ball  from  being  followed  by  real  powder  and  ball. 

During  the  winter  Grovernor  Vance  made  a  tour  of  the  army 
in  his  candidacy  for  re-election  as  governor  of  North  Caro- 
lina. He  received  an  ovation  wherever  he  went  and  captured 
the  army  in  toto. 

General  Grant's  successes  in  the  western  army  made  him 
commander  of  the  armies  of  the  United  States  in  the  field. 
During  the  winter  he  came  east,  and  personally  assumed  com- 
mand of  the  army  of  the  Potomac.  Most  favorably  situated, 
and  with  carte-blanche  he  supplied  his  command  with  every- 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  47 

tiling  he  wanted.  It  was  a  spectacle  worth  beholding,  and 
calculated  to  swell  the  bosom  of  any  man  with  pride,  to  look 
upon  the  one  hundred  and  forty  thousand  men,  with  which 
he  crossed  the  Rapidan,  4  May,  1864,  as  splendidly  equipped 
a  body  of  men  as  ever  trod  the  face  of  the  earth.  Well  might 
he  have  said : 

"Behold  them,  in  their  glory, 
You  will  soon  read  our  story, 
On  to  Richmond ! ! !" 

General  Lee  had  sixty  thousand  men  scantily  supplied  with 
everything,  save  grit,  with  which  to  meet  this  mighty  host. 

The  disparity  of  numbers,  and  condition  was  appalling, 
but  the  ragged  Confederates  did  not  faint  or  falter. 

On  the  evening  of  the  5th  Heth  and  Pender's  divisions  of 
Hill's  corps,  some  5,000  men,  engaged  Birney's,  Mott's,  Gib- 
bon's and  Barlow's  divisions,  Hancock's  corps,  with  Getty's 
division  of  the  Sixth  corps,  say  40,000  men,  and  did  good 

The  Eighteenth  was  sent  to  the  front  and  on  the  right  of 
the  Orange  plank  road,  near  a  mile  from  it,  found  the 
Thirty-eighth  North  Carolina  hotly  engaged  with  Hancock's 
troops.  Colonel  Barry  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Ashford 
fought  their  regiments,  as  emergency  required,  in  various 
positions,  till  nightfall,  when  I  was  sent  back  to  report  their 
condition  and  get  instructions.  Shifting  position  so  often 
during  the  evening  I  had  lost  my  bearings,  and  in  the  dark- 
ness got  into  Hancock's  corps  and  had  to  tack  variously  to 
get  out.  About  11  o'clock  I  got  into  Wilcox's  troops,  on  a 
straight  run  down  the  planl?;  road.  Before  I  stopped  my 
run,  I  recognized  General  Wilcox's  white  horse,  and  going  to 
him  fotmd  Wilcox.  Out  of  wind,  and  gasping  between 
words,  I  told  him  that  I  was  just  out  of  Hancock's  corps,  and 
that  there  was  not  a  man  between  him  and  Hancock's  skir- 
mishers. He  evidently  did  not  believe  a  word  of  it,  and  was 
not  over  polite  in  letting  me  know  it.  I  found  where  my 
command  was  and  went  to  it.  General  Lane,  Colonels  Barry, 
Avery  and  others  believed  my  statement,  and  went  to  Wilcox 

48  North  Carolina  Troops,    l861-'65. 

to  get  a  picket  line  established  in  front.  He  assured  them 
that  there  was  a  division  in  his  front,  and  told  them  not  to 
disturb  the  men,  let  them  rest  till  morning.  The  regiments 
bivouacked  without  regard  to  alignment,  as  they  assembled 
from  the  different  parts  of  the  field,  on  which  they  had 

In  the  morning  Colonel  Avery  had  gotten  part  of  the 
Thirty-third  in  line,  when  Hancock's  corps  and  Sedwick's 
division  struck  us,  and  fought  them  like  tigers.  The  tempor- 
ary check  made  where  they  were,  gave  little  time  for  the  bri- 
gade that  was  forming  to  get  together,  and  Wilcox  was  caught 
all  out  of  joint  all  along  his  line.  Though  we  had  little  or  no 
alignment,  the  regiments  and  squads  fell  back  fighting  as 
best  they  could.  About  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  where  Han- 
cock flushed  us,  we  were  fired  into  by  the  division  that  Wil- 
cox thought  was  in  his  front  the  night  before  and  it  retreated 
without  waiting  to  let  us  pass  by  it. 

There  were  fifty  or  seventy-five  in  the  squad  that  I  fell 
back  with,  a  part  from  the  plank  road  (the  most  of  the  bri- 
gade were  near  it).  About  a  half  mile  back  we  were  cov- 
ered by  the  right  of  the  Texas  brigade,  as  it  advanced,  the 
first  of  Longstreet's  troops  that  got  into  action.  Our  squad 
composed  of  men  from  all  of  Lanes  regiments,  joined  the 
Fourth  Texas  under  Captain  Jas.  T.  McLaurin,  Company  B, 
and  went  with  it  in  the  charge  that  drove  Hancock  back  to 
the  position  of  the  morning  near  the  Brock  road. 

It  was  near  midday  when  we  rejoined  our  command  in  the 
left  of  the  Plank  road,  where  it  had  assembled  after  the  morn- 
ing's experience.  Though  caught  at  a  disadvantage  the  men 
fought  well,  as  the  casualties  show,  and  delayed  their  assail- 
ant's advance. 

Ewell  did  splendid  fighting  that  afternoon  on  the  left  of 
the  army  and  drove  the  Federal  right  some  distance.  About 
9  o'clock  that  night  the  rebel  yell  was  set  up  on  the  right  and 
extended  to  the  left  of  the  army. 

The  volume  and  duration  of  sound  exceeded  anything  that 
we  had  then  heard  or  have  heard  since.  Prisoners  taken 
afterwards  reported  great  demoralization  from  it  in  Warren's 
and  Sed-wick's  corps.     General  Horace  Porter  in  his  "Cam- 


paign  With  Grant,"  gives  a  graphic  account  of  the  attack  on 
these  commands  after  dark,  and  of  the  battle  says :  "All  cir- 
cumstances seemed  to  combine  to  make  the  scene  one  of  un- 
utterable horror.  At  times  the  wind  howled  through  the  tree 
tops,  mingling  its  moan  with  the  groans  of  the  dying,  and 
heavy  branches  were  cut  off  by  the  fire  of  the  artillery  and 
fell  crashing  upon  the  heads  of  the  men,  adding  a  new  terror 
to  battle. 

"Forest  fires  raged,  ammunition  trains  exploded,  the  dead 
were  roasted  in  the  conflagration,  the  wounded,  roused  by  its 
hot  breath,  dragged  themselves  along  with  their  torn  and 
mangled  limbs,  in  the  mad  energy  of  despair,  to  escape  the 
ravages  of  the  flame,  and  every  bush  seemed  hung  with  shreds 
of  blood-stained  clothing.  It  was  as  though  Christian  men 
had  turned  to  fiends,  and  hell  itself  had  usurped  the  place  of 

We  Avere  direct  opposites  at  that  time  in  action  and  prin- 
ciples. I'm  not  inclined  to  combat  his  sentiment.  Sheol 
was  not  far  off  that  day. 

On  the  8th  left  the  Wilderness  and  had  a  little  skirmish- 
ing near  the  Po.  On  the  10th  arrived  at  Spottsylvania 
Court  House  and  on  that  and  the  following  day  built  breast- 
works on  different  parts  of  the  line,  being  moved  several 
times.  Our  lines  being  nearly  at  right  angles  to  Ewell's 
corps,  we  built  traverses  to  protect  ourselves  from  shots  in 
that  direction. 

Late  in  the  evening  of  the  11th,  Lane's  brigade,  which  was 
the  left  of  A.  P.  Hill's  corps,  was  thrown  forward  to  the 
front  and  left  to  connect  with  Ewell's  line.  Our  left  regi- 
ments, Twenty-eighth  and  Eighteenth,  were  beyond  a  branch 
and  thrown  forward,  at  an  obt\ise  angle  to  the  rest  of  the 
brigade,  to  connect  with  Stewart's  brigade  of  General  Edward 
Johnson's  division,  that  was  thrown  back  in  a  curve  from 
that  division  to  connect  with  the  Twenty-eighth,  forming  a 
salient,  knoAvn  as  the  Horseshoe  angle. 

During  the  night  our  artillery  was  withdrawn  from  John- 
son's line,  and  Hancock's  and  Burnside's  corps  were  massed 
at  the  salient,  with  orders  to  attack  it  at  4  o'clock.  The  artil- 

50  North  Caromna  Troops,  1861-65. 

lery  was  returning  to  Johnson's  line,  but  had  not  gotten  in 
position  when  Hancock  attacked  at  daylight.  Edward  John- 
son's left  and  Eobert  D.  Johnson's  brigade  that  were  sup- 
porting it,  were  swept  away.  That  let  Hancock  into 
Stewart's  rear,  and  the  rear  of  the  Twenty-eighth  and  Eigh- 
teenth who  were  engaged  with  those  to  the  right  of  the 

The  artillery  and  Stewart's  brigade  were  captured.  When 
the  Twenty-eighth  and  Eighteenth  found  that  Hancock  was 
in  their  immediate  rear,  it  was  too  late  to  escape  and  about 
one-third  of  the  Twenty-eighth  and  near  half  of  the  Eigh- 
teenth were  made  prisoners.  Of  those  who  escaped,  the 
writer,  adjutant  of  the  Eighteenth  North  Carolina,  ral- 
lied a  handful  at  the  left  of  the  breastworks  of  the  previous 
day  and  recklessly  dashing  into  Hancock's  host  that  poured 
into  the  woods,  through  Johnson's  opening,  produced  a  panic, 
that  adding  to  its  own  demoralization,  drove  his  serried  num- 
bers back  beyond  the  branch,  stampeding  even  the  guards  in 
charge  of  the  prisoners.  Some  of  the  Eighteenth's  prisoners 
taking  advantage  of  the  stampede,  escaped  and  rejoined  the 
regiment.  J.  C.  Kinlaw,  of  Company  K,  in  a  subsequent 
charge,  recovered  his  knapsack  and  accoutrements,  of  which 
he  had  been  stripped  preparatory  to  being  carried  to  the  rear. 
This  stampede  gave  time  for  the  Thirty-seventh,  Seventh  and 
Thirty-third  to  be  formed  on  the  crest  south  of  the  branch, 
and  the  remnant  of  the  Eighteenth  and  Twenty-eighth  re- 
formed on  their  left  where  Lane  repulsed  Hancock's  next  ad- 
vance, and  saved  the  right  of  the  army.  Scales'  North  Caro- 
lina brigade  coming  to  his  assistance,  another  attack  was 

After  this  Gordon,  in  command  of  Early's  division,  joined 
our  left,  and  by  hard  fighting  the  line  was  advanced  and  held 
near  the  apex  of  the  angle.  On  the  left  of  the  angle  Daniel's 
North  Carolina  brigade  stopped  the  break  of  Ewell's  line  and 
Eamseur's  North  Carolina  brigade  taken  from  Daniel's  left, 
retook  the  line  to  Daniel's  right.  Colonel  R.  T.  Bennett's 
Fourteenth  North  Carolina  Regiment  was  taken  from  Ram- 
seur's  left  and  gallantly  extended  Ramseur's  right.  Harris' 
Mississippi  brigade  unfalteringly  extended  Bennett's  right, 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  51 

McGowan's  South  Carolina  brigade  was  sent  from  Hill's 
front  near  the  court  house  to  extend  Harris'  line,  and  partly 
lapped  upon  it.  McGowan  was  wounded  before  getting  to  the 

Harris'  and  McGowan's  brigades  fought  Hancock  and  his 
reinforcements  over  the  breastwork  all  day,  snatching  the 
muskets  from  each  other  across  the  works.  There  was  an 
oak  woods  to  their  rear,  and  an  oak  tree  twenty  inches  in 
diameter  was  so  riddled  with  minie  -  balls,  several  feet 
from  the  ground,  that  its  top-weight  wrung  it  down.  I  saw 
the  tree  next  day  and  the  many  dead,  on  each  side  of  the 
breastworks  were  silent  witnesses  of  the  fighting  qualities 
of  both  armies.  (The  two  sections,  above  and  below  of  this 
or  a  similar  tree,  were  cut  off  and  after  the  war  were  on  exhi- 
bition at  the  War  Department  in  Washington  where  I  saw 
them  in  1866.     Ed.) 

During  the  day  a  white  flag  appeared  on  the  breastworlis, 
firing  ceased,  and  each  side  began  jumping  over  claiming  the 
others  as  prisoners.  The  matter  was  settled  by  the  blue-coats 
and  Johnnies  getting  back  on  their  own  side  and  the  fight  be- 
gan again.  A  new  line  was  built  across  the  angle  from 
Daniel's  to  Lane's,  and  word  passed  down  the  line  to  Harris' 
and  McGowan's  men  to  fall  back  to  it.  After  night  the 
firing  slackened  and  about  midnight  ceased;  both  sides  had 
quietly  gone  away  and  the  fought-over  works  were  abandoned 
by  both  sides. 

Lane's  brigade  was  taken  off  the  line  to  the  right  of  the 
angle,  carried  into  some  woods  to  the  left  of  the  court  house 
and  got  a  few  hours  rest  in  the  middle  of  the  day.  In  the 
afternoon  it  was  taken  by  Major-General  Mahone  with 
his  old  brigade.  Colonel  Weisiger,  to  feel  a  force  which 
was  assembling  to  the  right  of  the  salient,  behind 
the  branch  above  mentioned.  Though  Weisiger  had 
not  been  engaged  that  day  and  Lane  had  been  fighting  all  the 
morning.  Lane's  small  brigade  was  put  in  front  to  attack  and 
Weisiger  to  support.  When  Lane  advanced,  Mahone  rode 
back  to  the  court  house.  Lane's  attack  was  successful,  though 
Weisiger  did  not  support  him  and  when  sent  for  did  not 
come.     Lane  turned  the  captured  battery  upon  the  enemy, 

52  North  Cabolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

but  had  to  abandon  it  or  be  captured.  He,  however,  carried 
back  four  or  five  hundred  prisoners  and  several  flags. 

The  Eighteenth  captured  the  flag  of  the  artillery. 

When  we  got  back  to  the  lines,  near  the  court  house,  Ma- 
hone  rode  out  and  claimed  the  flags,  which  were  refused  him. 
He  afterwards  had  a  correspondence  through  army  headquar- 
ters concerning  them,  which  was  "held  up"  on  account  of 
"unparliamentary  language"  that  got  into  it.  General  Lee 
and  the  Secretary  of  War  acknowledged  receipt  of  the  flags 
from  Lane's  brigade,  a  feAV  days  after  the  battle. 

The  Kichmond  papers  teemed  with  accounts  of  Mahone's 
magnificent  achievements  in  the  afternoon  and  accredited  to 
other  Virginia  commands  the  honor  of  stopping  the  break 
in  the  lines  of  the  morning. 

Pertinent  to  this,  though  personal,  the  following  extract 
from  the  narrative  of  a  Michigan  colonel  is  inserted  here. 
After  stating  how  his  company  was  captured  and  recaptured 
at  Chancellorsville,  3  May,  1863,  and  for  supposed  gal- 
lantry, he  was  promoted  major,  which  he  protested,  continu- 
ing, says: 

"As  nothing  else  would  do,  I  was,  in  a  manner,  forced  to 
accept  this  promotion  and  in  a  few  days  was  commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel  'for  gallantry  and  meritorious  cond^ict  in 
the  presence  of  the  enemy.'  In  the  following  winter  I  was 
appointed  to  the  colonelcy  of  a  'crack'  regiment.  I  would 
not  be  speaking  the  truth  if  I  should  say  that  these  promo- 
tions did  not  touch  my  vanity  and  make  me  zealous,  not  only 
to  maintain  but  to  acquire  more  of  the  'bubble  reputation  at 
the  cannon's  mouth.' 

"It  was  with  an  assumed  feeling  of  arrogance  and  con- 
tempt of  danger  that  I  led  my  regiment  to  the  attack  on  Lee's 
salient  12  May,  1864,  at  Spottsylvania  Court  House. 
By  the  crack  of  dawn  on  that  morning,  before  the 
Johnnies  were  fully  awake,  we  were  right  in  among  them  in 
a  hand  to  hand  encounter,  capturing  a  great  number  of  pris- 
oners and  quickly  had  possession  of  all,  or  nearly  all  of  both 
wings  of  this  famous  salient,  the  breastworks  of  which  faced 
to  the  front  and  rear.  We  had  Lee's  army  now  practically 
cut  in  two,  an  advantage  which,  if  it  had  been  followed  up 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  53 

promptly,  would,  as  I  have  thought,  have  had  the  effect  of 
terminating  the  war  at  a  much  earlier  date.  While  we  were 
engaged  in  arranging  to  hold  our  newly  acquired  position  in 
the  captured  Confederate  works,  and  in  reforming  the  troops 
for  a  further  advance,  an  attack  was  made  on  our  flank  and 
rear,  which  by  its  suddenness  and  vigor  struck  panic  to  the 
troops  between  the  position  held  by  my  regiment  and  the  at- 
tacking party,  which  sent  them  pouring  pell  mell  back  upon 
my  men  in  a  wild,  confused  mass.  Every  soldier  knows 
something  of  the  demoralizing  effect  of  an  enfilade  fire,  such 
as  the  Confederates  had  on  our  line,  and  the  further  fact,  that 
a  stampede  of  panic-stricken  troops  is  as  uncontrollable  as 
that  of  the  herds  on  the  western  plains.  I  was  drawing  out 
my  line  at  an  angle  from  their  former  position  in  order  to 
check  the  Confederate  advance,  when  I  was  shot  down,  re- 
ceiving this  wound  in  the  hip,  from  the  effects  of  which  in  the 
opinion  of  nerve  specialists,  I  will  never  ixdlj  recover.  My 
own  men,  brave  and  tried  soldiers,  though  they  were,  caught 
up  the  contagion  and  joined  in  the  headlong  flight,  for  be- 
fore a  proper  alignment  could  be  made,  the  Confederates  were 
among  them,  sweeping  by  and  beyond  me  as  I  lay  wounded 
upon  the  ground,  and  shooting  to  kill,  as  was  evidenced  by 
the  large  number  of  fallen  Federals  on  the  spot.  I  felt  mor- 
tified and  chagrined  when  I  saw  this  small  body  of  Confed- 
erates, for  they  did  not  number  more  than  about  fifty  or  sixty 
men,  by  brave  and  skillful  management,  put  to  rout  many 
times  their  number  of  our  men.  Biit  I  was  particularly  im- 
pressed by  their  youthful  leader  as  he  passed  by  where  I 
lay,  his  countenance  glowing  with  the  enthusiasm  of  a 
school  boy  going  out  upon  the  play  ground  for  a  game  of 
ball,  shouting  'forward  men !'  rushing  on  with  his  little  band 
like  an  avalanche  to  what  seemed  certain  destruction.  He 
reminded  me  of  the  pictures  I  had  seen  in  my  old  school  his- 
tory in  my  boyhood  days.  I  admire  bravery  even  in  a  foe, 
and  this  I  would  call  true  gallantry  such  as  was  seldom  wit- 
nessed in  either  army  in  the  many  battles  of  the  Civil  War. 
I  am  aware  that  -some  Virginia  troops  claim  by  an  attack  in 
front  of  our  position  to  have  regained  their  lost  ground,  but 
I  know  the  fact  that  their  attack  was  not  made  until  after  I 

54  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

had  fallen,  and  to  this  young  officer  and  his  brave  followers 
belongs  the  honor  of  turning  the  tide  of  battle,  and  of  possibly 
saving  Lee's  army  from  direful  defeat  that  morning.  He  was 
my  ideal  of  a  soldier,  and  as  I  thought  of  him  I  could  but  re- 
flect upon  the  honors  so  unworthily  worn  by  myself,  and  wish 
they  could  have  been  the  reward  of  such  heroism  as  this.  One 
of  his  men  had  fallen  wovinded  within  a  few  feet  of  where  I 
lay,  and  after  the  heavy  fighting  ceased,  the  Confederates 
having  re-established  their  position,  I  was,  though  in  pain, 
so  much  interested  that  I  asked  him  who  his  leader  was. 
Well  do  I  remember  his  reply,  as  it  came  in  a  loud,  emphatic 
tone,  as  if  proud  to  speak  it:  'Captain  Billy  McLaurin,  of 
the  Eighteenth  North  Carolina  Regiment,  one  of  the  bravest 
men  iu  Lee's  army !'  I  was  fully  prepared  to  believe  what 
he  said. 

"It  is  a  strange  thing  to  me  that  those  who  write  history  are 
so  full  and  profuse  in  their  records  of  achievements  of  gen- 
erals, to  the  exclusion  of  such  praiseworthy  deeds  on  the  part 
of  subalterns  and  privates  who  bore  the  brunt  of  battle." 

The  testimony  of  a  foe  on  the  ground  is  worth  considering, 
in  giving  proper  credit  to  the  troops  entitled  to  it.  There 
were  not  more  than  three  or  four  dozen  of  us,  in  this  sortie, 
but  it  gave  time  for  Lane  to  get  in  shape  and  hold  the  position 
till  others  could  come  to  his  assistance.  When  Gordon  came 
with  Early's  division,  there  were  Virginians  in  it,  but  they 
were  entitled  to  no  more  credit  than  the  Georgians,  and  oth- 
ers, that  were  necessary  to  help,  and  did  help,  auanfuUy,  to 
hold  the  lines. 

After  the  attack  in  the  afternoon  Lane  was  put  on  a  line 
that  McGowan  was  taken  from  near  a  brick  kiln.  We  were 
shifted  to  different  parts  of  the  liije  till  the  21st  when  we 
had  a  skirmish  near  a  church  two  or  three  miles  to  the  right 
of  the  court  house.  That  night  we  marched  to  the  right,  and 
on  the  morning  of  the  23rd  bivouacked  in  an  oak  wood  on  a 
little  stream  that  flowed  into  the  South  Anna  river.  Our 
canteenmen  were  not  long  in  finding  water  and — something 
besides ;  one  of  them  came  running  back,  and  asked  for  my 
'army  colt.'  I  pointed  to  my  belt,  hanging  on  a  nearby  oak. 
Others  were  noticed  hurriedly  leaving  camp.     Pop !   pop  1 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  55 

pop  !  bang !  bang !  bang !  was  soon  heard  down  the  slope.  ISTot 
long  after  an  elderly  gentleman  rode  hurriedly  into  camp 
and  was  directed  to  headquarters.  General  Lane  sent  at 
once  to  have  each  regiment  searched  and  if  any  mutton 
was  found  to  send  mutton  and  man  to  him  under  guard. 
Strict  search  was  made,  but  it  could  no  where  be  found  and 
the  adjutants  were  so  reporting.  When  the  adjutant  of  the 
Thirty-seventh  was  about  to  make  a  similar  report  for  his 
regiment,  Jim  L stepped  up  the  slope  right  near  head- 
quarters with  a  leg  of  mutton  in  his  hand,  in  open  handed 
guilt,  and  he  was  scooped  in. 

Jim  was  the  first  to  return  with  a  trophy  of  the  fusillade 
down  the  branch,  and  was  the  only  man  caught.  The  rest 
who  went  that  way  were  innocent  lambs  and  saw  nothing. 
Jim  was  put  to  walking  a  circle  with  a  billet  of  wood,  and 
the  leg  of  mutton  on  his  shoulder.  This  soon  became  a  bur- 
den and  the  citizen  asked  that  he  be  released  and  allowed  to 
have  the  mutton.  General  Lane  didn't  relent  at  once,  and 
the  kind-hearted  citizen  at  last  insisted  that  Jim  be  not  only 
pardoned,  but  that  the  men  be  allowed  to  go  down  into  his 
clover  field  and  get  the  flock. 

The  incident  of  the  morning,  gave  opportunity  for  one  of 
the  ludicrous  humors  of  war  that  afternoon. 

The  enemy  drove  back  the  guards  from  Jericho  ford  and 
Lane  was  sent  two  or  three  miles  back  to  assist  in  stopping 
them,  and  found  a  corps  had  crossed  and  had  a  hard  fight, 
losing  100  men  killed  and  wounded. 

In  the  midst  of  a  sharp  attack  the  Thirty-seventh  broke, 
and  started  for  the  rear,  leaving  the  Eighteenth  liable  to  be 
cut  off  and  the  Thirty-third  to  be  flanked.  x\s  soon  as  they 
began  leaving  the  other  regiments  of  the  brigade  began  bleat- 
ing like  sheep.  At  a  short  distance  the  Thirty-seventh  rallied 
and  returned  and  fought  very  well  afterwards.  It  was  ludi- 
crous in  the  extreme — fighting  for  all  we  were  worth  and 
bleating  like  sheep.  We  were  relieved  about  10  o'clock 
and  returned  to  the  station.  Next  morning  we  threw  up 
earthworks  that  were  not  needed.  The  enemy  had  with- 

When  my  negro  boy,  Jack,  came  to  me  from  the  rear  my 

56  North  Carolina  Troops,  186 1-65. 

haversack  had  an  unusual  fullness  about  it.  Whilst  I  was 
ascertaining  the  cause,  General  Lane  came  along  viewing  the 
progress  of  the  works.  I  asked  him  to  share  some  venison 
(  ?)  with  me.  He  was  too  polite  to  refuse  so  rare  a  dish,  and 
said  it  was  good. 

Grant,  like  his  predecessors,  deferred  to  the  objections  that 
General  Lee  rather  forcibly  expressed  to  his  going  direct  to 
Eichmond,  and  with  the  left  flank  movement,  sought  to  ac- 
complished that  end.  On  the  31st  we  had  an  all-day  artil- 
lery and  skirmish  engagement  at  Storr's  farm,  on  the  Toto- 
potamy,  and  on  1  June  supported  the  artillery  on  the  Tur- 
key Ridge  road  in  the  preliminary  arrangements  for 
the  onslaught  of  the  2nd.  The  Eighteenth  fortified  on  the 
ridge  near  the  McGhee  house,  and  was  to  the  right  of  the 
main  point  of  attack  in  the  second  Cold  Harbor  fight,  say  one- 
third  of  a  mile. 

Grant  massed  his  troops  and  hurled  column  after  column 
upon  Lee,  and  was  repulsed  with  such  terrible  slaughter  that 
his  ofiicers  and  men  as  is  well  known  refused  to  charge  that 
position  again. 

Though  not  hotly  engaged,  the  Eighteenth  lost  some  valua- 
ble men  by  skirmishes  and  sharpshooters.  General  Lane 
was  wounded,  and  Colonel  Barry,  of  the  Eighteenth  com- 
manded the  brigade.  On  the  13th  the  Eighteenth  had  a 
skirmish  near  Riddle's  shop.  Night  put  a  stop  to  it.  On 
the  20th  we  crossed  James  river,  and  on  the  22nd  about  three 
miles  beyond  Petersburg  had  a  sharp  fight  with  the  enemy 
who  was  trying  to  reach  the  Weldon  railroad.  On  the  2'3rd 
Barry  was  sent  to  relieve  Mahone's  brigade,  and  it  was  not  out 
of  range  when  the  enemy  advanced.  Though  the  artillery 
and  musketry  firing  was  very  heavy  for  a  while,  it  did  not 
return  to  give  us  the  help  we  so  sorely  needed. 

On  2  July  the  brigade  was  ordered  to  the  north 
side  of  the  James  river  and  made  a  hard,  hot  march 
to  Deep  Bottom,  where  we  had  skii-mishing  almost  daily  till 
the  28th.  At  Gravely  Hill  there  was  a  hot  engagement.  A 
few  days  afterward  Colonel  Barry  was  wounded  by  a  sharp- 
shooter whilst  on  a  reeonnoitering  tour,  and  Colonel  W.  W. 
Barber,  of  the  Twenty-seventh,  commanded  the  brigade  until 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  57 

the  battle  of  Euzzell's  Mill,  16  August.  General  Wright's 
Georgia  brigade  was  deployed  to  hold  a  line,  whilst  Ander- 
son was  taking  another  position.  The  enemy  advancing  in 
heavy  force  captured  Wright's  thin  line,  and  reinforced  their 
attacking  party  with  negro  troops  to  hold  it. 

General  Lee  was  on  the  field  and  ordered  Lane's_  brigade, 
under  Barber,  to  the  retaking  of  the  work,  which  was  done 

It  was  our  first  encounter  with  negro  troops,  and  there 
were  blue-black  birds  lying  on  that  battle  field.  Colonel  Bar- 
ber was  wounded,  and  Colonel  Spear,  of  the  Twenty-eighth, 
succeeded  to  the  command.  We  recrossed  the  James  and 
were  placed  on  the  right  of  the  line  near  Battery  45,  and 
were  used  to  reinforce  the  cavalry,  and  retake  positions  that 
the  "critter"  companies  would  retire  from.  Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Connor  succeeded  Colonel  Spear  in  the  command  of  the 
brigade  by  order  of  General  Lee,  a  few  days  before  the  battle 
of  Reams  station,  on  25  August,  1864.  General  Han- 
cock, who  we  had,  on  previous  occasions,  found  to  be  a 
good  soldier,  and  determined  fighter,  held  a  strong  position  on 
the  railroad  against  the  attacks  made  upon  him,  and  was 
much  encouraged  by  the  previous  success  that  day,  that  he 
would  hold  the  railroad. 

Cooke's,  MacRae's  and  Lane's  North  Carolina  Brigades 
were  selected  to  make  the  final  attack.  It  was  expecting 
much  of  them  to  make  the  assault  where  greater  numbers  had 
been  repulsed,  but  that  expectation  was  realized  to  the  fullest 

Elated  by  their  victories,  neither  Hancock  nor  his  men 
thought  of  leaving  those  breastworks  till  the  "Tar  Heels" 
were  crossing  them,  and  Hancock  left  his  coat  tail  in  the 
hands  of  James  W.  Atkinson,  the  gallant  color  bearer  of  the 
Thirty-third  North  Carolina  Regiment,  and  some  2,000  of 
his  command  as  prisoners. 

We  thus  more  than  evened  up  his  captures  from  the 
Eighteenth  and  Twenty-eighth,  and  Johnson's  division  at 
Spottsylvania  Court  House  12  May,  1864. 

The  Eighteenth  was  in  the  thick  woods  on  the  left,  and 

68  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

had  a  hard  time  in  getting  through  the  abatis  on  that  part  of 
the  line. 

On  the  29th,  four  days  after,  General  Lee  wrote  Governor 
"Vance :  "T  have  been  frequently  called  upon  to  mention  the 
services  of  JSTorth  Carolina  soldiers  in  this  army,  but  their, 
gallantry  and  conduct  were  never  more  deserving  the  admira- 
tion than  in  the  engagement  at  Reams  Station  on  the  25th 
instant.  The  brigades  of  Generals  Cooke,  MacEae  and  Lane, 
the  last  under  the  temporary  command  of  General  Connor, 
advanced  through  a  thick  abatis  of  felled  trees,  ixnder  a 
heavy  fire  of  musketry  and  artillery,  and  carried  the  enemy's 
works  with  a  steady  courage  that  elicited  the  warm  commen- 
dation of  their  corps  and  division  commanders,  and  the  ad- 
miration of  the  army." 

A  few  days  afterward,  in  an  address  at  Charlotte,  IST.  C, 
President  Davis  said,  among  other  complimentary  things,  of 
North  Carolina :  "Her  sons  were  foremost  in  the  first  battle 
of  the  war,  Great  Bethel,  and  they  were  foremost  in  the  last 
fight,  near  Petersburg,  Reams  Station." 

We  returned  to  Battery  45  at  Petersburg  and  were  again 
foot  cavalry  reinforcements,  to  the  critter  cavalry,  in  resist- 
ing the  extension  lines  of  the  enemy  to  our  right. 

On  Y  September  a  brisk  fight  was  had  with  the  infantry 
and  artillery  at  the  Davis  House. 

On  the  30th  we  again  passed  through  Petersburg  to  go 
over  the  James,  bixt  before  reaching  it  were  recalled  and 
found  the  enemy  at  the  Jones  house,  not  far  from  our  camp. 

They  were  quickly  put  to  flight,  leaving  many  prisoners  in 
our  hands.  We  camped  upon  the  field  that  night.  On 
1  October  we  found  the  enemy  at  the  Pegram  House,  as  if 
they  had  come  to  stay  in  that  neighborhood.  A  repetition  of 
the  experience  of  the  30th  caused  them  to  retire  for  a  time. 

The  repeated  efforts  of  Grant  to  extend  his  left,  brought 
troops  to  our  right.  We  returned  to  Battery  45,  and  were 
comparatively  free  from  similar  expeditions  during  the  next 
few  months.  On  8  December  we  went  to  Jarratt's  Sta- 
tion where  the  Yankees  were  in  force  in  possession  of  the  Wel- 
don  road.  They  evacuated  with  little  fighting.  Again,  we 
went  to  Stony  Creek  further  down  the  road.   On  each  of  these 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  59 

days  the  weather  was  very  cold,  and  ours  was  not  a  pleasure 
trip.  We  were  glad  to  return  to  our  winter  quarters  near 
Forty-five  and  Fort  Gregg. 

After  the  battle  of  Spottsylvania,  Major  Thos.  J.  Wooten, 
of  the  Eighteenth,  was  in  command  of  the  sharpshooters  of 
Lane's  brigade  and  made  an  enviable  reputation  during  the 
campaign.  Around  Petersburg  he  was  a  teiTor  to  the  ene- 
my's picket  lines,  and  had  a  reputation  in  both  armies. 

Wooten's  "seine-haulings"  were  proverbial,  and  he  was 
liberally  used  by  division,  corps  and  army  headquarters  for 
ascertaining  the  enemy's  lines  or  movements.  His  method 
was  to  reconnoiter,  during  the  day,  the  lines  to  be  gone 
through  that  night  and  at  such  hour  as  would  suit  his  pur- 
pose would  approach  "in  twos"  with  his  select  men,  sufficient- 
ly near  to  make  a  dash  at  them.  At  a  signal  the  column 
would  go  through  the  line  with  as  little  noise  as  possible,  halt, 
face  out,  and  each  rank  swing  around  right  and  left,  taking 
the  skirmish  line  in  the  rear,  capturing  the  men  with  the  min- 
imum of  danger  to  his  command.  His  success  was  phenom- 
enal, and  he  received  the  commendation  of  Generals  Lee  and 
Hill  in  congratulatory  orders. 

At  an  armistice  to  bury  the  dead,  the  Federals  were  curi- 
ous to  see  "Major  Hooten,"  as  they  called  him.  Viewed  in 
his  Confederate  garb,  which  was  not  very  elaborate,  his  ap- 
pearance was  not  "as  striking  as  an  army  with  banners"  and 
when  pointed  out  to  a  lot  of  officers  and  men,  a  significant 
smile  passed  'round  the  group,  which  found  expression  in  the 
exclamation  of  an  impressible  Teuton,  "Mine,  Got ! ! !  Is  dot 
ze  man  what  makes  us  skeert,  like  Stonewall  Shackson? 

There  was  a  generous  rivalry  among  the  regiments  of  the 
brigade,  in  keeping  their  quota  of  this  corps  to  the  highest 
efficiency  and  it  was  deemed  an  honor  to  secure  a  detail  to  fill 
a  vacancy  in  it.  Several  of  its  members  refused  to  accept 
promotion  to  lieutenant,  and  return  to  their  companies  to 
command  them. 

The  story  of  Petersburg  will  never  be  written ;  volumes 
would  be  required  to  contain  it,  and  even  those  who  went 
through  the  trying  ordeal,  can  not  recall  a  satisfactory  outline 

60  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

of  the  weird  and  graphic  occurrences  of  that  stormy  period. 

The  Eighteenth  was  not  often  in  the  sapping  and  mining 
portion  of  the  lines  and  was  not  so  particularly  at- 
tracted by  its  experience  as  to  wish  to  take  up  its 
abode  in  the  Blandford  portion  of  the  army.  During  the 
month  of  September  when  it  was  necessary  to  draw  the 
troops  from  about  the  Crater  to  resist  an  attack  near  the  Ap- 
pomattox, we  were  hurriedly  brought  from  Battery  45  to 
support  "Long  Tom"  about  200  yards  to  the  right.  There 
was  no  time  to  go  in  the  covered  way,  and  the  brigade  was 
marched  in,  on  an  open  high  ridge.  It  now  appears  won- 
derful that  we  were  not  swept  off  the  earth. 

We  were  not  in  the  trenches  long,  when  "Long  Tom" 
opened  on  the  Supply  train  that  arrived  on  Grant's  military 
railroad,  and  it  was  but  a  short  time  before  the  sand-bag  em- 
brazures  and  the  embankments  around  "Long  Tom"  needed 

It  was  not  difficult  for  us  to  learn  the  devices  constructed 
for  protection,  from  the  accurate  fire  of  the  enemy  at  close 
range,  and  when  the  mortars  rained  do^^m  their  shot  from  the 
sky  we  found  the  holes  and  could  do  the  gopher  act  with  the 
facility  of  trained  residents. 

The  scene  at  night  was  beautiful  in  the  extreme,  but  there 
was  an  element  of  unattractiveness  about  it,  that  caused  us 
to  yield  readily  to  the  desire  of  any  others  to  see  the  sights 
from  that  view  point,  and  we  invariably  retired  at  first  op- 
portunity, to  position  where  the  lines  were  further  apart. 

When  Gordon  attacked  Fort  Steadman  25  March,  we 
were  massed  near  by,  but  did  not  become  actively  engaged. 
Gordon  carried  the  fort,  but  could  not  hold  it,  without  very 
great  sacrifice  of  men.  His  loss  was  greater  than  his  cap- 
tures, and  Lee  had  no  men  to  spare. 

On  the  night  of  27  May,  Major  Wooten,  with  the  sharp- 
shooter corps  of  Wilcox's  division,  broke  the  Yankee  lines, 
and  captured  and  held  the  strong  position  of  Mcllwaine's  hill 
all  the  next  day.  Wooten  and  Dunlap  (McGowan)  pulled 
the  seine,  and  Scales'  and  Thomas'  corps  helped  to  hold  the 
ground.  The  audacity  of  the  proceeding  was  their  security, 
as  the  Yankees  had  lots  of  men  close  by,  who  appeared  to  fear 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  61 

that  a  trap  was  laid  for  them.  The  concentration  of  troops 
on  Hatcher's  Run  and  Five  Forks  necessitated  the  stretch- 
ing of  the  Confederate  lines  and  the  men  of  Lane's  Brigade 
were  some  twenty  feet  apart  in  the  trenches,  beyond  the  Jones 
house,  when  the  final  attack  was  made  before  day  on  the 
morning  of  2  April.  Our  thin  line  could  make  but  feeble 
resistance  to  the  Sixth  corps  hurled  against  us.  We  detained 
them,  however,  till  the  lines  were  broken  beyond  us,  and  fell 
back  towards  Fort  Gregg,  making  a  stand  on  the  Dinwiddle 
plank  road. 

It  was  after  sunrise  that  General  A.  P.  Hill  was  seen 
coming  from  the  direction  of  his  headquarters  on  the  Cox 
road,  near  the  Appomattox.  The  crowd  that  I  was  witti 
made  every  effort  to  stop  him.  Seeing  no  indication  of  halt- 
ing, I  ran  out  towards  the  direction  he  was  going,  and  though 
some  50  yards  distant,  shouted  to  him  that  our  line  was  broken 
and  that  the  enemy's  skirmishers  were  on  the  plank  road  be- 
yond the  creek.  Answering  back,  that  he  was  aware  there 
was  danger,  but  must  get  to  his  right,  he  disappeared  around 
a  hill,  down  a  valley  leading  to  a  crossing  on  the  creek.  A 
volley  as  of  a  dozen  guns  was  heard  in  that  direction,  his 
horse  ran  back  in  a  few  minutes  without  him  and  we  knew 
that  our  gallant  commander  was  off  duty  forever.  His  sta^i 
and  attendants,  who  were  following  him,  caught  his  horse. 
His  body  was  recovered  and  carried  to  the  rear. 

The  statement  that  one  of  his  staff,  or  couriers,  caught  him 
as  he  fell,  is  without  foundation,  a  loving  fabrication  of  the 
devotional  kind.  They  would  have  been  with  him,  if  they 
could,  but  having  the  fleetest  horse,  he  was  far  in  advance, 
and  I  was  doubtless  the  last  Confederate  spoken  to  by  him. 
In  the  discharge  of  his  duty,  as  he  saw  it,  he  rode  into  the 
jaws  of  death,  and  the  army  lost  one  of  its  most  valuable 

Lane  and  Thomas'  brigades  formed  near  the  Plank  road 
and  repulsed  the  enemy  in  several  advances.  Wilcox  ordered 
the  troops  on  the  Petersburg  side  of  the  break  back  to  a  line 
of  small  forts  outside  of  the  main  works  at  Battery  45. 

When  we  got  to  Fort  Gregg  we  f  oimd  some  artillerists  in  it 
and  Lane's  North  Carolina  brigade  furnished  the  greater 

62      North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

part  of  the  garrison.  Thomas'  Georgia  and  Harris'  Missis- 
sippi brigades  the  balance.  Generals  Wilcox  and  Lane  were 
in  it,  when  I  left  by  permission  of  the  latter  to  go  to  our  win- 
ter quarters  near  by  to  get  our  records. 

The  Sixth  corps  had  been  reinforced  by  the  Twenty-fourth, 
Gibbon's  corps,  and  the  advance  was  made  on  Gregg  before  I 
could  ret^irn. 

I  was  glad  to  be  on  the  outside.  The  fighting  was  des- 
perate. Eepulsed,  the  enemy  reinforced  and  returned  with 
several  lines,  enveloping  the  fort,  they  filled  the  moat  and 
climbed  the  parapet,  fighting  their  way  inside.  Getting  in- 
side, the  fighting  was  hand  to  hand,  till  those  not  killed  were 

Lieutenant  William  0.  Eobinson,  Company  B,  Eighteenth 
Kegiment,  and  Color  Sergeant  James  W.  Atkinson,  Thirty- 
third  North  Carolina,  escaped  after  the  fighting  with  clubbed 
muskets  ceased,  and  always  speak  of  it  as  a  scene  of  inde- 
scribable horror. 

After  the  surrender  of  Gregg  the  other  forts  were  evacu- 
ated, and  the  main  line  at  Battery  45,  and  the  dam  on  the 
creek  occupied.  This  was  held  till  night,  and  Petersburg 
was  behind  us  in  the  morning. 

The  march  to  Appomattox  Court  House  was  a  succession 
of  privations  and  hardships  scarcely  credible  by  those  who 
have  not  had  actual  army  experiences. 

The  supply  trains  that  were  to  have  been  stopped  at  Burke- 
ville  and  Amelia  Court  House,  passed  on,  and  were  captured. 
That  country  could  not  subsist  the  army,  and  men  and  ani- 
mals suffered  for  food.  We  were  formed  in  line  of  battle 
several  times  and  had  some  casualties  at  High  Bridge  and 
near  Jetersville. 

On  the  morning  of  9  April,  whilst  the  Eighteenth  was 
forming  line  of  battle,  on  a  ridge  to  the  left  of  the  road 
before  getting  to  the  branch  near  Appoimattox  Court  House, 
Grant's  officer,  bearing  dispatches  to  Lee,  passed  through  its 
lines  and  found  Lee  a  few  hundred  yards  in  our  rear  on  the 
road  we  had  just  left. 

Firing  was  then  going  on  beyond  the  court  house  by  Gen- 
eral Grimes'  North  Carolinians. 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  63 

We  were  marched  to  a  near  by  woods  and  sadly,  sorrow- 
fully stacked  arms.     All  was  over. 

The  limits  of  this  paper  prevent  the  mention  of  the  many 
meritorious  officers  and  men  composing  this  regiment,  of 
whom  I  could  not  speak  in  too  high  terms.  The  valor  of  its 
men,  and  its  services  is  attested  by  its  casualties  on  the  field 
of  battle,  from  New  Bern  to  Gettysburg,  and  then  to  Appo- 
mattox Court  House,  where  its  last  act  was  getting  ready  for 

Colonel  John  D.  Barry  was  its  only  member  that  reached 
the  grade  of  general.  He  was  appointed  temporary  brigadier 
3  August,  1864,  but  he  was  later  assigned  to  department  duty 
with  his  regular  grade  of  Colonel  (as  General  Lane  had  re- 
turned to  the  brigade)  on  account  of  his  wounds  and  impaired 
health,  leaving  us  the  latter  part  of  February  or  March. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  John  W.  McGill  resigned  about  the 
same  time.  Major  Thos.  J.  Wooten  was  thus  entitled  to  be- 
come Colonel  and  was  so  recommended,  also  Captain  John  J. 
Poisson  to  be  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  Captain  B.  P.  Rinaldi 
Major.  Petersburg  was  evacuated  before  they  received  their 
rank  to  which  they  were  justly  entitled.  Major  Wooten  was 
kept  in  command  of  the  brigade  sharpshooters,  and  Captain 
Poisson  paroled  the  regiment,  as  its  commanding  officer. 

I  append  a  roster  of  those  who  were  present,  and  surren- 
dered at  Appomattox : 

Field  and  Staff — Major  Thomas  J.  Wooten,  Adjutant 
Wm.  H.  McLaurin,  Surgeon  Thomas  B.  Lane,  Assistant  Sur- 
geon Simpson  Russ.  ISTon-Commissioned  Staff,  Ordnance 
Sergeant,  Chas.  Flanner. 

Company  A — Captain  B.  F.  Rinaldi,  Sergeants  M.  N. 
Tatum,  Wm.  Howard,  and  Privates  Henry  Howard,  F.  How- 
ard, John  Johnson,  B.  D.  Lindsey,  G.  W.  McDonald. 

Company  B — Lieutenant  R.  M.  Lesesne,  Sergeant  D. 
Storm,  Corporal  S.  Singleterry,  Privates  W.  C.  Bray,  E. 
Austin,  John  Meares. 

Company  C — Lieutenant  Owen  Smith,  Musician  G.  W. 
Sherrill,  and  Privates  D.  R.  Best,  Dan  Green,  D.  Klutts. 

Company  D — Orderly  Sergeant  A.  E.  Floyd,  Corporal  J. 

64  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

P.  Inman,  and  Privates  A.  N.  Prophet,  K.  Lovett,  A.  J. 
Thompson,  Zack  Clewis. 

Company  E — Second  Lieutenant  W.  N.  Fetter,  Musician 
H.  M.  Woodcock,  and  Privates  S.  B.  Costin,  H.  Moore,  C. 
"BarnhiU,  J.  B.  Wall,  L.  B.  Wall,  T.  E.  Colvin. 

Company  P — Sergeant  A.  E.  Smith,  Corporal  J.  A.  Pat- 
terson, and  Privates  W.  W.  BuUard,  W.  C.  Daves,  J.  A.  Cal- 
der,  A.  A.  Huckabee,  M.  G.  McKoy,  James  Nolan,  N.  McN. 
Patterson,  A.  D.  Webb. 

Company  G — Captain  John  J.  Poisson,  Second  Lieuten- 
ant J.  M.  Whitted,  Sergeant  Jas.  R.  Dancey,  Corporal  J.  W. 
Gordon,  Musician  J.  J.  Leslie,  and  Privates  J.  F.  Adams,  P. 
Dickson,  E.  H.  Hall,  C.  J.  Sasser,  P.  T.  Smith. 

Company  H — Second  Lieutenant  Alex.  Lewis,  Sergeant 

C.  M.  Baldwin,  Corporal  H.  C.  Long,  and  Privates  John 
E.  Baldwin,  J.  J.  Chancy,  John  Creech,  J.  E.  Jackson,  A. 
Minton,  W.  Nance,  E.  H.  Price,  John  Safrit,  J.  W.  Yelton, 
Hospital  Steward  Wiley  A.  Cornish. 

Company  I — Sergeants  S.  W.  Wells,  J.  H.  Brown,  Cor- 
poral J.  J.  F.  Heath,  and  Privates  John  Case,  Daniel  Brin- 
dle,  L.  H.  Horn,  D.  S.  Latta,  S.  Bell,  H.  Hayne,  H.  A.  Hall, 

D.  Y.  Eussell  and  E.  B.  Banks. 

Company  K — First  Lieutenant  E.  N.  Eobeson,  Sergeants 
S.  N.  Eichardson,  W.  H.  King,  A.  McNeill,  Corporals  J.  A. 
Cromartie,  D.  M.  Sutton,  and  Privates  W.  N.  Anderson, 
Jesse  F.  Bloodworth,  S.  T.  Buie,  J.  C.  Kinlaw,  W.  Melvin, 
D.  Murphy,  N.  Sikes  and  John  Dunham. 
We  prize  our  parole  as  a  badge  of  honor. 

Wm.  H.  McLauein, 
Adjutant  Eighteenth  N.  C.  T. 
Laueinburg,  N.  C.  , 

9  April,  1901. 


Lawrence  Stewart,  1st  Lieut.,  Co.  F.       2.    J.  D.  Cnrrie,  2d  Lieut.,  Co,  K, 
3.    John  Walter  Stewart,  3d  Lieut.,  Co.  F, 


By  THOMAS  H.  SUTTON,  Phivatb,  Company  I. 

This  regiment  was  a  part  of  the  brigade  of  General  Branch, 
of  Raleigh,  a  brave  and  gallant  officer,  who,  after  many  times 
leading  his  brigade  to  victory  in  bloody  and  hard  fought  bat- 
tles, fell  at  Sharpsburg  with  his  face  to  the  foe,  sword  in 
hand.  After  this,  and  to  the  final  end,  the  brigade  to  which 
the  Eighteenth  ]^.  C.  belonged,  was  known  as  "Lane's" — 
Colonel  James  H.  Lane,  of  the  Twenty-eighth  N.  C,  suc- 
ceeding to  the  command  upon  the  death  of  General  Branch. 

This  brigade  was  composed  of  the  Seventh,  Eighteenth, 
Twenty-eighth,  Thirty-third  and  Thirty-seventh — all  N"orth 
Carolina  regiments — whose  history,  was  a  part  of  that  of  the 
Army  of  Northern  Virginia,  to  which  it  belonged. 

The  Eighteenth  'N.  C.  was  one  of  the  best  regiments  in  the 
Confederate  service. 

It  was  composed  of  ten  companies,  each  one  with  a  full 
quota  of  men — some  companies,  at  the  beginning,  having 
over  one  hundred,  viz : 

CoMPANT  A,  The  German  Volunteers,  of  Wilmington, 
K   C. 

Company  B,  The  Bladen  Light  Infantry,  of  Bladen 

Company  C,  The  Columbus  Guards,  from  Columbus 

Company  D,  The  Robeson  Light  Infantry,  from  Robeson 

Company  E,  The  Moore's  Creek  Riflemen,  from  ISTew 
Hanover  County. 

Company  F,  The  Scotch  Boys,  from  Richmond  County. 


66  North  Cakolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

Company  G,  The  Wilmingtoii  Light  Infantry,  from  Wil- 
mington, N.  C. 

Company  H,  The  Columbus  Vigilants,  from  Columbus 

Company  I,  The  Wilmington  Eifle  Guards,  from  Wil- 
mington, N.  C. 

Company  K,  The  Bladen  Guards,  from  Bladen  County, 
N.   C. 

■  Thus,  it  will  be  seen,  that  Bladen  County  furnished  two, 
Columbus  two,  Eichmond  one,  Eobeson  one,  and  New  Han- 
over County  four,  three  of  which  were  from  Wilmington. 

The  brigade  was  organized  at  Kinston,  IST.  C,  after  wnicJi, 
in  the  Spring  of  1862,  they  were  ordered  to  join  the  com- 
mand of  General  (Stonewall)  Jackson  who  was  then  "oper- 
ating" upon  Banks,  Shields,  Milroy,  et  at.,  in  his  historic 
and  ever  memorable  campaign  in  the  "Valley  of  Virginia.  We 
were  sent  by  rail  to  Gordonsville,  Va.,  and  froim  thence  took 
up  our  line  of  march  towards  General  Jackson's  command, 
and  while  thus  marching  and  some  distance  beyond  a  place' 
called  Tripperville  (if  my  memory  serves  me  right)  a  moun- 
tain village  in  Western  Virginia,  we  turned  back  upon  the 
line  of  our  march,  and  for  ten  days  covered  an  average 
distance  of  thirty  miles  each  day,  until  at  Hanover  Couj't 
House  (called  by  the  Federals  "Slash  Church")  we  encoun- 
tered the  heavy  division  of  Fitz-John  Porter,  said  to  num- 
ber twenty  thousand  men. 

Here  we  "fleshed  our  maiden  sword,"  for  it  was  our  first 
battle,  and  a  fierce  and  bloody  one  it  was.  Colonel  Lane's 
Twenty-eighth  Eegiment  was  by  some  means  detached  from 
us,  and  from  1  o'clock  until  nearly  dark,  with  only  four  regi- 
ments, we  held  this  tremendous  force  at  bay,  and  then  re- 
treated to  Ashland  in  the  direction  of  Eichmond,  where 
General  Joe  Johnston  was  facing  McClellan's  splendid  army. 
The  Eighteenth  Eegiment  lost  in  this  engagement,  in  killed, 
wounded,  missing  and  prisoners,  fully  two  hundred  men. 

From  Ashland  we  marched  to  a  place  called  "Chamber- 
lain's Hill,"  almost  in  full  view  of  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines, 
which  was  the  great  preliminary  skirmish  to  the  seven  days' 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  67 

fight,  which  was  destined,  under  the  leadership  of  Lee  and 
Jackson,  (General  Joe  Johnston  having  been  wounded  at  the 
Seven  Pines  fight)  to  rid  our  Capital  City  of  the  presence  of 
the  enemy,  then  within  sound  of  the  chimes  of  its  church 

No  one  of  us  knew  why  we  had  been  detached  from  the 
command  of  General  Jackson  in  the  valley,  so  thoroughly  did 
he  keep  his  own  counsel,  who,  while  we  were  marching  to- 
wards Hanover  Court  House  was,  with  his  main  command, 
silently  and  swiftly  moving  towards  a  common  place  of  meet- 
ing, mapped  out  by  his  busy  and  active  brain. 

Shortly  after  the  Seven  Pines  fight,  we  joined  the  main 
body  of  General  Jackson's  command  (who,  up  to  that  time 
we  supposed,  were  in  the  Valley  where  we  had  left  them)  at 
the  bridge  crossing  the  Chickahominy  river,  near  Mechanics- 
ville,  when,  soon  after,  the  memorable  "seven  days"  battle 
around  Richmond  was  begun  and  fought  to  a  successful 
finish.  It  was  here  that  the  splendid  genius  of  Stonewall 
Jaclcson  was  displayed  in  all  its  grandeur.  Crossing  the 
Chickahominy  river  at  or  near  Mechanicsville  with  his  corps, 
he  opened  the  fight  by  attacking  Siegel's  corps  of  the  Federal 
arniy  in  the  rear,  and  drove  them  back  in  the  early  day- 
light, throwing  them  into  the  greatest  consternation 
and  panic.  Upon  the  opening  of  Jackson's  men  in  the 
rear,  the  main  army  under  General  Lee  advanced  in  front, 
and  from  thence  on,  for  seven  days,  day  after  day,  the  Eigh- 
teenth N.  C.  Regiment  as  a  part  of  Jackson's  corps,  A.  IST.  V., 
drove  the  enemy,  defeating  General  McClellan  with  his  splen- 
didly equipped  army  until  they  were  compelled  to  take  shel- 
ter under  the  guns  of  their  James  river  fleet. 

It  was  reported  that  at  the  close  of  this  series  of  splendid 
victories.  General  Jackson  said:  "This  is  our  opportunity, 
let  us  on  to  Washington,  and  there  dictate  terms  of  peace  and 
close  the  war." 

But  if  he  did  say  these  words,  the  fates  decreed  otherwise. 
We  did  not  go  to  Washington  but  we  did  rid  Richmond,  our 
capital,  from  the  presence  of  the  enemy,  threatening  its  de- 
struction. There  were  many  incidents,  many  escapes,  many 
adventures  that  happened  here,  in  and  around  the  seven  days' 

68  North  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

fight,  that  might  be  related,  if  time  and  space  did  not  forbid. 

Our  brigade  camped  at  a  place  near  Eichmond,  after  the 
seven  days'  fight,  called  "Howard's  Grove,"  and  after  rest- 
ing a  few  days  commenced  our  march  towards  Gordonsville, 
and  on  9  August,  1862,  fell  in  with  the  enemy  at  Cedar 
Eun,  where  we  were  immediately  put  under  fire,  and 
had  a  hot  time  in  more  ways  than  one.  It  was  here  that  we 
filled  the  "gap"  made  vacant  by  the  falling  back  of  the  cele- 
brated "Stonewall  Brigade"  and  held  it  to  the  end,  driving 
the  enemy  and  making  ourselves  masters  of  the  field. 

After  this  fight  and  victory  General  Jackson  rode  out  in 
front  of  our  brigade  and  "dropped"  his  hat  in  silent  acknowl- 
edgment  of  our  deed,  in  holding  an  important  point,  which 
the  old  "Stonewall  Brigade"  had  failed  to  do — and  by  special 
order  from  corps  headquarters  a  handsome  compliment  was 
paid  to  the  "gallant  soldiers  of  Branch's  brigade."  The  night 
following  while  resting  upon  our  arms,  a  staff  officer  rode  up 
to  General  Branch  and  asked  hita  "how  he  felt,"  to  which 
General  Branch  replied  that  "he  was  delighted  vdth  the  re- 
sults of  the  day  and  was  proud  of  the  manner  in  which  his 
brigade  had  acted."  Our  loss  was  comparatively  light  con- 
sidering the  deadly  work  in  which  we  were  engaged,  but  we 
left  some  noble  and  true  men  on  that  field,  which  served  to 
remind  us  that  in  the  next  battle  we  fought  it  might  be  our  lot 
to  fill  a  soldier's  grave.  From  Cedar  Run  we  marched  to 
Warrenton  Springs,  where  it  was  rumored  General  Lee  would 
cross  the  river.  The  enemy  were  in  full  force  on  the  other 
side,  for  they  "shelled  the  woods"  where  we  were  all  day,  and 
we  felt  that  "something  was  up"  or  would  be  soon. 

Late  in  the  afternoon  of  the  next  day,  we  were  on  the 
march,  with  Jackson's  corps,  to  which  we  were  now  perma- 
nently attached,  for  what  point  we  knew  not,  for  it  was  "Jack- 
son's way"  to  keep  his  movements  a  profound  secret,  but  after 
a  long  forced  march  and  before  we  were  aware  of  it,  we  were 
in  possession  of  immense  stores  of  great  value,  captured  from 
the  enemy  at  Manassas  Junction,  our  rear  fighting  the  ad- 
vance guard  of  the  enemy,  so  close  to  the  army  supply  train 
of  the  foe  as  to  make  it  uncomfortable  as  well  as  "unhealthy" 
to  those  of  us  who,  by  religious  training,  if.  any  there  were. 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  69 

might  be  indisposed  to  shed  human  blood.  The  Eighteenth 
North  Carolina  under  Colonel  Thos.  J.  Purdie,  of  Bladen 
County,  a  gallant  soul,  was  detailed  to  guard  the  train.  We 
were  told  that  the  train  was  to  be  fired,  and  a  tacit  consent 
was  given  us  to  replenish  our  empty  haversacks.  The  con- 
tents of  several  cars  were  distributed  and  the  residue  burned. 
Some  of  our  men  secured  a  very  fine  saddle  for  Colonel  Pur- 
die, of  the  Eighteenth,  which  was  intended  for  the  Dutch 
General  Siegel,  sent  him  by  his  friends  and  admirers,  but  a 
nobler  man  than  he  for  whom  it  was  intended,  bestrode  it, 
and  the  saddle  is  now,  or  was  a  few  years  since,  in  the  posses- 
sion of  the  Purdie  family  of  Bladen,  treasured  as  a  precious 
relic  and  memento  of  Colonel  Thomas  J.  Purdie,  as  noble 
a  man  and  gallant  a  soldier  as  ever  faced  a  foe,  and  who  in  a 
short  while,  following  the  events  here  narrated,  fell  while 
gallantly  leading  his  regiment  to  victory. 

We  left  Manassas  Junction  about  dark  and  rested  a  few 
hours  the  next  day  at  Centreville,  where  some  works  had 
been  thrown  up  at  the  conunencement  of  the  war,  and  that 
evening,  which  I  think  was  2Y  August,  we  commenced 
the  "big"  Manassas  battle,  which  lasted  until  the 
night  following  the  29th.  Here  were  more  of  the  enemy 
killed  than  at  any  other  fight  or  on  any  one  field — certainly 
in  our  front,  during  the  entire  war.  The  enemy  began  to 
fall  back  the  last  day  of  the  fight ;  it  was  a  most  disastrous  and 
complete  rout.  Here  we  had  to  contend  with  McClellan's 
army,  that  we  had  fought  around  Eichmond  and  the  Valley 
forces,  all  combined.  The  pursuit  was  kept  up  all  day  Sun- 
day and  the  day  following,  when  they  were  overtaken  at  Ox 
Hill,  when  we  had  a  -fight  of  four  or  five  hours,  in  an  almost 
continuous  rain ;  but  we  again  repulsed  the  enemy  and  drove 
them  before  us,  thus  again  acknowledging  the  prowess  of 
Branch's  brigade,  which  for  a  great  part  was  composed  of  the 
"fiower  of  the  Cape  Fear  section."  That  night  the  enemy 
vacated  our  front,  and  in  a  few  days  we  resumed  our  march, 
crossing  the  Potomac  at  the  "Point  of  Eocks,"  and  we  were 
told  that  we  were  in  "Maryland,  my  Maryland."  The  Con- 
federate soldier  will  always  remember  the  beauty  of  the  fair, 
noble  women  and  the  brave  chivalric  men  of  Maryland.     The 

70  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

great  heart  of  her  people  was  with  us,  and  we  knew  it,  but 
they  were  in  fetters,  bound  hand  and  foot.  We  camped  near 
Frederick  City,  for  a  few  days.  This  is  the  place  made  fa- 
mous by  the  touching  poem  of  John  Greenleaf  Whittier, 
called  Barbara  Freitchie,  who,  as  the  poet  has  it,  was  an  old 
grey-haired  woman,  who  in  her  attic  window  waved  the 
Union  flag  at  the  Confederates,  and  was  shot  at  by  them,  until 
stopped  by  General  Jackson.  There  is  not  a  word  of  truth  in 
this  tale — no  Confederate  soldier  can  be  found,  or  named, 
living  or  dead,  who  ever  knowingly  fired  at  a  woman ;  and  I 
have  it  from  a  gentleman  who  lived  in  Frederick  City  at  the 
time  Jackson's  men  passed  through,  who  says  our  march  did 
not  carry  us  within  three  or  four  blocks  of  the  house  where 
Barbara  lived — that  no  such  thing  was  heard  of  as  related  by 
Mr.  Whittier  and  no  such  thing  happened.  This  gentleman, 
my  informant,  is  a  native  of  Maryland,  and  lived  in  Fred- 
erick City  during  the  war  and  since,  and  has  held  high  office 
under  the  State  Government  of  Maryland.  I  met  him  in 
Washington  a  few  years  since  and  he  confirmed  my  belief 
respecting  the  "facts"  as  given  by  the  poet,  that  it  was  a 
myth,  a  pure  invention  of  the  imaginative  mind  of  the  poet. 
The  only  real  fact  in  the  poem,  is  that  there  was  a  woman 
named  Barbara  Freitchie,  living  in  Frederick  City  at  the 
time  Jackson  passed  through.     But  I  must  proceed. 

We  again  marched  through  Frederick  City,  re-crossed  the 
Potomac  at  Williamsport,  and  were  back  in  Virginia,  and 
"hovering  with  stealthy  steps"  (as  was  Jackson's  way) 
around  Harpers  Ferry.  Here  we  operated  several  days, 
climbing  precipitous  mountains  trying  to  get  into  position. 
We  had  literally  to  pull  ourselves  up  by  bushes,  roots,  or  any- 
thing projecting  from  the  mountain  sides,  some  of  us  actually 
having  to  brace  ourselves  against  trees,  so  as  to  hold  our  guns 
in  position  and  ready  to  fire  at  the  word  given.  Early  the 
next  morning  the  artillery  opened  on  the  enemy,  receiving  a 
very  weak  reply,  and  in  a  short  time  the  white  emblem  of  sur- 
render went  up  and  "the  boys  in  blue"  walked  out  and  stacked 
their  arms. 

Here  again  we  captured  valuable  stores  of  immense  value, 
and  thousands  of  stand  of  arms,  and  eleven  thousand  pris- 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  71 

oners,  according  to  the  figures  published.  Here  again  "Old 
Stonewall"  left  his  "book  mark"  with  the  enemy,  as  a  gen- 
tle reminder  that  he  and  his  corps  were  around,  and  requested 
a  generous  ( ?)  remembrance  by  the  Federal  Government  at 

After  being  supplied  with  Enfield  rifles — of  which  we 
stood  in  great  need — we  crossed  the  Potomac  again,  and  for 
the  second  time  were  in  Maryland,  and  we  were  soon  in  the 
Sharpsburg  fight  (called  by  the  Federals,  Antietam).  This 
was  what  might  be  called  a  "draw  fight,"  and  it  was  here 
that  our  brigade  commander,  the  noble  and  chivalrous  Branch 
yielded  up  his  life  as  a  holocaust  to  his  country's  need !  "ISTo 
country  ever  had  a  truer  son,  no  cause  a  nobler  champion, 
no  principle  a  bolder  defender"  than  the  noble  and  gallant 
soldier,  General  Lawrence  O'Brien  Branch ! 

After  quitting  the  field  at  Sharpsburg,  we  crossed  the  Po- 
tomac again  at  Shepherdstown,  took  again  to  the  Old  Domin- 
ion. The  winter  was  coming  on.  The  chill  blasts  from  the 
North  were  beginning  to  tell  heavily  upon  the  exhausted 
frames  and  shattered  energies  of  our  men,  all  of  whom  were 
unused  to  such  rough  lives,  and  we  did  hope  for  a  rest  in  win- 
ter quarters,  where,  for  a  while  at  least,  we  might  sleep  and 
dream  of  home  and  comforts,  without  the  thought  of  war  with 
its  dreadful  realities. 

But  vain  hope !  Taking  up  our  march  on  the  Shepherds- 
town  road,  we  soon  knew  that  we  were  approaching  the  enemy 
by  the  skirmishing  in  our  front.  We  formed  line  of  battle 
and  drove  the  enemy  into  the  river,  despite  the  heavy  guns 
that  had  been  planted  on  the  Maryland  side  to  protect  them. 
We  lay  that  day  on  the  river  bank  iinder  a  heavy  fire  from  the 
enemy's  guns  of  grape,  canister  and  shell. 

Our  regilment  camped  near  Berryville  and  were  called  out 
several  times  to  meet  the  enemy  at  Snicker's  Gap,  but  never 
engaged  them  there.  We  then  marched  up  the  Valley  pike, 
crossing  the  Blue  Ridge  at  New  Market  Gap,  and  camped 
near  Fredericksburg.  The  enemy  crossed  the  Rappahan- 
nock and.  we  were  ordered  to  meet  them.  0^^r  brigade  (now 
Lane's)  were  not  in  front  of  the  city,  but  almost  the  ex- 
treme right  of  Lee's  army.     We  formed  line  of  battle  at  the 

72  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

railroad  on  13  December,  ■  1862,  soon  after  which  our 
skirmish  line  came  in  and  the  enemy  developed  in  great 
numbers  and  swept  us  from  our  position  at  the  railroad.  We 
soon  rallied  and  swept  on  to  the  railroad  again,  the  Eigh- 
teenth and  Seventh  Eegisments  of  our  brigade  not  stopping  at 
the  railroad,  but  going  on  to  the  hill  beyond,  on  the  top  of 
which  we  were  in  full  view  of  the  enemy,  killing  a  great 
many  and  losing  some  of  our  best  men,  as  an  offset  for  our 
daring  charge.  From  that  time  on,  the  fight  was  not  heavy 
in  our  front,  but  was  in  front  of  the  city.  The  night  the 
enemy  re-crossed  the  river,  a  general  charge  had  been  ordered 
all  along  the  line,  but  was  countermanded  by  General  Lee. 
Then  the  campaign  of  1862  ended  with  the  victory  at  Fred- 
ericksburg. We  went  into  winter  quarters  on  the  Rappahan- 
nock near  Moss  ISTeck  church,  at  Camp  Gregg,  named  for 
that  general  who  was  killed  at  Fredericksburg.  Here  Gen- 
eral Lane  was  presented  with  a  fine  saddle  and  bridle  by  the 
field  officers  in  token  of  their  appreciation  of  his  merits. 
Under  an  act  of  the  Confederate  Congress  a  medal  was  to  be 
given  to  the  man  who  was  voted  by  his  comrades  as  the 
bravest  and  best  soldier.  The  company  to  which  Jesse  F. 
Bloodworth  (Company  K,  Eighteenth  IST.  0.)  belonged, 
without  a  dissenting  voice,  decided  for  him,  and  although 
the  medal  never  came,  yet  not  one  of  Napoleon's  old  guard, 
could  have  more  richly  deserved,  nor  more  worthily  won  it. 

The  campaign  of  1863  soon  opened  and  we  had  to  aban- 
don our  comfortable  quarters  at  Camp  Gregg.  A  slight 
brush  at  the  "Wilderness"  was  the  opening  prelude  to  that 
ever  memorable  campaign.  With  Jackson  we  took  part  in 
the  flank  movement  around  to  Chancellorsville.  The  enemy 
were  completely  surprised  (for  this  was  Jackson's  way)  in 
an  old  field  where  a  part  of  their  forces  were  camped.  They 
left  their  coffee  on  the  fire  and  "stood  not  upon  the  order  of 
their  going."  We  marched  some  distance  and  filed  left  into 
a  woodland  and  formed  line  of  battle  about  dark 
Avith  our  right  resting  on  the  plank  road.  The  Eigh- 
teenth was  the  left  regiment,  and  the  Fiftieth  ,  Virginia 
was  upon  our  left.  It  was  now  Avell  dark;  our  skirmishers 
had  gone  forward.     In  a  few  moments  Generals  Jackson  and 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  73 

A.  P.  Hill  came  riding  down  the  plank  road  from  the  front, 
with  a  good  many  staff  officers  and  couriers  whose  appearance 
in  the  gloom  (we  did  not  then  know  who  they  were)  was  well 
calculated  to  create  the  impression  that  the  enemy's  cavalry 
were  advancing.  This  party  wheeled  into  the  woods  exactly 
in  front  of  the  Eighteenth  North  Carolina  Regiment.  Our 
men  having  seen  the  skirmishers  go  forward,  besides  knowing 
that  we  had  no  friends  in  that  direction,  reasonably  concluded 
that  it  was  the  enemy  coming  down  upon  us.  At  this  mo- 
ment some  over-excited  man  in  the  line  shouted  "Cavalry," 
whereupon  the  Eighteenth  Regiment  opened  fire.  The  Fif- 
tieth Virginia  Regiment  also  opened  fire,  and  General  Jack- 
son— the  immortal  "Stonewall" — received  his  mortal  wound 
at  the  hands  of  those  who  loved  him  more  than  life,  any  one 
of  whom  would  have  risked  and  if  need  be,  sacrificed  his  own 
life  to  save  that  of  his  beloved  general. 

He  was  to  the  Army  of  JSTorthern  Virginia  what  ISTey  was 
to  Napoleon,  its  very  strong  right  arm,  and  yet  by  the  in- 
exorable decree  of  fate  it  was  reserved  for  the  Eigh- 
teenth Regiment  of  North  Carolina,  in  the  discharge 
of  a  supposed  duty,  to  deprive  the  Southern  Army  of  its 
chief  pillar  of  support,  its  most  brilliant,  matchless  and 
greatest  soldier.  In  addition  to  the  firing  from  our  ranks  the 
enemy's  artillery  also  opened  upon  us,  from  which  it  is  sup- 
posed' General  Jackson  received  other  wounds  while  being 
borne  from  the  field. 

We  moved  to  the  right  of  the  plank  road,  when  during  the 
night  we  repulsed  a  heavy  charge  of  the  enemy.  The  next 
day  (Sunday)  the  fight  was  renewed  by  our  brigade  charging 
the  enemy's  works,  defended  by  about  forty  pieces  of  artillery 
heavily  supported.  Three  times  we  charged,  and  finally  cap- 
tured the  works.  Our  regiment  lost  heavily.  General  A.  P. 
Hill  having  been  wounded  the  night  previous,  our  corps  was 
commanded  by  General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart.  Here  the  gallant 
Colonel  Thos."  J.  Purdie,  of  Bladen  County,  Colonel  of  the 
Eighteenth  North  Carolina  Regiment,  fell  while  gallantly 
leading  his  men.  After  this  battle  we  returned  to  Camp 
Gregg,  where  a  change  of  field  officers  was  had.  Major  Jno. 
D.  Barry,  of  Wilmington,  was  made  Colonel,  vice  Purdie, 

74  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

killed ;  Captain  Jno.  W.  McGrill,  vice  Lieutenant-Colonel  F. 
George,  elected  to  the  Legislature  from  Columbus  County, 
and  Captain  Thos.  J.  Wooten  to  be  Major,  vice  Barry,  pro- 
moted. We  bade  farewell  to  Camp  Gregg,  and  crossing  the 
Potomac  again  at  Shepherdstown,  camped  that  night. 

Taking  up  our  line  of  march  again,  we  were  in  Petmsylva- 
nia,  going  towards  Gettysburg,  when  the  "dogs  of  war"  were 
again  unloosed  with  redoubled  fury. 

The  first  day's  fight  at  Gettysburg,  we  drove  the  enemy 
some  distance  and  halted  on  a  ridge,  and  lay  on  our  arms  that 
night,  and  held  this  ridge  until  the  third  day's  fight.  That 
day  we  were  in  position  supporting  our  artillery,  and  under 
the  heaviest  fire  of  the  enemy's  field  artillery  that  our  brigade 
ever  experienced  during  the  entire  war. 

Suddenly  the  enemy's  artillery  ceased  and  we  were  ordered 
forward  to  charge  the  heights  occupied  by  the  enemy's  artil- 
lery and  infantry.  We  faced  the  storm  of  death-dealing 
grape,  shell  and  canister  shot,  and  an  incessant  shower  of 
musketry,  a  long  distance  in  an  open  field,  all  the  way,  and 
reaching  the  heights  only  to  find  that  we  were  flanked  by  the 
enemy  and  unsupported  by  our  own  troops,  we  were  com.- 
pelled  to  fall  back,  leaving  many  of  our  best  and  bravest  men 
dead  and  dying  on  this  bloody  and  sanguinary  field.  After 
remaining  in  line  f(?r  a  day  we  commenced  our  retreat  to 
Hagerstown,  where  General  Lee  offered  the  enemy  battle  on 
equal  terms,  which  they  declined.  We  left  Hagerstown  in  a 
hard  rain,  marching  over  a  miserable  road  for  Falling 
Waters,  and  about  sunrise  the  next  morning,  after  an  all 
night's  march,  reached  the  old  Potomac  river  again.  Cross- 
ing the  Potomac  we  were  on  Virginia  soil  again,  and  with  a 
slight  brush  at  Mine  Run  ended  the  campaign  of  1863. 

General  Grant  had  taken  command  of  the  Federal  forces  in 
the  Spring  of  1864,  and  crossed  the  river  to  meet  us  at  the 
Wilderness.  Here  this  battle  commenced  early  in  the  after- 
noon, severe  fighting  going  on  contimiously  until  dark.  We 
drove  the  enemy  back — every  charge  they  made.  During  the 
night  following,  however,  by  some  fatal  oversight,  or  unpar- 
donable negligence  of  some  of  our  generals,  our  forces  were 
hiiddled  together  in  the  utmost  confusion,  "cross  and  pile," 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  75 

with  no  line  formed,  so  that  at  daylight,  the  enemy  making 
a  desperate  charge,  we  came  very  near  being  utterly  routed, 
and  would  have  been  but  for  the  timely  appearance  of  some 
fresh  troops.  Our  brigade  rallied  and  drove  the  enemy 
back,  the  battle  ended  with  victory  for  the  Southern  cause. 

Then  commenced  our  roundabout  march  to  Petersburg. 
On  12  May,  1864,  we  met  the  enemy  at  Spottsylvania, 
and  on  that  morning  we  were  in  the  memorable  "Horse- 
shoe" enveloped  by  a  dense  fog,  taking  advantage  of  which 
the  enemy  broke  our  line,  and  captured  many  prisoners.  But 
General  Lane,  by  his  admirable  management  of  our  brigade, 
again  drove  the  enemy  back  and  regained  our  lines.  At  this 
juncture  our  brigade  was  reinforced  by  Thomas'  Georgia  bri- 
gade, and  we  drove  the  enemy  back  across  the  works  and  into 
the  woods  beyond.  Our  brigade  was  then  moved  to  the 
right,  and  behind  hastily  improvised  works,  which  afforded 
little  or  no  protection,  we  were  exposed  to  a  galling  and  heavy 
enfilading  fire  from  six  of  the  enemy's  guns  on  his  left.  Thus 
we  remained  several  hours,  while  General  Ewell  was  being 
hard  pressed.  Later  we  were  ordered  to  take  the  enemy's 
guns,  supported  by  Mahone's  Virginia  brigade. 

We  did  capture  the  guns,  besides  took  four  hundred  and 
fifty  prisoners  and  three  stand  of  colors.  This  the  Eigh- 
teenth North  Carolina  Regiment,  with  the  brigade  to  which 
it  belonged,  did,  and  the  credit  of  the  same  was  awarded  to 
Lane's  North  Carolina  Brigade,  although  Mahone  tried  to 
claim  it.  With  the  charge  of  our  brigade  the  battle  of  Spott- 
sylvania Court  House  ended  in  another  victory  for  General 
Lee's  Army  of  Northern  Virginia. 

On  theimarch  towards  Petersburg  we  had  several  "brushes" 
with  the  enemy  at  Totopotomy  Creek,  Cold  Harbor,  Turkey 
Ridge  and  other  places,  not  now  remembered. 

At  Turkey  Ridge,  General  Lane  being  wounded,  the  com- 
mand of  the  brigade  devolved  upon  Colonel  Jno.  D.  Barry, 
of  the  Eighteenth  North  Carolina  Regiment. 

Crossing  the  James  river  at  Drewry's  Bluff,  we  were 
among  the  first  troops  to  reach  Petersburg. 

It  would  be  impossible  to  give  anything  like  an  accurate  ac- 
count of  our  every  day's  work — fighting,  marching  and  build- 

76  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

ing  works  around  Petersburg.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  the 
Eighteenth  North  Carolina  Kegiment  was  always  at  the 
front,  and  always  did  its  whole  duty.  We  were  ordered  to 
cross  the  James  river  at  Drewry's  Bluff  again,  and  on  the 
march  thither  for  the  first  time,  at  "Deep  Bottom,"  we  en- 
countered the  colored  troops,  who  first  drove  a  brigade  on  our 
right  out  of  the  works,  which  we  in  turn  retook,  and  held 
them  until  ordered  elsewhere. 

Marching  to  Petersburg  via  Drewry's  Bluff,  we  were  sta- 
tioned below  and  to  the  right  of  Battery  No.  45,  and  remained 
until  our  brigade  was  sent  to  assist  in  an  attack  on  Reams 
Station.  There  we  supported  the  brigades  of  Generals  Cooke, 
MacEae  and  others,  and  being  well  supported,  we  charged 
the  enemy's  lines,  took  nine  of  his  guns,  two  thousand  prison- 
ers, besides  wagons,  ambulances,  etc.  It  was  a  desperate 
fight,  but  the  result  added  to  the  fame  of  the  North  Carolina 
soldier,  of  which  their  descendants  may,  for  all  time  to  come, 
be  proud. 

Events  in  rapid  succession  crowded  upon  each  other.  The 
end  was  rapidly  approaching.  We  went  back  to  Battery 
No.  45. 

At  Jones'  Earm  on  30  September,  1864,  we  had  a  severe 
fight,  and  lost  from  our  regiment  some  of  its  bravest 
and  best.  Our  regiment  was  now  reduced  to  a  mere  "skele- 
ton" or  handful  of  its  former  strength.  Starting  out  with 
eleven  hundred  men,  we  were  now  reduced  to  one  hundred  or 
less.  The  death  of  every  comrade  was  now  indeed  a  serious 
loss.  Our  entire  brigade  was  hardly  now  in  numbers,  as 
much  as  half  our  original  regimental  muster  roll. 

We  remained  in  the  trenches  at  Petersburg  until  we  took 
our  last  march  in  the  Spring  following  towards  Appomattox. 
As  we  passed  through  Petersburg  the  sidewalks  of  the  city 
were  filled  with  weeping  women  and  children,  lamenting  the 
fate  which  they  knew  daylight  would  bring  upon  them.  In 
our  army  they  had  centred  their  hopes,  and  with  our  de- 
parture they  well  knew  their  last  earthly  refuge  and  hope 
were  gone,  and  for  many  days  and  nights  thereafter  the  wail- 
ings  and  lamentations  of  these  helpless  women  and  children 
rang  in  the  Southern  soldier's  ear  as  he  "plodded  his  weary 

Eighteenth  Regiment.  77 

■way"  to  the  place  where  the  Southern  flag  was  to  be  furled 
forever.  The  march  from  Petersburg  began  2  April,  and 
ended  at  Appomattox  9  April,  1865. 

Twenty-eight  thousand  bleeding,  half -starved  and  foot-sore 
soldiers  stood  there  on  that  eventful  9  April,  1865,  with 
folded  arms,  as  General  Lee  rode  down  our  lines  and  "bade  us 
adieu  forever." 

The  Eighteenth  North  Carolina  Regiment,  after  one  year's 
coast  service  in  North  Carolina,  went  to  Virginia.  Early  in 
1862  was  part  of  Branch's  Brigade,  afterwards  to  the  close  of 
the  war,  Lane's. 

After  seeing  some  service  in  the  Valley,  from  the  battle  of 
Hanover  Court  House,  (called  by  some  "Slash  Church"),  to 
the  surrender  at  Appomattox,  it  was  a  portion  of  General  Lee's 
Army  of  Northern  Virginia. 

This  regiment  fought  not  less  than  thirty-five  (35)  bat- 
tles, besides  double  that  number  of  skirmishes;  was  in  both 
the  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania  campaigns,  forded  the  Poto- 
mac five  times,  and  crossed  it  once  on  a  pontoon,  and  was  "in 
at  the  death,"  when  the  Southern  Star  of  victory  went  down 
in  a  sea  of  bloodj  in  the  gloom  of  defeat  at  Appomattox. 

Such  is  the  history,  in  brief,  of  the  Eighteenth  North 
Carolina  Regiment.  A  great  many  of  the  scenes  described 
I  have  drawn  from  data  obtained  from  comrades  years  ago. 
A  great  many  have  faded  from  my  ^memory.  Yet  while  I 
was  not  a  participant  in  all  or  indeed  in  many  of  the  battles 
and  stirring  scenes  of  those  troublous  times,  yet  I  am  sure 
this  hastily  written  sketch,  imperfect  as  it  is,  faithfully  re- 
cords the  history  of  the  Eighteenth  North  Carolina  Regi- 
ment in  the  substance  of  its  work  and  in  all  its  essential  par- 

It  is  only  intended,  as  I  understand  it,  to  furnish  data 
for  the  future  North  Carolina  historian,  when  he  comes  to  do 
his  State  justice,  by  a  faithful  and  impartial  record  of  its 
soldiers'  sufferings,  privations,  toil  and  victories,  in  that 
bloody  drama. 

If  these  lines  will  thus  aid  the  future  writer  of  the  deeds 
and  heroism  of  the  North  Carolina  soldier,  I  feel  that  the 
task  assigned  me  is  accomplished,  and  that  I  have  contributed 

78  North  Carolina  Teoops,  1861-65. 

my  part  towards  its  future  History,  even  though  hastily  and 
imperfectly  done. 

Certain  it  is,  that  North  Carolina  has  no  cause  to  feel 
ashamed  of  the  part  her  soldiers  took,  and  while  we  detract 
from  none  but  want  all  to  have  the  credit  to  which  they  are 
justly  entitled,  yet  let  justice  be  done  to  the  State  that  had 
more  soldiers  in  active  service  at  the  front,  than  there  were 
voters  in  the  entire  State. 

Thomas  H.  Sutton. 
Private  Company  I. 

Faybtteville,  N.  C, 

April  9,  1901. 


1.  Sol.  WilliamB,  Colonel.  3.    Randolph  H.  Reese,  Captain,  Co.  H. 

2.  Geo.  Pettigrew  Bi'yan,  Captain,  Co.  G.     4.    James  N.  Turner,  Captain,  Co.  D. 

5.    W.  A.  Graham,  Jr.,  Captain,  Co.  K. 


(second  cavaley.  ) 

By  W.  a.  graham,  Captain  Company  K. 

This  regiment,  with  the  first  eight  regiments  of  infantry, 
the  Ninth  ISTorth  Carolina  Regiment  (First  Cavalry),  the 
Tenth  Eegiment  (First  Artillery),  and  the  Thirty-third  Eeg- 
iment  of  infantry,  comprised  what  was  originally  kno'wn  as 
"State  Troops."  They  enlisted  "for  the  war,"  and  the  officers, 
both  regimental  and  company,  were  appointed  by  the  Gov- 
ernor. The  volunteers  enlisted  for  twelve  months  (except 
the  Bethel  Eegiment — six  months) ;  their  company  officers 
were  elected  by  the  "rank  and  file"  of  the  company ;  the  field 
officers  by  the  commissioned  officers  of  the  companies  of  the 
respective  battalions  and  regiments.  In  1862  the  right  to 
elect  company  officers  was  given  by  law  to  the  State  Troops. 
The  horses  for  the  privates  were  furnished  by  the  State  to  the 
First  and  Second  Cavalry  Eegiments.  The  regiment,  except 
Company  A,  assembled  at  Kittrell's  Springs  in  August  and 
September,  1861. 


S.  B.  Speuill,  Colonel. 

William  G.  Eobinson,  Lieutenant  Colonel. 

John  W.  Woodfin,  Major. 

GuiLFOED  Nicholson,  Adjutant. 

Capt.  John  S.  Hines^  Quartermaster. 

Capt.  John  W.  Mooee,  Commissary. 

Smith,  Surgeon. 

E.  H.  Shields,  Assistant  Surgeon. 
E.  P.TucKE,  Sergeant  Major. 

80  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Rogers;  Second  Lieutenants,  George  V.  Snider  and  W.  P. 

Company  B — Iredell  County — Captain,  C.  M.  Andrews ; 
First  Lieutenant,  S.  Jay  Andrews;  Second  Lieutenants, 
Eichard  W.  Allison  and  James  N.  Turner. 

Company  C — Gates  and  Hertford  Counties — Captain 
John  G.  Boothe ;  First  Lieutenant,  James  M.  Wynn ;  Second 
Lieutenants,  Mills  L.  Eure  and  William  P.  Eoberts. 

Company  D — Cumberland  County — Captain,  James  W. 
Strange ;  First  Lieutenant,  T.  S.  Lutterloh ;  Second  Lieuten- 
ants, Joseph  S.  Baker  and  James  F.  Williams. 

Company  E — Nash,  Wilson  and  Pranhlin  Counties — 
Captain,  Columbus  A.  Thomas ;  First  Lieutenant,  J.  J.  B. 
Vick;  Second  Lieutenants,  Nick  M.  Harris  and  Robert  W. 

Company  F — Guilford  County- — Captain  Barzillai  F. 
Cole;  First  Lieutenant,  R.  W.  King;  Second  Lieutenants, 
P.  A.  Tatum  and Nelson. 

Company  G — Beaufort  County — Captain,  Louis  E.  Sat- 
terthwaite;  First  Lieutenant,  William  Satterthwaite ;  Sec- 
ond Lieutenants,  Samuel  S.  Whitehurst  and  George  P. 

Company  H — Bertie  and  Northamipton  Counties — Cap- 
tain, John  Randolph;  First  Lieutenant,  H.  B.  Hardy;  Sec- 
ond Lieutenants,  W.  H.  Newsom  and  George  Bishop. 

Company  I — Moore  County — Captain,  Jesse  L.  Bryan; 
First  Lieutenant,  J.  L.  Arnold;  Second  Lieutenants,  D.  0. 
Bryan  and  J.  S.  Eitter. 

Company  K — Orange  County- — Captain,  Josiah  Turner, 
Jr. ;  First  Lieutenant,  William  A.  Graham,  Jr, ;  Second 
Lieutenants,  John  P.  Lockhart  and  James  V.  Moore. 

In  October  the  regiment  broke  camp.  Companies  D,  E,  F, 
I  and  K,  with  Colonel,  Major  and  Staff,  to  Hertford,  thence 
to  Edenton;  the  second  squadron  (Companies  B  and  G), 
Lieutenant-Colonel  commanding,  to  Washington,  N".  C. ;  the 
third  squadron  (Companies  C  and  H),  under  Captain 
Boothe,  to  Neuse  River,  below  ISTew  Bern.  Company  A  was 
at  Asheville. 

While  at  Edenton  there  was  mention  of  arming  the  five 

Nineteenth  Regiment.  81 

companies  there  with  muskets  and  sending  them  to  Roanoke 
Island  as  infantry,  to  remain  until  relieved  by  infantry. 
The  Colonel  favored  this,  biit  the  company  officers  objected,  as 
it  was  putting  the  men  into  a  different  service  from  that  into 
which  they  had  entered,  and  for  an  indefinite  time.  After 
several  weeks'  "jawing"  the  idea  was  abandoned.  Major 
Woodfin  commanded  the  Battalion  most  of  the  time  while  at 
Edenton,  Colonel  Spruill  being  in  attendance  upon  the  State 
(Secession)  Convention ;  of  which  he  was  a  member.  In  De- 
cember the  regiment,  except  the  second  squadron,  was  assem- 
bled at  ISTew  Bern.  Company  A  had  come  from  Asheville, 
the  fifth  squadron  (Companies  E  and  K)  received  horses 
here,  and  the  whole  regiment  was  now  mounted  but  was  not 
armed.  Governor  Clark  complained  to  the  Confederate 
Government  on  12th  March,  1862,  that  the  regiment  had  not 
been  armed,  although  it  had  been  in  service  six  months.  Win- 
ter quarters  were  built  across  the  Trent  river.  These,  on  the 
evacuation,  were  occupied  by  "runaway  negroes"  and  were 
the  beginning  of  the  present  James  City. 

The  regiment  took  part  in  the  battle  of  New  Bern,  14 
March,  1862,  Companies  A.  E  and  K  dismounted,  and  under 
command  of  Colonel  Z.  B.  Vance,  Twenty-sixth  N.  C.  T.  Af- 
ter the  battle  of  New  Bern  the  camp  was  at  "Wise's  Fork,  five 
miles  below  Kinston,  and  for  the  first  time  the  regiment  met 
as  a  whole.  It  picketed  the  roads  to  New  Bern,  the  first  via 
Tuscarora,  the  second  via  Dover  Swamp  and  the  Third  via 
Trenton  and  near  PoUocksville. 

This  was  the  severest  service  the  regiment  saw  in  its  his- 
tory. A  company  of  from  thirty  to  sixty  men  would  go 
from  twenty  to  twenty-five  miles  to  the  front,  establish  its 
picket  in  from  a  half  to  a  fourth  of  a  mile  of  those  of  the 
enemy,  who  had  a  "reserve"  of  several  thousand  a  mile  or  two 
in  their  rear,  and  General  Burnside's  whole  command  at  New 
Bern,  not  ten  miles  from  our  outpost.  For  us  there  was  no 
reinforcement,  except  a  few  "couriers,"  in  twenty  miles. 
Each  company  in  turn  had  a  picket  tour  of  about  ten  days  on 
one  of  the  roads,  and  frequently  the  horses  were  not  unsad- 
dled for  half  that  time.  It  frequently  rained  nearly  every 

82  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

day  of  the  ten.  Consequently,  three-fourths  of  the  horses 
returned  from  picket  with  sore  backs.  The  regiment  was 
armed  with  almost  every  kind  of  arms  (except  the  newest  pat- 
terns) known  to  the  warrior  or  sportsman,  and  was  never 
fully  equipped  with  arms  of  modern  warfare  until  it 
equipped  itself  with  those  furnished  by  the  United  States 
and  taken  from  its  troops  in  Virginia. 

The  writer  has  taken  Company  K  on  picket  with  thirty-five 
men,  armed  about  as  follows:  Two  Sharp's  carbines,  six 
Hall's,  five  Colts'  (six-shooters),  four  Mississippi  rifles  and 
twelve  double-barrelled  shotguns,  and  perhaps  a  half  dozen 
pairs  of  old  one-barrel  "horse  pistols."  There  was  not  ex- 
ceeding twenty  cartridge  boxes  in  the  company;  the  others 
carried  their  ammunition  (twenty  rounds)  in  the  pockets  of 
their  clothes  and  in  their  "haversacks."  Was  not  this  a  "for- 
midable array"  to  place  itself  within  ten  miles  of  the  head- 
quarters of  thirty  thousand  men  equipped  with  arms  of  mod- 
ern pattern  ?  While  the  regiment  remained  here  there  were 
nearly  every  week,  engagements  with  the  enemy,  (1)  Captain 
Strange,  Company  D,  near  "Ten  Mile"  house;  (2)  Captain 
Andrews,  Company  B,  at- Tuscarora ;  (3)  Captain  Boothe, 
Company  C,  at Mills,  in  Carteret  county ;  (4)  Lieuten- 
ant W.  P.  Roberts,  Company  C,  with  twenty-five  men  near 
Pollocksville ;  (5)  14  April,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Robinson, 
with  portions  of  Companies  D,  E,  F,  I  and  K,  at  Gillet's,  in 
Onslow  County.  The  attack  was  made  on  horseback  against 
infantry  in  house  and  in  a  lot  surrounded  by  a  "stake  and 
rider"  rail  fence  with  a  deep  ditch  on  the  outside.  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Robinson  was  wounded  and  captured.  He  never 
returned  to  the  regiment.  Captain  Turner,  Company 
K,  was  severely  wounded  and  disabled  for  further  ser- 
vice in  the  field;  (6)  13  May,  at  the  White  Church, 
near  Fescue's,  in  Jones  County,  on  the  Dover  Swamp 
road,  fourteen  miles  from  ISTew  Bern,  Lieutenant 
Rogers,  with  twenty-five  men  of  Company  A,  and  Lieuten- 
ant Graham,  with  fifteen  men  of  Company  K,  a  total  of  forty 
men,  were  attacked  by  the  Third  New  York  Cavalry,  a  six- 
gun  battery  and  two  regiments  of  infantry.  They  repelled  the 
attack  and  killed,  wounded  and  captured  nearly  as  many 

Nineteenth   Regiment.  83 

as  they  had  engaged  in  the  fight.  The  road  having  swampy 
ground  on  both  sides,  there  was  no  opportunity  for  them  to 
deploy  against  us.  Our  loss  1  killed,  6  wounded,  2  prisoners. 
The  troops  engaged  were  complimented  in  general  orders  by 
Lieutenant-General  Holmes  from  district  headquarters ;  also 
by  General  Robert  Ransom,  commanding  post.  Colonel 
Spruill  resigned  in  April.  Matthew  L.  Davis,  who  was  com- 
missioned to  succeed  him,  died  in  Goldsboro  en  route  to  the 
regiment.  Colonel  Sol.  Williams  was  transferred  from 
the  Twelfth  Infantry  to  the  Second  Cavalry  5  June,  1862. 
His  Adjutant,  Lieutenant  John  C.  Pegram  came  with  him. 
Adjutant  Nicholson  became  Lieutenant  of  Company  A. 


On  4  July,  1862,  as  First  Lieutenant  Company  K,  I  was 
in  command  of  the  picket  on  the  Dover  Swamp  road  from 
Kinston  to  New  Bern  with  headquarters  at  the  Merritt  House 
and  our  outpost  at  the  Ten-Mile  House.  About  11  o'clock 
a.  m..  Colonel  W.  F.  Martin,  Seventeenth  North  Carolina 
Troops,  and  Captain  Theodore  J.  Hughes,  formerly  Commis- 
sary of  the  regiment  and  afterwards  Purser  of  the  "Ad- 
Vance"  during  most  of  her  life  as  a  blockade-runner,  arrived, 
carrying  communications  imder  "flag  of  truce"  to  General 
Burnside,  commanding  the  United  States  forces  at  New 
Bern.  I  requested  Colonel  Martin  to  procure  for  me  per- 
mission to  accompany  them,  and  with  this  expectation  took 
command  of  the  escort.  I  prepared  my  toilet  by  taking  off 
my  coat  and  pants  and  whipping  them  around  a  sapling  to 
get  the  dust  out  and  with  a  corn  cob  and  spittle,  endeavored 
to  "shine"  my  boots.  After  dinner  (about  12:30  p.  m.)  we 
started ;  a  Corporal  and  two  men  with  a  white  handkerchief 
on  a  pole  as  the  "flag  of  truce"  going  about  three  hundred 
yards  in  front,  the  escort — about  fifteen  men- — and  the  mes- 
sengers following.  The  advance  was  halted  at  Deep  Gully, 
nine  and  a  half  miles  from  New  Bern,  by  the  Federal  out- 
post. This  was  the  week  of  the  "Seven  Days'  Fights"  around 
Richmond.  We  received  our  mail  for  the  week  by  Colonel 
Martin,  containing  papers  giving  accounts  of  the  battles; 

84  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

which,  it  will  be  remembered,  were  all  in  our  favor.  Colonel 
Martin  had  brought  several  copies  with  him  and  we  gathered 
what  we  could  before  starting,  to  carry  the  good  news  with  us. 
"We  distributed  them  among  the  officers  and  spoke  of  any  par- 
ticularly favorable  item  in  the  papers.  After  a  halt  of  half  an 
hour  we  mounted  an  ambulance  and  Colonel  Mix,  who  was 
to  accompany  us,  informed  us  that  his  orders  were  for  us 
to  travel  blind-folded  and  requested  us  to  tie  our  handker- 
chiefs over  our  eyes.  Colonel  Martin  remarked  that  he  pre- 
ferred for  Colonel  Mix  to  tie  his  as  it  might  come  off  at 
some  time  when  not  desired  and  have  the  appearance  of  his 
acting  in  bad  faith.  Captain  Hughes  and  I  also  adopted  the 
same  view,  and  Colonel  Mix  tied  all  our  handkerchiefs. 

A  drive  of  an  hour  landed  us  at  General  Burnside's  head- 
quarters. It  was  now  about  half  past  4  o'clock.  General 
Burnside,  after  reading  papers  brought  by  Colonel  Martin, 
asked  if  we  had  any  newspapers.  We  told  him  we 
had  given  them  out  at  Colonel  Mix's  headquarters. 
Colonel  Mix  afterwards  came  in  and  General  Burnside 
said  to  him  he  understood  he  had  some  late  papers.  Colonel 
Mix  said  "Yes,"  and  hfe  would  send  them  in.  General  Bum- 
side  made  some  remark  about  not  caring  particularly  about 
it ;  which  was  but  a  poor  attempt  to  conceal  his  desire  to  have 
them  speedily. 

General  Burnside  apologized  to  lis  for  our  blindfold  ride. 
He  said:  "General  Foster  was  temporarily  in  command  and 
it  was  by  his  orders ;  that  he  never  required  it.  If  any  one 
thought  he  was  ready  to  attack  him  after  being  in  his  lines  he 
was  welcome  to  come  on  and  try  it." 

The  true  condition  of  matters  was  that  General  Burnside 
had  been  ordered,  with  Generals  Parke  and  Reno,  to  rein- 
force ilcClellan  in  "Virginia.  Several  regiments,  arriving 
from  Morehead  City  during  the  afternoon,  were  marched  by 
in  order  to  make  the  impression  on  us  that  the  troops  at  ISTew 
Bern  were  being  reinforced.  I  was  surprised  to  see  a  good 
many  white  straw  hats  worn  by  the  men.  General  Burnside 
remarked  to  General  Foster,  as  a  regiment  passed,  that  he 
would  "make  those  fellows  throw  away  those  straw  hats," 
which  Foster  said  he  would  do.     The  generals  were  not  as 

Nineteenth  Regiment.  85 

courteous  to  us  as  the  officers  of  lesser  grade  had  been.  They 
seemed  to  be  in  bad  humor.  They  had  heard  from  Richmond 
and  other  news  may  have  accounted  for  it. 

Sahites  on  the  Fourth  of  July  were  being  fired  frequently. 
General  Burnside  remarked  to  me :  "I  suppose  you  people  do 
not  bum  any  powder  on  the  Fourth  of  July?"  I  replied: 
"No,  we  save  it  to  burn  on  those  who  are  attempting  to  de- 
prive us  of  the  privileges  of  the  Fourth  of  July." 

He  remarked  to  Colonel  Martin,  that  he  "had  just  returned 
from  a  trip  North,  and  that  you  could  hardly  miss  the  men 
absent  in  the  army.  This  is  not  the  case  with  you."  Colonel 
Martin  replied :  "No,  and  that  it  seemed  to  prove  what  he  had 
often  heard  said,  that  'Northern  people  were  staying  at  home 
and  sending  the  foreigners  to  do  the  fighting."  General  Burn- 
side  replied :  "Not  at  all,  but  it  shows  the  difference  in  the 
populations  of  the  two  sections  and  the  impossibility  of  the 
South's  success.  Success  would  be  the  worst  thing  that  could 
happen  for  the  South.  When  I  am  in  a  bad  humor  I  wish  the 
South  would  succeed."  Colonel  Martin  replied  that  he 
"wished  he  was  in  a  bad  humor  all  the  time."  About  this 
time  Generals  Foster,  Parke  and  Reno  came  in.  They  were 
all  in  bad  temper,  and  we  spent  an  hour  or  so  "spatting." 
Some  one  of  us,  whenever  opportimity  offered,  would  relate 
something  about  the  late  battles  in  Virginia.  General  Burn- 
side  expressed  himself  as  in  favor  of  a  vigorous  prosecution 
of  the  war,  even  to  the  arming  of  the  negroes  if  necessary  to 
success.  We  were  surprised  to  hear  this  as  General  Burnside 
was  represented  as  opposed  to  negro  soldiers.  During  our 
confab.  General  Burnside  turned  to  me  and  said  rather 
sharply:  "To  what  command  do  you  belong?"  I  replied: 
"The  Second  North  Carolina  Cavalry."  "Yes,"  says  he,  "you 
are  the  fellows  who  are  shooting  my  pickets.  I  detest  such 
warfare ;  if  a  man  wishes  to  fight  let  him  come  out  like  a  man 
and  show  himself  and  not  creep  up  like  he  was  hunting  a  tur- 
key." I  replied:  "Your  men  began  this  mode  and  now  you 
are  complaining  of  it."  He  replied:  "It  is  not  so,  and  to 
prove  it  I  lose  five  or  six  men  where  you  lose  one."  I  answer- 
ed :  "That  only  prQves  that  our  men  are  the  best  shots,  and 
when  they  pull  the  trigger  generally  bring  down  the  game, 

86  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

while  yours  miss."  He  replied:  "You  do,  hey!"  witli  a 
touch  of  the  "dry  grins."  I  said :  "If  you  do  not  like  this 
style  of  warfare  order  your  men  to  stop  and  ours  will." 

We  discussed  secession,  States'  rights,  Federalism,  war, 
ability  of  the  South  to  maintain  the  contest,  campaigns  al- 
ready fought,  leaders,  etc.,  etc.,  but  in  not  a  very  gentle  man- 
ner. Governor  Edward  Stanly  came  in  for  a  short  while 
and  was  very  courteous.  About  dusk  we  were  driven  in  an 
ambulance  to  the  house  of  the  Spotswood  family,  but  now 
used  by  the  United  States  Army,  and  placed  in  a  room  on  the 
second  floor  to  spend  the  night. 

Supper  was  furnished  us  in  our  room.  An  hour  or  so  af- 
terwards Governor  Stanly  called  and  spent  several  hours. 
He  had  recently  arrived  from  California,  having  been  ap- 
pointed "Military  Governor"  of  the  State  by  President  Lin- 

Colonel  Martin  remarked  that  he  was  surprised  to  hear 
General  Bumside  express  himself  in  favor  of  arming  the  ne- 
groes. Governor  Stanly  replied  that  he  "must  be  mistaken ; 
that  he  had  frequently  talked  with  General  Burnside  on  the 
subject,  and  he  was  as  much  opposed  to  it  as  you  or  I,  and,  as 
for  myself,  whenever  it  is  done  I  will  resign  and  go  whence  I 

About  the  time  the  "colored  troops"  were  "mustered  in" 
Governor  Stanly  resigned  and  left  the  State.  I  do  not 
know,  however,  that  there  was  any  connection  between  the 
two  events. 

After  Governor  Stanly  left  we  discovered  some  one  was  in 
the  little  room  connecting  the  one  we  were  in  with  another, 
and  the  door  was  pushed  a  little  ajar,  as  if  to  hear  anything 
we  might  say.  We  considered  this  as  a  "breach  of  hospital- 
ity" and  expressed  ourselves  in  vigorous  language  on  the  sub- 
ject and  on  Yankees  in  general,  and  the  experiences  of  the 
day.  If  what  was  gathered  from  our  conversation  was  re- 
ported it  is  not  published  in  the  Records  of  the  Rebellion. 

On  the  morning  of  the  5th,  about  sunrise,  we  went  across 
the  street  to  breakfast. 

Breakfast  over,  we  got  into  the  ambulance;  were  again 

Nineteenth  Regiment.  87 

blindfolded,  and  when  we  saw  the  light  we  were  at  our  pickets 
at  the  Ten-Mile  House. 

In  August  the  second  squadron  (Companies  C  and  K), 
Captain  Booth  commanding,  moved  to  Hamilton,  Martin 
County,  to  picket  the  Roanoke  river. 

In  October  the  other  ten  companies,  under  command  of 
Major  C.  M.  Andrews,  who  had  been  promoted  upon  resigna- 
tion of  Major  Woodfin,  moved  via  Franklin,  Va.,  to  join  the 
Army  of  ISTorthern  Virginia  and  camped  at  Warrenton,  Octo- 
ber 12th.  Shortly  after  reaching  there  a  scout  of  225 
mounted  men  and  two  pieces  of  artillery  was  ordered  by  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Payne,  Fourth  Virginia  Cavalry,  command- 
ing post.  This  party,  commanded  by  Major  Andrews,  moved 
on  the  16th  via  Bristoe  Station,  Manassas,  and  to  the  south 
of  Centerville  to  Gainesville.  Here  the  Major  learned  that 
a  train  had  passed  a  short  time  previous.  Pushing  on,  he 
overtook  and  captured  the  train  at  Hay  Market,  consisting  of 
seven  wagons  and  teams,  also  thirty-nine  prisoners,  killed 
three  and  wounded  five  Yankees.  The  regiment  remained 
at  Warrenton  until  1  December,  when  it  moved  with  the 
army  to  the  vicinity  of  Fredericksburg.  In  the  battle  of 
Fredericksburg,  13  December,  the  regiment  acted  with 
other  mounted  forces  in  protecting  General  Lee's  right, 
but  was  not  engaged,  except  as  skirmishers.  The  regi- 
ment was  represented  in  the  detail  to  make  the  raid  under 
General  Stuart  into  Maryland,  on  24  December.  It  was 
assigned  2  December,  1862,  to  the  brigade  of  General  W.  H. 
F.  Lee,  with  the  Ninth,  Tenth,  Thirteenth  and  Fifteenth 
Virginia  Regiments  of  cavalry.  It  spent  the  winter  in  Es- 
sex County,  picketing  the  Rappahannock  river  from  Hazel 
River  to  Centre  Cross.  In  March  it  moved  to  Culpepper 
County,  camping  between  Culpepper  Court  House  and 
Brandy  Station.  1  May  engaged  Stoneman  in  his  raid  at 
Stone's  Mills.  The  regiment  was  commanded  by  Major  An- 
drews from  14  December  to  8  May,  Colonel  Williams  being 
detached  as  president  of  a  court-martial.  Major  Andrews 
then  getting  a  "sick  furlough,"  Lieutenant-Colonel  Payne 
was  temporarily  assigned  to  command  it. 

The  second  squadron  (Companies  C  and  K)  remained  at 

88  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Hamilton  until  October.  It  participated  in  the  attack  on 
Washington,  1  September.  Captain  Boothe  was  severely 
woimded  and  not  again  in  active  service.  While  moving  to 
join  the  regiment  in  Virginia  the  squadron  was  ordered  into 
camp  near  the  "Halfway  House"  on  the  pike  between  Peters- 
burg and  Richmond.  It,  with  Company  C,  Forty-first  North 
Carolina  (3d  Cav.),  formed  a  battalion,  commanded  by  Cap- 
tain Graham,  and  built  winter  quarters  on  the  pike  near 
Proctor's  creek.  The  battalion  picketed  the  James  Eiver  as 
far  as  Bermuda  Hundreds.  To  it  was  also  assigned  the 
duty  of  picketing  the  Appomattox  for  sixty  miles  above  Pe- 
tersburg, to  arrest  deserters  from  the  Army  of  Northern  Vir- 
ginia. In  March,  1863,  the  squadron,  commanded  by  Cap- 
tain Graham,  picketed  General  Longstreet's  left  flank 
in  his  expedition  towards  Suffolk  to  secure  the  hogs 
and  cattle  from  the  Albemarle  section  of  North  Car- 
olina. While  at  Drewry's  Bluff  the  squadron  was  at- 
tached to  the  commands  of  Generals  Daniel  and  Elzey,  also 
to  Colonel  Jack  Brown,  of  the  Fifty-ninth  Georgia.  Under 
General  Longstreet  it  picketed  the  James  and  Nansemond 
rivers.  There  were  engagements  with  the  enemy  at  Provi- 
dence Church  and  Chuckatuck.  Captain  Moore's  Company, 
Sixty-third  N.  C.  (5th  Cav.),  and  Stribling's  Virginia  Bat- 
tery, mounted,  formed  a  battalion,  which  Captain  Graham 
commanded.  It  was  under  Generals  Jenkins  of  South  Caro- 
lina, Hood  and  Pickett  during  this  service. 

May  20  the  squadron  rejoined  the  regiment  in  Culpepper 
County,  Virginia.  There  had  been  many  changes  of  officers 
in  the  regiment.     The  following  is  a  roster  at  that  time : 

EOSTEE 1   JUNE,   1863. 

Sol  Williams,  Colonel. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  (Vacant.) 

Clinton  M.  Andrews,  Major. 

John  C.  Pegeam,  Adjutant. 

A.  Smith  Joedan,  Assistant  Quartermaster. 

W.  H.  Upsiiue,  Surgeon. 

Ianson,  Assistant  Surgeon. 

Nineteenth  Regiment.  89 

Ebwaed  Joedan^  Sergeant  Major. 

OoMANY  A — Captain,  J.  V.  B.  Rogers ;  First  Lieutenant, 
W.  B.  Tidwell;  Second  Lieutenants,  Abram  0.  Evans  and 
Jacob  E.  Williams. 

Company  B — Captain,  S.  J.  Andrews ;  Eirst  Lieutenant, 
E.  W.  Allison;  Second  Lieutenants,  J.  IST.  Turner  and  Wil- 
liam A.  Luckey. 

Company  C — Captain,  James  M.  Wynn;  First  Lieuten- 
ant, W.  P.  Roberts;  Second  Lieutenants,  Abram  F.  Harrell 
and  L.  R.  Cowper. 

Company  D — Captain,  James  W.  Strange;  First  Lieu- 
tenant, Joseph  S.  Baker;  Second  Lieutenants,  J.  A.  P.  Con- 
oly  and  John  B.  Person. 

Company  E — Captain,  R.  W.  Atkinson ;  First  Lieutenant, 
K.  H.  Winstead ;  Second  Lieutenants,  E.  P.  Tucke  and  Eph. 

Company  F — Captain,  P.  A.  Tatum;  First  Lieutenant, 
John  G.  Blassingame;  Second  Lieutenants,  IST.  C.  Tucker 
and Holden. 

Company  G — Captain,  ii.  L.  Eure;  First  Lieutenant,  G. 
P.  Bryan ;  Second  Lieutenants,  W.  M.  Owens  and  J.  W.  Sim- 

Company  H — Captain,  R.  H.  Reese ;  First  Lieutenant,  S. 

]Sr.  Buxton;  Second  Lieutenants,  F.  M.  Spivey  and  ■ 


Company  I — Captain,  D.  0.  Bryan;  First  Lieutenant, 
Thomas  H.  Harrington;  Second  Lieutenants,  John  C.  Baker 
and  James  A.  Cole. 

Company  K — Captain,  W.  A.  Graham,  Jr. ;  First  Lieu- 
tenant, John  P.  Lockhart;  Second  Lieutenants,  A.  F.  Fau- 
cette  and  James  R.  Harris. 

the  battle  of  BEANDY  station^  OE  FLEETWOOD. 

The  regiment  participated  in  the  review  of  the  Cavalry 
Corps  by  General  R.  E.  Lee,  Monday,  8  June,  1863,  on  the 
plain  along  the  railroad  between  Brandy  Station  and  Cul- 
pepper Court  House.     Our  regiment  returned  to  its  camp 

90  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

of  the  night  before,  about  one  mile  north  of  Hon.  John  Minor 
Botts',  near  Gilberson's,  with  orders  to  go  on  picket  the  next 
morning  at  Fox's  Spring,  about  twenty  miles  distant  on  the 
Rappahannock  River.  On  the  mornings  of  the  9th  at  about 
6 :30  o'clock  "boots  and  saddles"  sounded.  "Saddle  up"  was 
the  Confederate  name  for  this  signal,  perhaps  due  to  the  fact 
that  the  boots  were  generally  wanting.  I  went  to  headquar- 
ters and  Colonel  Williams  directed  me  to  leave  the  cooks  and 
sore-back  horses  in  camp.  Thirty  minutes  afterwards,  "To 
horse — ^lead  out"  was  sounded,  and  just  at  its  close  Colonel 
Williams'  orderly  came  to  me  with  orders  to  mount  every 
man  I  had.  He  had  received  notice  of  the  Federals  crossing 
the  river  in  the  meantime,  but  the  orderly  said  nothing  of  it. 
The  regiment  was  quickly  formed,  my  command  being  the 
second  squadron,  Companies  C  and  K,  threw  me  in  the  rear, 
as  we  moved  off  in  "column  of  fours."  A  quarter  of  a  mile 
distant  we  entered  a  road  leading  towards  Beverly  Ford,  and 
forming  platoons  imtmediately  took  the  "gallop"  which  we 
maintained  for  most  of  the  distance,  which  miist  have  been 
considerably  over  a  mile,  to  the  battlefield.  Up  to  this  time 
not  one-third  of  the  regiment  knew  that  the  Federals  had 
crossed,  or  were  attempting  to  cross,  at  Thompson's  or  Wel- 
ford's.  As  we  cleared  a  piece  of  woods  the  column  headed 
to  the  left  and  came  in  view  of  the  enemy's  artillery  placed 
between  the  Dr.  Green  residence  and  the  river  on  the  Cun- 
ningham farm.  Just  as  our  rear  squadron  turned  into  the  field 
a  shell  cut  off  the  top  of  a  tree  Over  our  heads,  and  this  was  the 
first  intimation  we  had  of  the  presence  of  the  enemy.  We 
could  see  a  portion  of  the  Tenth  Virginia  engaged  in  the 
direction  of  the  battery.  The  Nineteenth  (Second  Cavalry) 
North  Carolina  passed  Dr.  Green's  house,  crossed  Euffin's 
Run  and  took  position  behind  a  knoll  on  which  two  guns  of 
Breathed's  battery,  "horse  artillery,"  under  Lieutenant  John- 
son were  placed.  This  soon  became  engaged  with  the  enemy. 
Colonel  Williams  formed  all  the  men  in  the  regiment  who 
were  armed  with  "long  range  guns"  on  foot  and  went  to  the 
front  where  he  was  soon  hotly  engaged  with  the  enemy  who 
had  dismounted  and  taken  position  behind  a  stone  wall  three 
hundred  yards  in  advance  of  his  battery.     After  exchanging 


1.  W.  B.  Tidwell,  Captain,  Co.  A.  4.    Levi  Y.  Lockhart,  Sergeant,  Co.  K. 

2.  John  P.  Loukhart,  Captain,  Co.  K.  5.    W.  A.  Curtis,  Sergeant.  Co.  A. 
8.    Stephen  O.  Terry,  Sergeant,  Co.  K.  6.    John  L.  Hall,  Private,  Co.  K. 

Nineteenth  Regiment.  91 

shots  for  a  short  time,  he  ordered  a  charge  and  captured  the 
wall  taking  eighteen  prisoners,  besides  the  killed  and 
wounded.  In  the  charge  Captain  S.  Jay  Andrews,  Company 
B,  Iredell  County,  lost  a  foot,  and  Lieutenant  J.  G.  Blassin- 
game,  of  Columbia,  S.  C,  temporarily  in  command  of  Com- 
pany F,  was  mortally  wounded.  Our  regiment  held  this  po- 
sition with  little  change,  although  engaged  part  of  the  time 
with  Aimes'  Brigade  of  infantry,  until  2  p.  m.  During  the 
engagement  General  W.  H.  F.  Lee,  with  several  of  his  staff, 
were  standing  in  a  few  feet  of  a  large  hickory  tree  a  few  steps 
to  the  right  of  one  of  Lieutenant  Johnson's  guns,  when  a 
shell  struck  the  tree  and  threw  pieces  of  it  over  them.  A  fair 
representation  of  "Company  Q,"  (Quartermaster  and  his 
cubs)  had  assembled  on  the  high  ground  about  half  a  mile  in 
owv  rear  to  see  the  fighting.  A  well  directed  shot  in  their 
direction  caused  them  to  seek  less  conspicuous  places  for  ob- 
servation. About  2  p.  m.  General  Lee  withdrew  his  brigade 
to  the  right  to  form  connection  with  Jones  and  Hampton. 
The  Nineteenth  North  Carolina  (Second  Cavalry)  being  on 
the  right  was  placed  on  the  plain  which  extends  to  the  rail^ 
road  and  in  full  view  of  Fleetwood,  General  Stuart's  head- 
quarters. The  Tenth  Virginia  was  next  to  us  and  at  foot  of 
the  hills,  the  Ninth  and  Thirteenth  Virginia  were  next  to  the 
enemy.  The  brigade  held  the  enemy  in  check  until  moved  to 
near  the  Orange  and  Alexandria  Eailroad  at  Fleetwood,  on 
account  of  the  advance  tlie  enemy,  which  had  crossed 
at  the  Eappahannock  bridge  and  Kelley's  Ford,  had 
made.  Generals  Pleasanton  and  Buford  had  united  their 
forces,  which  had  crossed  the  Eappahannock  at  the  dif- 
ferent fords,  and  now  Avith  combined  forces,  attacked 
the  brigade  on  the  left  and  were  driving  the  troops  in  that  por- 
tion of  the  field  in  some  disorder,  capturing  some  of  the  dis- 
mounted men  and  threatening  the  horse  artillery. 

About  3  or  3  :30  o'clock  the  shouts  on  the  left  told  us  that  a 
brisk  engagement  was  proceeding!  Shortly  afterwards  Col- 
onel Williams  came  at  full  speed  towards  the  regiment,  pass- 
ing the  Tenth  Virginia.  I  suppose  he  gave  the  command,  as 
they  immediately  formed  by  squadron  and  started  at  a  gal- 
lop.    As  soon  as  he  was  near  enough  to  our  regiment  he  gave 

92  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

command,  "Form  column  by  squadron,"  and  placing  second 
squadron  in  front,  gave  the  command  "Gallop ;  march."  As 
we  rose  the  hill  we  saw  the  enemy  driving  the  Ninth  and 
Thirteenth  Virginia  in  considerable  confusion  before  them, 
in  our  direction.  The  Tenth  Virginia,  when  it  reached  a 
position  that  it  could  fire  on  the  enemy  without  firing  into  the 
Ninth  and  Thirteenth,  halted  and  opened  fire.  Colonel  Wil- 
liams gave  the  command  to  his  regiment  "Right  oblique," 
and  as  soon  as  we  had  cleared  the  Tenth  Virginia,  turning  in 
his  saddle  shouted:  "Forward;  draw  sabre;  charge."  The 
regiment  raised  the  yell  as  it  went  by  our  stationary  and  re- 
tiring companions  and  the  scene  was  immediately  changed. 
The  Federals  were  the  fleers  and  the  Confederates  the  pur- 
suers. Our  regiment  drove  the  enemy  about  half  a  mile  back 
upon  their  reserves  of  cavalry  and  infantry,  who  were  posted 
on  a  hill,  while  our  advance  had  reached  an  angle  where  two 
stone  walls  came  together  on  an  opposite  hill,  about  two  hun- 
dred yards  distant.  This,  with  a  volley  from  the  reserve, 
checked  the  advance.  The  leading  four  were  Colonel  Wil- 
liams, Sergeant  Jordan,  Company  C ;  private  Asbell,  Com- 
pany K,  and  the  writer. 

DEATH  of  colonel  SOL.  WILLIAMS. 

Asbell  was  felled  from  his  horse  with  a  wound  through  the 
head  almost  immediately.  Colonel  Williams  gathered  his 
horse  to  leap  the  wall,  shouting :  "Second  North  Carolina, 
follow  me."  The  writer  called  to  him:  "Colonel,  we  had 
better  get  a  line,  they  are  too  strong  to  take  this  way."  He 
replied :  "That  will  be  best ;  where  is  the  flag  ?"  and  as  we 
turned,  it  was  not  flfty  yards  to  our  rear.  He  rode  to  meet 
it ;  halted  it  and  was  shouting  to  the  men  to  fall  in,  when  he 
was  shot  throug'h  the  head,  and  died  immediately,  his  body 
being  carried  from  the  fleld  by  his  adjutant,  John  C,  Pegram. 

About  this  time  the  enemy  enflladed  us  with  a  piece  of  ar- 
tillery, placed  half  a  mile  or  more  to  our  right,  towards  the 
river,  and  down  the  gorge,  at  whose  head  we  had  formed.  This 
caused  the  regiment  to  give  back  a  hundred  yards  or  so,  keep- 
ing its  formation.     The  Federals  charged  us,  we  fired  into 

Nineteenth  Regiment.  93 

them,  and  they  retired  and  made  no  further  demonstration. 
In  the  charge,  we  relieved  a  great  many  of  our  dismounted 
knen,  who  had  fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy,  and  also 
a  gun  of  the  horse  artillery,  which  went  rapidly  to  the  rear,  as 
we  relieved  it  of  its  danger  of  capture.  Any  information 
General  Pleasanton  got  of  General  Lee's  movements,  must 
have  been  given  him  by  General  Gregg,  for  Buford  never 
pierced  W.  H.  F.  Lee's  line  without  being  immediately  re- 
pulsed, and  the  brunt  of  this  work,  both  on  foot  and  mounted, 
was  done  by  the  ISTineteenth  North  Carolina  (Second  Cav- 
alry), and  so  acknowledged  at  the  time.  Lieutenant  P.  A. 
Tatum,  Company  F.  (Greensboro,  N.  G.)  who  had  a  disa- 
greement with  Lieutenant-Colonel  W.  H.  Payne,  Fourth  Vir- 
ginia Cavalry,  who  was  temporarily  in  command  of  the  regi- 
ment a  short  time  before,  and  had  been  placed  under  arrest, 
went  into  the  charge  without  arms  or  spurs,  and  was  wounded 
while  most  gallantly  leading  his  men.     The  regiment  lost  35. 

Colonel  Williams  had  been  married  but  two  weeks  before 
to  Miss  Maggie,  daughter  of  Captain  Pegram,  of  the  Confed- 
erate Navy,  and  had  returned  to  camp  on  Saturday.  He 
was  beloved  by  his  men ;  as  brave  and  true  a  man  as  was  in 
that  army,  yet  with  a  gentle,  affectionate  disposition,  almost 
equal  to  a  woman's.  Indulgent  to  his  men  in  camp  almost  to 
a  fault,  yet,  when  duty  called  and  occasion  required,  he 
proved  himself  a  leader  worthy  of  their  admiration.  I  have 
given  this  account  of  the  battle  of  9  June,  1863,  somewhat  in 
full  that  Colonel  Williams  and  his  regiment  might  receive 
some  of  the  credit  to  which  they  are  entitled. 

Captain  Strange,  of  Company  D,  Fayetteville,  JST.  C,  who 
was  in  command  after  Colonel  Williams'  death,  I  know  pre- 
pared a  report  of  the  part  taken  by  the  regiment  and  submit- 
ted it  to  the  officers  before  forwarding  it  to  headquarters.  In 
"The  Official  Records  of  the  Union  and  Confederate  Armies" 
the  Nineteenth  N^orth  Carolina  (Second  Cavalry)  is  hardly 
mentioned  in  the  official  reports  of  this  battle.  General  Stu- 
art says  in  his  report  of  Colonel  Williams :  "He  was  as  brave 
as  he  was  efficient."  The  reports  for  the  Nineteenth  North 
Carolina  Cavalry  are  nearly  all  wanting,  and  a  loss  of  only 
five  is  reported,  when  the  loss  in  my  own  command  was  three 

94  North  Carolina  Troops,  ]861-'65. 

times  that.  The  brigade  ordnance  officer,  Captain  B.  B. 
Turner  (Official  Kecord,  Vol.  11,  part  II,  page  720)  says  of 
captured  arms  that  "Eeports  are  all  in  except  the  Second 
JSTorth  Carolina  Cavalry,  which  is  on  picket ;  none  of  the  other 
regiments  captured  any."  Consequently  whatever  prisoners, 
whether  wounded  or  not,  that  fell  into  the  hands  of  W.  H.  F. 
Lee's  Brigade  must  have  come  to  our  regiment  and  been  its 

Major  H.  B.  McClellan  has  published  a  book  entitled  "The 
Campaigns  of  Stuart's  Cavalry."  In  this  he  is  very  unfair  to 
the  JSTineteenth  North  Carolina  at  Brandy  Station.  He  dis- 
misses it  with  a  statement  that  Colonel  Williams  requested 
permission  to  go  into  the  charge — went  in  on  the 
right  of  the  Ninth  Virginia,  was  shot  through  the 
head  and  instantly  killed.  In  making  up  his  narra- 
tive, he  says  -  he  got  Colonel  Beale,  of  the  Ninth  Vir- 
ginia, to  give  him  an  account  of  the  fight,  who  informs  him 
when  he  reformed  his  regiment,  and  rode  forward  to  recon- 
noiter,  to  his  surprise  he  found  the  enemy  moving  buck  to  the 
river.  Not  one  word  about  the  Nineteenth  North  Carolina, 
or  how  he  got  an  opportunity  to  reform  his  regiment.  Major 
McClellan  does  not  seem  to  have  considered  it  necessary  to 
consult  any  member  of  the  North  Carolina  regiment  as  to 
the  action. 

On  that  day  W.  H.  F.  Lee's  Brigade  received  no  assist- 
ance, although  Robertson's  Cavalry  and  a  portion  of  Iverson's 
Infantry  Brigade  came  upon  the  field;  they  fired 
no  gun,  and  saw  no  enemy.  After  sunset  we  rode 
to  a  clover  field  near  by,  dismounted,  and  held  our 
horses  "to  graze"  until  half  past  nine  o'clock,  when 
we  marched  to  Fox's  Spring,  and  as  the  sun  rose  next 
morning  the  writer  dismounted,  having  placed  pickets  on  the 
river.  The  regiment  thought  this  very  unjust,  as  it  had 
borne  the  burden  of  the  fight  during  the  day,  but  Colonel 
Chambliss,  of  the  Thirteenth  Virginia  Cavalry,  was  in  com- 
mand of  the  brigade,  and  continued  through  the  campaign, 
and  I  do  not  suppose  there  is  a  member  of  the  Nineteenth 
( Second  Cavalry)  North  Carolina  that  has  a  single  pleasant 
recollection  of  his  treatment  of  it  during  his  command.     He 

Nineteenth  Regiment.  95 

was  promoted  to  Brigadier,  and  fell  at  the  head  of  his  brigade 
m  1864.  His  bravery  was  never  questioned,  and  was  dis- 
played on  many  occasions.  It  is  to  be  regretted  he  did  not 
add  to  this,  impartiality  of  treatment  to  the  regiments  under 
his  com'mand  in  the  Gettysburg  campaign.  As  the  regiment 
formed  "platoons"  on  reaching  the  Beverly  Ford  road,  on 
the  morning  of  the  9th,  my  negro  servant,  Edmund,  formed 
the  officers'  servants  and  colored  cooks  in  line  immediately  in 
the  rear  of  the  regiment  and  flourishing  an  old  sabre  over 
his  head,  took  command  of  them.  As  we  galloped  down  the 
road  he  was  shouting  to  them :  "I  want  no  running.  Every 
man  must  do  his  duty,  and  stand  up  to  the  rack,"  etc.,  etc. 
When  the  shell  cut  off  the  tree,  as  we  came  in  view  of  the  en- 
emy, he  and  his  sable  warriors  disappeared  in  every  direction 
except  the  front,  and  we  did  not  see  them  for  three  days. 

That  night,  9  June,  the  regiment,  although  it  had  done 
most  of  -the  fighting  for  the  brigade  during  the  day,  was 
marched  to  Fox's  Springs  to  do  picket  duty,  and  just  as  the 
sun  rose  on  the  morning  of  the  10th  the  pickets  took  position. 
The  Company  was  not  together  again  until  we  returned  to 
camp  on  the  14th.  At  "roll  call"  I  spoke  to  the  men  of  my 
pride  in  their  action  in  the  battle,  mentioning  those  who  had 
especially  come  under  my  observation  but  that  all  had  done 
well  and  that  when  rallied  in  the  face  of  the  enemy  none  had 
been  missing  but  the  dead  and  wounded.  As  the  command 
"break  ranks"  was  given  the  band  at  Head  Quarters  struck 
up  the  "Old  North  State."  Such  cheering,  jumping,  etc.,  I 
have  seldom  witnessed.  The  mind  of  each  went  back  over 
the  hills  and  valleys  to  the  home  in  the  old  State  he  loved  and 
for  which  he  would  willingly  die. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Paine  was  assigned  to  command  the 
regiment.  On  16  June  we  broke  camp  for  the  "Get- 
tysburg campaign,"  first  engaged  in  the  movement  in  Lou- 
don and  Fauquier  counties  to  cover  General  Ewell's  advance 
against  Winchester.  As  there  was  little  horse  feed  in  this 
county,  the  men  held  their  horses  by  the  bridle  rein  while 
the  animals  grazed  on  the  clover  and  orchard  grass.  This 
was  done  until  we  crossed  the  Potomac,  on  28  June.  We 
moved  via  Warrenton  and   Salem    to    Middleburg,    when 

96  North  Carolina  Troops,    1861 -'65. 

we  struck  the  enemy  on  the  18th.  Then  there  was  fighting 
every  clay,  and  sometimes  nearly  all  day,  for  a  week  or  more, 
in  the  vicinity  of  Middleburg,  Upperville,  Goose  Creek, 
Union  and  Paris.  The  most  severe  fighting  was  near  Upper- 
ville, on  21  June.  The  enemy,  besides  cavalry,  had  Bar- 
ry's division  of  infantry.  These  were  placed  behind  the 
stone  walls  with  which  this  country  was  fenced.  Except  a 
portion  of  the  Tenth  Virginia  Kegiment,  under  Major  W.  B. 
Clement,  none  of  the  brigade,  nor  of  Jones'  brigade,  drawn 
up  in  sight  in  our  rear  a  mile  or  so,  gave  the  Nineteenth  North 
Carolina  any  assistance.  It  was  driven  from  the  field  with 
a  loss  of  over  half  of  the  men  it  took  into  action,  either  killed 
or  wounded.  Captain  W.  P.  Roberts,  Company  C,  rallied  a 
portion  of  the  regiment  and  enabled  Breathed's  Battery, 
which  had  served  most  gallantly  during  the  fight,  to  "limber 
up"  and  get  out ;  otherwise  it  would  have  been  captured. 

Lieutenant  Cole,  Company  I,  was  killed;  Lieutenant 
Bryan,  Company  G,  was  wounded  and  captured.  Lieutenant 
Holden,  Company  F,  had  his  arm  broken,  but,  calling  one  of 
his  men  to  make  him  a  sling  of  his  handkerchief  and  place  his 
arm  in  it,  continued  in  the  fight.  Corporal  Stephen  0.  Terry, 
Company  K,  was  the  last  man  to  leave  the  field,  and  emptied 
the  five  barrels  of  his  Colt's  rifie  almost  alone  into  the  face  of 
the  advancing  enemy.  I  do  not  believe  there  was  an  engage- 
ment during  the  war  in  which  a  body  of  troops  was  more  for- 
saken by  comrades  than  the  "Second  Horse"  was  on  that 
occasion.  General  Ewell,  having  captured  Winchester, 
General  Stuart  "scouted"  towards  the  Potomac  to  see 
that  no  enemy  was  left  in  the  rear  when  he  crossed  the  river. 
He  found  General  Hancock,  with  Meade's  wagon  train,  on 
the  plains  of  Manassas,  but  was  not  able  to  deprive  him  of 
any  of  it,  save  one  cannon  and  an  ambulance.  On  27 
June  the  regiment  moved  via  Fairfax  Court  House  and 
Dranesville  to  near  Leesburg.  After  placing  pickets,  about 
sunset,  almost  in  sight  of  Hancock's  rear  guard,  it  retreated 
several  miles,  and  then,  going  through  a  pine  thicket  by  an- 
other road,  found  itself  about  10  o'clock  p.  m.  on  the  bank 
of  the  Potomac,  near  Seneca  Falls.  It  forded  the  river,  here 
three-fourths  of  a  mile  wide,  with  water  half  way  up  the  sad- 

Nineteenth  Regiment.  97 

die  skirts.  The  fording  was  done  in  single  file.  On  Sunday 
(28th)  we  moved  out  near  the  turnpike  from  Washington  to 
Frederick  City.  About  2  p.  m.  we  captured  172  of  a  train  of 
175  wagons,  with  six  mules  to  each  wagon,  chasing  them 
through  Rockville  to  within  seven  miles  of  Washington  City. 
The  capture  of  this  train,  perhaps,  caused  the  failure  of  vic- 
tory at  Gettysburg,  or  perhaps  the  battle  at  that  point.  To 
preserve  it  hampered  and  delayed  General  Stuart's  move- 
ments and  left  General  Lee  without  the  cavalry  to  locate  Gen- 
eral Meade's  forces.  We  moved  by  way  of  Westminster,  Md., 
where  we  found  abundance  of  rations  for  man  and  beast.  Af- 
ter filling  body  and  haversack,  the  depot  was  burned.  On 
the  morning  of  the  30th  we  passed  through  Papertown,  Va., 
where  a  large  quantity  of  paper  was  loaded  into  some  of 
the  wagons,  and  reached  Hanover  about  10  o'clock.  Here 
General  Stuart  struck  Meade's  army.  He  attempted  to  cut 
his  way  through.  Our  brigade  was  in  front.  The  leading 
regiment,  after  a  short  advance,  retired  in  confusion.  The 
Nineteenth  JSTorth  Carolina  was  then  sent  forward,  and  open- 
ed its  way  into  the  lines  of  the  eaemj,  cutting  off  a  large 
force;  but  not  being  supported,  they  immediately  closed  in 
their  rear.  General  Stuart  sent  no  reinforcements  to  them, 
perhaps  concluding  the  task  too  much  for  him,  and  left  the 
regiment  to  its  own  defense.  Hardly  thirty  men  escaped  being 
killed  or  captured.  Most  of  these  came  out  on  foot  through 
gardens  or  enclosures  which  offered  protection.  Here  again 
the  Nineteenth  North  Carolina  were  the  actors,  its  comrades 
the  audience. 

iVfter  passing  Papertown  details  were  made  from  each  regi- 
ment to  impress  horses  from  the  citizens.  Captain  Graham 
had  charge  of  the  detail  from  the  Nineteenth  North  Carolina. 
Gathering  what  horses  he  could  from  the  plows,  wagons  and 
stables  in  his  route,  and  narrowly  escaping  capture,  he  re- 
joined the  command  after  the  fight  at  Hanover.  Hanover  is 
seventeen  miles  from  Gettysburg.  General  Stuart  was  forced 
to  make  the  circuit  with  his  wagons  via  Carlisle — where  he 
burned  the  United  States  barracks — to  Getttysburg.  We 

'98  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

reached  General  Lee's  lines  about  sunset  on  Thursday,  2  July. 
The  service  on  this  raid  .was  very  severe.  There  being 
only  three  brigades,  it  required  fighting  two  out  of  three 
days — the  first  in  advance,  the  next  in  rear,  and  to  march 
with  the  wagons  on  the  third.  One  hour  for  rest  at  9  a.  m. 
and  one  at  9  p.  m.  was  all  the  intermission  allowed. 

On  the  morning  of  3  July,  gathering  up  the  fragments 
left  from  Hanover  and  what  was  available  from  the  wagon 
train.  Captain  Graham,  as  officer  commanding,  had  a  force 
of  forty  men.  That  afternoon,  while  supporting  a  section  of 
Breathed's  Battery,  he  was  wounded.  His  command  took 
part  in  the  charge  which  occurred  soon  after  and  assisted  in 
cutting  off  and  capturing  a  squad  of  the  enemy.  The  com- 
mand of  the  regiment  devolved  upon  Lieutenant  Jos.  Baker, 
Company  D. 

I  desire  to  acknowledge  my  indebtedness  to  Captain  S.  N. 
Buxton,  Company  H,  Jackson,  N.  C,  for  the  account  of  the 
fight  at  Hanover,  Pa.,  and  to  Sergeant  W.  A.  Curtis,  Com- 
pany A,  for  the  account  of  the  ten  companies  while  the  sec- 
ond squadron  was  detached. 

W.  A.  Geaham., 
Captain  Company  K. 
Machpelah,  N.  C, 
9  April,  1901. 


1.  W.  P.  Eoberts,  Colonel.  3.    E.  W.  Allison,  Captain,  Co  B. 

2.  S.  N.  Buxton,  Captain,  Co.  H.  4.    P.  A.  Tatum,  Captain,  Co.  P. 

5.    JuniuB  A.  Bridges,  23  Lieut.,  Co.  H. 


(second  cavalky.  ) 

By  general  WILLIAM  P.  ROBERTS. 

As  stated  by  Major  Graham  .in  his  foregoing  history  of  the 
regiment  up  to  Gettysburg,  it  lost  heavily  at  Hanover,  Penn., 
and  upon  its  return'  to  Virginia  it  vfas  a  mere  shadov?  of  its 
former  self  and  an  effort  was  made  to  reorganize  it,  but  there 
was  not  much  left  to  reorganize. 

However,  Lieutenant-Colonel  J.  B.  Gordon,  of  the  Ninth 
Eegiment  (First  Cavalry)  was  made  Colonel,  but  in  a  short 
time  thereafter  he  was  transferred  to  hisformer  regiment  as 
Colonel. when-its  gallant  Colonel,  L.  S.  Baker,  was  made  Brig- 

In  August,  1863, 1  was  commissioned  Captain  of  Company 
C,  vice  Captain  J.  M.  Wynns,  who  had  resigned  and  returned 
to  North  Cajrolina  to  raise  a  battalion  of  cavalry.  After  the 
transfer  of  Colonel  Gordon,  Major  C.  M.  Andrews,  late  Cap- 
tain Company  B,  became  Colonel  and  commanded  the  regi- 
ment till  June,  1864. 

During  the  remainder  of  the  campaign  of  1863,  at  Jack 
Shops  and  Brandy  Station,  in  the  Bristoe  campaign,  at  War- 
renton.  Mine  Run  and  other  places,  and  until  its  close,  the 
gallant  little  regiment  was  always  in  readiness  and  took  its 
place  in  front  whenever  called  upon  to  do  so. 

During  the  winter  of  1863-'64,  it  did  its  full  share  of 
picket  duty  on  the  Rapidan  river,  and  with  other  detachments 
of  the  brigade  levelled  many  breastworks  thrown  up  by  Gen- 
eral Meade  when  he  crossed  that  river  in  November.  Also, 
during  the  winter  the  regiment  was  greatly  augmented  in 
strength  and  discipline,  so  that  when  the  campaign  of  1864 
opened,  it  was  in  fair  condition,  although  numerically  much 
smaller  than  any  other  regiment  of  the  brigade,  because  of 

100  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

its  great  losses  at  Hanover,  before  mentioned,  both  in  prison- 
ers and  killed. 

Let  me  state  just  here  that  the  regiment  never  entirely  re- 
covered from  the  blow  it  received  at  Hanover.  Some  of  its 
officers  and  men  were  exchanged  only  a  few  days  before  the 
advance  of  General  Grant  in  March,  1865 ;  hence  its  losses 
were  smaller  than  those  of  the  other  regiments  of  the  brigade 
as  reported  at  the  time ;  but  I  am  sure  that  the  loss  of  the 
Nineteenth  was  as  great,  if  not  greater,  than  that  of  any  other 
regiment,  if  numbers  are  to  be  considered. 

But  to  return.  In  the  night  attack  made  by  a  part  of  the 
brigade  under  the  command  of  Colonel  W.  H.  Cheek,  of  the 
Ninth  North  Carolina  (First  Cavalry)  in  March,  the  Ninie- 
teenth  was  part  of  the  attacking  column,  and  did  its  duty.  I 
remember  that  it  was  here  that  Dr.  Thomas  E.  Williams,  of 
Clarke  County,  Virginia,  and  Surgeon  of  the  Nineteenth 
Regiment,  mistook  Colonel  Dalghren,  a  Union  soldier,  for  the 
writer  and  had  qiiite  a  conference  with  him  before  he  found 
out  his  mistake. 

I  was  commissioned  Major  of  the  regiment  in  March,  1864, 
and  in  May  began  the  Wilderness  campaign  of  General  Grant. 

General  Sheridan's  "On  to  Richmond"  soon  followed  with 
12,000  horse  and  horse  artillery  in  abundance,  and  certainly 
everything  looked  badly  for  Richmond,  as  I  thought.  But 
our  incomparable  leader.  General  Jeb  Stuart,  at  once  fol- 
lowed him,  and  though  he  lost  his  great  life  in  the  pursuit,  yet 
it  was  his  genius  and  quickness  of  movement  that  saved  Rich- 
mond on  this  occasion. 

Among  the  pursuing  columns  was  that  of  General  J.  B. 
Gordon,  commanding  the  North  Carolina  Brigade,  and  I  beg 
to  state  here  that  the  South  furnished  no  grander  or  more 
glorious  soldier  to  the  cause  of  Southern  Liberty.  Gordon 
was  a  great  favorite  of  Stuart's ;  and  when  at  last  Stuart  was 
sorely  pressed  and  his  squadrons  broken,  just  before  his 
death,  his  last  words  were:  "Would  to  God,  Gordon  were 
here."  And  Gordon,  too,  received  his  death  wound  the  day 
after  his  beloved  chief  fell. 

In  the  pursuit  of  Sheridan,  the  Nineteenth  bore  a  conspicu- 
ous part,  and  was  more  than  once  complimented  on  the  field 

Nineteenth  Regiment.  101 

by  General  Gordon.  Its  losses,  too,  were  heavy,  and  among  the 
killed  was  the  gallant  Adjutant  of  the  regiment,  Lieutenant 
Worth,  of  Randolph  County,  who  lost  his  life  at  the  head  of 
the  regiment  while  charging  a  battery  well  posted  and  heavily 
protected.  The  battery  was  not  captured  for  reasons  that 
need  not  be  explained  here,  but  all  the  same  the  regiment  cov- 
ered itself  with  imperishable  glory,  as  General  Gordon  after- 
wards stated  to  me. 

The  regiment  was  engaged  at  Todd's  Tavern,  White  Hall, 
Hanover  Court  House  and  at  Hawes'  Shop,  and  at  the  last 
place  it  did  splendid  service.  Upon  the  latter  occasion  it  was 
in  front  and  made  several  charges ;  I  was  there  disabled  by  a 
wound  in  the  head,  but  did  not  leave  the  field.  The  loss  of  the 
regiment  was  inconsiderable,  but  it  was  here  that  Lieutenant 
Joseph  Baker,  of  Company  D,  was  either  killed  or  captured, 
and  his  fate  was  never  afterwards  ascertained. 

In  the  engagement  near  Hanover  Court  House  in  May, 
there  occurred  one  of  those  unfortunate  stampedes  which  are 
always  inexplicable ;  but  at  the  time  the  brigade  was  a  mere 
handful,  most  of  it  having  gone  with  General  Fitz.  Lee  to  at- 
tack a  negro  stronghold  on  the  James  river.  By  accident  I 
was  in  comlmand  of  the  regiment  when  the  stampede  occurred 
and  in  the  midst  of  it,  when  the  best  officers  and  men  seemed 
to  be  demoralized,  the  Color  Sergeant  of  the  regiment,  Pri- 
vate Ramsey,  of  Company  B,  brought  his  flag  to  me,  as  I 
had  ordered  him  to  do  when  he  could  not  rally  his  men  around 
it,  and,  offering  it  to  me,  said:  "Major,  will  you  stand  by 
the  flag?"  Everything  was  then  in  a  perfect  rout,  myself 
with  the  rest,  and  I  replied :  "Ramsey,  d — n  the  flag ;  I  don't 
want  it ;"  but  he  insisted  upon  giving  me  the  flag,  and  said  he 
was  only  obeying  orders  from  me,  often  repeated. 

His  brave  words  inspired  a  few,  and  th«  rally  was  sounded 
and  what  a  moment  before  seeimed  ignominious  flight  and  the 
capture  of  our  entire  force,  turned  out  to  be  victory  for  us  in 
the  end.  Around  the  flag  a  few  of  us  turned  and  met  our 
pursuers,  and  most  of  them  were  captured  before  they  reached 
the  Pamunkey  river.  God  bless  the  brave  boy !  I  have  not 
heard  from  him  since  the  close  of  the  war,  but  he  was  a  gallant 

102  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

soldier  upon  every  field,  and  carried  the  flag  bravely  until  it 
and  all  others  went  down  under  "overwhelming  numbers  and 
resources"  at  Appomattox. 

The  regiment  did  its  full  duty  at  the  Davis  farm  in  June, 
and  it  lost  some  men,  too,  but  at  Black's  and  White's,  on  the 
Southside  Eailroad  a  few  days  after,  it  eclipsed  its  record. 
At  this  place  I  had  command  of  the  regiment,  because  of  the 
sickness  of  Colonel  C.  M.  Andrews,  who  insisted  that  I  should 
lead  it  into  action.  However,  later  in  the  day,  Andrews  at- 
tempted to  rejoin  the  head  of  his  regiment,  but  in  the  at- 
teimpt,  was  wounded  in  the  thigh  and  died  from  the  effects  of 

This  was  one  of  the  most  satisfactory  engagements  that 
I  witnessed  during  the  war,  and  the  old  Second  sustained 
its  reputation  quite  manfully.  It  was  ordered  to  the  front 
early  in  the  action,  in  advance  of  any  other  regiment  of  the 
division,  and  although  pressed  hard  until  darkness  closed  the 
scene,  it  held  its  own  against  great  odds,  and  even  after  dark 
many  prisoners  were  captured  by  it.  Upon  this  occasion  it 
was  the  great  right  bower  of  the  gallant  Ninth  North  Car- 
olina (First  Cavalry)  commanded  and  led  by  that  thrice 
gallant  and  dashing  soldier,  Lieutenant-Colonel  W.  H.  H. 
Cowles,  and  its  vigorous  attack  upon  the  enemy's  flank 
made  sure  the  saving  of  our  guns  which  were  in  great 
danger  of  capture.  There  was  stubborn  flghting  and 
much  individual  gallantry  shown  by  some  of  my  men 
during  the  day,  and  I  remember  that  Sergeant  Nicholas  Har- 
rell,  of  Company  C,  a  perfectly  reliable  man,  informed  me  at 
the  close  of  the  engagement,  that  during  the  day  he  had  placed 
hors  de  combat  no  less  than  six  of  the  enemy.  The  bri- 
gade commander  did  not  witness  the  action  of  this  regiment, 
nor  did  I  receive  an  order  from  him  during  the  day,  but  he 
got  possessed  with  an  idea  somehow,  or  other,  that  the  N  inth 
alone  was  entitled  to  all  praise,  and  published  an  order  to  that 
effect  so  soon  as  the  brigade  returned  to  camp.  I  declined  to 
have  the  order  read  to  my  men  on  dress  parade,  and  there  was 
friction  between  the  brigade  commander  and  myself,  but  I 
carried  my  point  in  the  end.     I  did  not  object  to  his  congrat- 

Nineteenth  Regiment.  103 

ulating  the  ISTinth  upon  its  splendid  behavior,  but  I  did  ob- 
ject to  his  partiality. 

After  the  death  of  Colonel  C.  M.  Andrews,  I  was  commis- 
sioned Colonel  of  the  regiment  about  the  1st  of  August,  I 
think,  and  soon  after  followed  the  battle  of  Reams  Station, 
brought  on  by  a  movement  of  the  Federals  to  capture  and 
hold  the  Weldon  and  Petersburg  Railroad,  on  25  August. 
The  bearing  of  the' Nineteenth  there. furnished  an  inspiration 
to  the  whole  cavalry  command,  but  the  division  commander  in 
his  report  only  refers  to  the  division  generally.  The  fact  is, 
the  great  brunt  of  the  battle,  so  far  as  the  cavalry  participa- 
ted, was  borne  by  the  Nineteenth  N^orth  Carolina  and  the 
Tenth  Virginia,  and  these  two  regiments,  unsupported,  car- 
ried the  last  of  the  entrenchments  held  by  the  enemy.  It  was 
just  at  dark,  I  remember,  and  I  never  witnessed  a  more  splen- 
did charge.  Our  losses  were  small,  but  our  captures  were  great, 
and  the  old  Second  Cavalry  did  splendid  work.  The  command 
captured  twice  as  many  prisoners  as  it  had  men  engaged, 
and  the  next  morning's  Richmond  papers  gave  full  credit  to 
its  splendid  and  heroic  service. 

That  superb  soldier  and  our  chief.  General  Wade 
Hampton,  congratulated  me  vipon  the  field  and  subsequently 
in  his  official  report  upon  the  battle,  referred  especially  to  the 
conspicuous  gallantry  of  my  regiment. 

At  McDowell's  farm,  on  25  September,  the  Nineteenth 
took  the  lead,  and  captured  one  officer,  a  Major,  I  think, 
and  some  prisoners.  My  loss  in  men  was  light,  but  it  was 
here  that  the  brave  Captain  J.  N.  Turner,  of  Company  B, 
was  killed,  and  his  death  was  a  great  personal  bereavement 
to  me.  He  and  I  had  served  as  Second  Lieutenants  together, 
and  our  relations  were  very  cordial  and  warm,  but  there  was 
unpleasantness  between  him  and  his  captain,  and  he  asked  to 
be  transferred  to  the  Engineer  Corps,  which  was  done.  After 
I  became  Colonel  of  the  regiment,  he  asked  me  to  have  him 
sent  back  to  it,  and  I  remember  how  happy  he  was  when  he 
returned.  He  would  come  to  my  quarters  every  night  and 
talk  over  the  war  memories  of  the  past.  He  was  commis- 
sioned Captain  of  his  old  Company  B,  but,  poor  fellow,  his 
happiness  was  short-lived.     A  few  days  thereafter  he  was 

104  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

shot  through  the  head  near  me,  in  this  McDowell  farm  fight, 
his  sword  in  one  hand  and  his  hat  in  the  other,  cheering  on 
his  men.  Poor,  dear  Turner,  there  was  no  better  man  or 
more  splendid  soldier. 

In  all  the  marching  and  countermarching  from  the  South 
to  the  JSTorth  side  of  James  river,  the  Nineteenth  was  always 
in  place  and  participated  in  every  engagement  at  Jones' 
farm,  Gravelly  Eun,  Hargroves,  Boisseau's  farm  and  other 

In  one  of  these  engagements,  near  the  White  Oak  Swamp, 
on  the  north  side  of  the  James  river,  and  where  the  gallant 
General  J.  R.  Chambliss,  of  Virginia,  lost  his  life,  the  regi- 
ment had  a  close  call.  The  division  of  General  W.  H.  F. 
Lee  was  hurried  to  the  front  in  columns  of  fours,  the  Nine- 
teenth being  the  last  of  the  division.  Suddenly  I  saw  the  regi- 
ments to  my  front  bear  to  the  right,  and  immediately  thereaf- 
ter came  an  order  from  General  Lee,  borne  by  Major  John 
Lee,  of  his  staff,  for  the  Nineteenth  to  hurry  to  the  front.  The 
command  "trot,"  "gallop,"  was  given,  and  in  a  short  while  I 
reported  to  the  Major-General.  My  orders  were  to  relieve  the 
regiment  to  my  front,  the  Ninth  Virginia,  I  think  it  was,  and 
he  further  said  to  me:  "Roberts,  you  know  what  to  do,  but 
the  line  must  be  held." 

The  entire  division  was  soon  withdrawn  by  some  miscar- 
riage of  orders,  as  I  afterwards  learned,  and  it  was  not  very 
long  before  the  enemy  advanced  in  great  numbers  upon  my  lit-  ■ 
tie  command,  but  it  stood  up  against  this  onslaught  as  only 
brave  men  can.  At  one  time  the  regiment  was  practically 
surrounded,  and  its  annihilation  seemed  complete,  but  in  the 
very  nick  of  time  up  dashed  the  Ninth  North  Carolina,  led 
by  the  gallant  Colonel  W.  H.  Cheek,  who  finally  responded  to 
my  wishes  and  put  his  regiment  where  I  suggested  it  should 
be  put,  and  by  his  action  I  was  enabled  to  extricate  my  men. 
But  our  loss  was  enormous ;  more  than  thirty  ofiicers  and  men 
killed  in  a  few  minutes.  Captain  L.  R.  Cowper,  of  Company 
C,  and  Captain  George  P.  Bryan,  of  Company  G,  were 
among  the  killed.  They  were  both  brave  ofiicers  and  splendid 
soldiers,  and  their  loss  was  a  sad  blow  to  the  regiment.  Cap- 
tain Cowper  and  I  had  left  home  together — ^had  been  non- 

Nineteenth  Regiment.  105 

commissioned  officers  together,  and  he  was  my  personal 
friend ;  always  jolly  and  in  splendid  humor,  and  ever  b^ging 
me  to  take  care  of  myself  if  I  wished  to  live ;  but  always  in- 
sisting that  no  Yankee  bullet  had  ever  been  molded  to  carry 
off  "Old  Cowp,"  as  he  called  himself,  to  the  "undiscovered 
country  from  whose  bourne  no  traveller  returns."  They  were 
both  brave  and  gallant  men,  and  died  like  soldiers  with  their 
faces  to  the  foe. 

At  Wilson's  farm,  on  the  Boydton  plank  road,  on  27  Octo- 
ber, 1864,  the  Nineteenth  Regiment  was  again  conspicuous 
for  gallantry,  and  bore  its  full  share  of  the  fight,  as  it  had 
done  at  Reams,  McDowell's  Farm,  White  Oak  Swamp,  and 
other  places. 

In-the  great  cattle  raid  in  September,  1864,  the  Nineteenth 
(Second  Cavalry)  was  a  part  of  the  command  of  Gen- 
eral Hampton  commanding  the  expedition,  and  after 
the  herd  of  cattle,  2,700,  had  been  captured  and  driven 
from  the  corral,  I  received  orders  from  him  in  per- 
son to  bring  up  the  rear.  The  regiment  remained  in 
the  vicinity  of  where  the  cattle  were  captured  for  nearly  an 
hour  after  the  entire  command  had  been  withdrawn,  and  I  at 
once,  busied  myself  in  making  the  necessary  disposition  of  the 
regiment  to  protect  our  rear.  Very  soon  the  Federal  cav- 
alry began  to  press  me  and  there  were  a  number  of  mounted 
charges  given  and  received  during  the  day,  b\it  I  was  hardly 
pressed  and  was  glad  when  night  came  to  end  the  pursuit. 
The  day's  work  was  a  hard  one ;  none  more  so  that  I  remem- 
ber, but  I  managed  to  keep  my  command  so  well  in  hand  that 
I  lost  only  one  or  two  men,  I  think,  before  reaching  Belcher's 

The  JSTineteenth  was  at  Bellfield  on  8  December  when 
the  Federals  under  General  Warren  attempted  once  more  to 
secure  the  Weldon  and  Petersburg  Railroad,  and  when  the 
rear  of  Warren's  Corps  was  struck,  a  squadron  of  the  Nine- 
teenth commanded  by  Captain  A.  F.  Harrell,  made  a  splendid 
charge  and  captured  some  prisoners. 

Soon  thereafter  the  regiment  went  into  winter  quarters 
near  Bellfield,  where  it  was  fairly  comfortable  during  the 
winter,  being  called  out  occasionally.     During  this  interval 

106  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

of  partial  rest  I  addressed  myself  to  discipline,  and  there  was 
drill  and  dismounted  dress  parade  every  day;  but  tlie  men 
were  wearing  out,  or  rather  the  regiment  was,  from  its  great 
work  during  the  previous  campaigns,  and  not  much  head- 
way was  made  in  filling  up  our  greatly  depleted  ranks.  Yet 
the  men  were  cheerful  and  apparently  happy,  and  most  of 
them  enjoyed  the  winter  in  their  comfortable  quarters  near 

On  21  February,  1865,  I  received  my  commission 
as  a  Brigadier-General,  and  was  assigned  to  the  command  of 
Dearing's  Brigade,  he  having  been  transferred  to  the  brigade 
of  General  Eosser. 

The  bearing  of  both  officers  and  men  for  the  most  part 
while  I  commanded  the  JSTineteenth  was  all  I  could  wish,  and 
there  was  much  individual  gallantry  displayed  by  both,  but 
time  has  blunted  my  memory  and  I  regret  that  I  cannot  recall 
the  names  of  all  whom  I  would  be  glad  to  mention  in  this 
sketch,  written  from  memory,  after  the  passage  of  more  than 
thirty  years. 

Let  me  say  that  in  the  beginning  the  regiment  did  not  have 
the  same  thorough  military  training  that  the  First  Cavalry 
(Ninth  ISTorth  Carolina)  had,  as  well  as  other  regiments 
commanded  by  old  army  officers.  Its  first  commander, 
though  a  splendid  and  courteous  gentleman,  and  a  brave 
man,  was  made  Colonel  for  political  reasons,  and  this 
made  a  great  difference.  It  went  to  meet  the  enemy,  too, 
poorly  armed  and  equipped.  But  I  am  glad  to  bear  tes- 
timony to  the  fact  that  in  the  campaigns  from  1863 
to  1865,  it  was  equipped  almost  entirely  by  captures  from 
the  enemy,  including  bridles  and  saddles,  carbines,  pistols, 
swords,  canteens,  blankets,  and  every  article  necessary  to  a 
thorough  equipment  of  a  trooper. 

I  believe  that  the  regiment  was  equal  to  the  best  in  either 
the  brigade,  division  or  corps,  and  it  never  failed  to  respond 
with  cheerfulness  to  any  command  of  mine.  There  was  an 
enthusiastic  response  to  every  order  of  attack — but  few  lag- 
gards— and  the  bearing  of  the  regiment  on  every  occasion 
elicited  praise  from  those  high  in  authority.  I  remem- 
ber once  that  that  courteous  gentleman  and  splendid  soldier, 

Nineteenth  Regiment.  107 

General  W.  H.  F.  Lee,  the  division  commander,  said  to  me : 
"Roberts,  I  think  my  division  equal,  if  not  superior,  to  any 
division  in  the  army,  but  let  me  tell  you  that  I  think  I  am 
growing  a  little  partial  to  your  regiment,  because  I  feel  more 
secure  and  my  sleep  is  less  disturbed  vrhen  the  gallant  'Two 
Horse'  is  in  my  front." 

These  were  his  exact  words,  and  it  was  the  most  splendid 
compliment  ever  paid  the  regiment.  I  felt  especially  compli- 
mented when  I  remembered  that  there  were  in  the  division 
the  gallant  Ninth  North  Carolina,  the  brave  Ninth  Virginia, 
and  other  regiments  of  equal  merit,  all  North  Carolinians  and 

After  my  promotion  to  Brigadier-General  that  gallant  sol- 
dier, Captain  James  L.  Gaines,  Assistant  Adjutant  General 
of  the  brigade,  was  commissioned  Colonel,  and  he  rode  at  its 
head  during  all  the  trying  times  around  Five  Forks  until  he 
fell  dangerously  wounded,  losing  an  arm  at  Chamberlain's 
Run,  on  31  March.  Under  his  leadership  the  regi- 
ment added  if  possible  another  star  to  its  already  perfect 
wreath.  After  Gaines  was  wounded  the  regiment  was  com- 
manded by  Captain  J.  P.  Lockhart,  a  gallant  officer,  formerly 
of  my  old  squadron,  Company  K.  Lockhart,  I  am  told,'  led 
it  through  all  the  engagements  following  Chamberlain's  Run, 
and  under  his  command  the  regiment  lost  none  of  its  prestige 
for  gallantry  and  devotion  to  duty. 

I  distinctly  remember  that  after  the  battle  of  Chamber- 
lain's Run,  I  passed  the  regiment  on  the  road,  and  its  great 
loss  both  in  splendid  officers  and  gallant  men  made  such  an 
impression  upon  me  that  I  wept  like  a  child.  Its  losses  had 
been  so  many  that  I  scarcely  recognized  it.  Under  Lockhart,  it 
kept  up  its  organization  until  the  capture  and  dispersal  of 
General  Barringer's  Brigade,  3  April.  Then  what  was  left  of 
it,  with  some  scattering  remnants  of  the  other  regiments  of 
the  brigade,  reported  to  me  by  orders  from  General  Lee,  and 
became  a  part  of  my  brigade  until  the  surrender  at  Appomat- 

108  NoKTH  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 


My  brigade  was  made  up  of  tlie  Fifty-ninth  JSTortli  Caro- 
lina (Fourth  Cavalry),  the  Sixteenth  North  Carolina  battal- 
ion of  Cavalry,  the  Eighth  Regiment  of  Georgia  Cavalry,  a 
part  of  the  last  named  regiment  being  on  detached  service. 

The  Staff  Officers  assigned  to  me  were  as  follows : 

Captaijst  Theodoeb  S.  Gabnett,  of  Virginia,  Assistant 

Captaii^  Wm.  C.  CouGHEH"0"nE,  of  I^orth  Carolina,  Inspec- 

Lieutenant  Jas.  E.  Webb,  of  Alabama,  Ordnance  Officer. 

Lieutenant  W.  P.  Hoi.combe,  of  Virginia,  Aide-de- 

When  I  assumed  command  of  the  brigade  it  was 
greatly  wanting  in  organization  and  discipline,  but  its 
material  was  equal  to  any  brigade  in  both  officers  and 
men,  and  it  behaved  with  exceptional  gallantry  from 
the  time  our  lines  were  broken  at  Petersburg  until 
we  finally  surrendered  at  Appomattox;  especially  at 
Wamozine  Creek,  on  3  April,  a  part  of  it  stood  as 
firmly  as  the  immortal  300  at  Thermopylse,  their  bearing 
and  splendid  courage  stemming  the  tide  of  a  great  stampede 
and  saving  a  part  of  our  cavalry  from  an  ignominious  flight. 
In  fact,  the  little  brigade  did  more  than  its  share  from  the 
White  Oak  road  to  Appomattox,  and  on  the  morning  of  the 
surrender  it  was  ordered  to  the  front  on  the  right  of  our  lines. 
It  faithfully  and  bravely  responded  to  the  last  call,  and  with 
the  remnant  of  the  Nineteenth  ISTorth  Carolina,  took  the  last 
guns  captured  by  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia,  and  I  am 
sure  they  fired  the  last  shots  as  well. 

Immediately  after  the  capture  of  the  guns — four  Napole- 
ons— the  brigade  was  withdrawn  from  the  field  by  order  of 
General  Fitzhugh  Lee,  commanding  the  cavalry,  disbanded 
and  directed  by  him  to  return  to  their  homes  if  they  could, 
and  I  remember  that  he  said  that  the  army  had  surrendered. 

I  remember  further  that  I  saw  a  white  flag  borne  down  the 

Nineteenth  Regiment.  109 

lines,  and  I  am  sure  that  after  that  there  was  no  more  firing 
from  either  cannon  or  small  arms. 

I  desire  to  add  that  I  had  an  efficient  and  faithful  staff. 
Lieutenant  Holcomb  was  disabled  on  the  White  Oak  road 
near  Petersburg  about  the  time  our  lines  were  broken.  The 
gallant  Lieutenant  Webb,  ever  watchful  and  faithful,  re- 
mained with  his  ordnance  train  to  the  last,  and  Captain 
Coughenour,  whose  courage  was  ever  conspicuous,  was  dan- 
gerously wounded  near  me  not  far  from  Jetersville,  Va.,  and 
while  delivering  to  me  a  message.  My  Assistant  Adjutant- 
General,  Captain  Theodore  S.  GarnetL  was  ever  by  my  side, 
brave  to  a  fault,  faithful  and  loyal,  and  he  was  with  me  to 
the  last ;  and  although  a  mere  boy,  his  wise  counsel  and  steady 
nerve  rendered  me  valuable  service  always. 

ViCTOEIA,   B.   C, 

31  March,  1897. 


1.    T.  P.  Toon,  Colonel.  3.    John  S.  Brooks,  Lieut.-Colonel. 

3.    Nelson  Slough,  Lieut.-Colonel.  4.    P.  A.  Smith,  Captain,  Co.  A. 

B.    C.  B.  Denson,  Captain.  Co.  E. 


By  brigadier-general  THOMAS  F.  TOON. 

I  cannot  write  a  history  of  the  Twentieth  North  Carolina 
Regiment — initiated  at  Seven  Pines,  sacrificed  at  Gettys- 
burg, surrendered  at  Appomattox — epochs  too  widely  sun- 
dered to  be  bridged  over  by  consecutive  history.  I  can  not 
record  all  the  great  sacrifices  made,  suffering  and  privation 
borne  with  unflinching  heroism,  heroic  achievements,  bloody 
victories,  and  grand  triumphs — instances  of  individual  dar- 
ing and  unswerving  fidelity  to  duty — after  a  lapse  of  thirty- 
six  years,  when  so  many  noble  hearts  of  the  Twentieth  Regi- 
ment have  passed  to  that  shore  where  wars  cease,  and  no  his- 
tory can  invade  the  ever  blissful  present.  So  many  too  anx- 
ious to  forget  the  fitful  shadows  of  that  dreata,  "too  bright  to 
last,"  have  sealed  their  lips  and  refused  to  speak  How  can 
even  a  sketch  be  made  ? 

I  will  not  attetoipt  to  make  a  display  of  imaginary  history, 
embellished  by  thirty-odd  years  of  afterthought,  or  supply  the 
deficiencies  of  facts  or  memory  by  substituting  circum- 
stances which  are  more  pleasing  than  actual. 

Such  facts  as  I  can  collect  I  desire  to  arrange  in  some  order 
consistent  with  happenings.  I  cannot  do  justice  to  a  single 
brave  soldier  of  the  regiment,  and  can  only  recollect  the 
smallest  part  of  that  which  ought  to  be  written  of  the  noble 
Twentieth  JSTorth  Carolina. 

The  Twentieth  North  Carolina  Regiment  comprised  com- 
panies from  the  counties  of  Brunswick,  Columbus,  Cabarrus, 
Duplin  and  Sampson,  stationed  at  Smithville  and  Fort  Cas- 
well, as  follows : 

Captain  Jno.  S.  BeookS;,  Brunswick  Guards. 
Captain  J.  B.  Stanley^  Columbus  Guards  ISTo.  1. 

112  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

Captaijst  William  H.  Toon^  Coluiabus  Guards  ISTo.  2. 
Captain  B.  Smith^  Columbus  Guards  No.  3. 
Captain  Nelson  Slough^  (a  veteran  of  the  Mexican  war) 
Cabarrus  Guards. 

Captain  J.  B.  Atwell^  Cabarrus  Black  Boys. 
Captain  C.  B.  Denson,  Duplin  Greys. 
Captain  Uz.  Cox,  Sampson  N"o.  1. 
Captain  C.  L.  Chesnut^  Sampson  N"o.  2. 
Captain  Alex.  Faison^  Sampson  N^o.  3. 

18  June,  1861,  the  organization  of  the  regiment  took  place 
by  the  election  of:  Colonel,  Alfred  Iverson,  of  Georgia,  Post 
Commandant;  Lieutenant  Colonel,  Frank  Faison,  of  Samp- 
son County,  N.  C. ;  Major,  W.  H.  Toon,  of  Columbus  Coun- 
ty, N.  C. ;  Adjutant,  R.  P.  James,  of  Duplin  County,  IST.  C. ; 
Captain  Quartermaster,  K.  S.  Harris,  of  Cabarrus  County, 
promoted  from  Company  B ;  Captain  Commissary,  Charles 
McDonald,  of  Company  B ;  Surgeon,  Dr.  J.  A.  Bizzel,  of 
Sampson  County;  Assistant  Surgeons,  W.  B.  Meares,  of 
Wilmington,  and  J.  D.  Pureell,  of  Sampson  County; 
Chaplains,  Kev.  J.  A.  Sprunt,  of  Sampson  County,  and  Rev. 
L.  A.  Bickle,  of  Cabarrus  County;  Sergeant  Major,  D.  J. 
Broadhurst,  of  Duplin  County. 

The  following  were  the  promotions  and  changes  and  the 
Field  and  Staff  officers  of  the  regiment :  Colonel  Alfred  Iver- 
son, wounded  at  Cold  Harbor,  promoted  to  Brigadier-General 
in  1863  ;  Colonel  Thomas  F.  Toon,  wounded  at  Cold  Harbor, 
Chancellorsville,  Spottsylvania  and  Petersburg,  promoted  to 
Colonel  from  Captain  of  Company  K,  in  1863,  and  to  Briga- 
dier-General in  1864  ;  Lieutenant-Colonel  Franklin  J.  Faison, 
killed  at  Cold  Harbor  27  May,  1862  ;  Lieutenant-Colonel  Wm. 
H.  Toon,  resigned  December,  1862 ;  Lieutenant-Colonel  Nel- 
son Slough,  resigned  26  February,  1863;  Major  N^elson 
Slough,  promoted  from  Captain  of  Company  A ;  Major  Jno. 
S.  Brooks,  promoted  from  Captain  of  Company  G,  26  Febru- 
ary, 1863,  killed  at  Spottsylvania  12  May,  1864 ;  Major  D.  J. 
DeYane,  promoted  from  Captain  of  Company  I;  Adjutant 
J.  F.  Ireland  promoted  to  Captain  Company  D;  Adjutant 
Ed.  S.  Moore  transferred  from  Forty-first  North  Carolina 

Twentieth  Regiment.  113 

(Third  Cavalry) ;  Sergeant  Major,  Thos.  W.  Broadliurst, 
Company  E ;  Quartermaster  Sergeant,  Jas.  H.  Benton,  Com- 
pany H ;  Orderly  to  Colonel,  Jerry  M.  Kistler,  Company  C, 
and  Benjamin  M.  Duncan,  Company  K. 

The  Regimental  Band  was  composed  as  follows :  Charles 
Heebner  (leader),  D.  R.  Coleman,  Henry  Giddens,  Jesse  W. 
Lane,  Lewis  D.  Giddens,  John  B.  Lane,  Amos  A.  Campbell, 
Thomas  Stevenson,  Marcus  Bradley  and  James  C.  Benson — 
from  the  counties  of  Cabarrus,  Sampson  and  Wayne.  These 
faithful  men  cheered  our  hearts  and  beguiled  many  a  weary 
hour,  and  were  kind  to  many  a  wounded  comrade.  It  was  upon 
the  application  of  D.  R.  Coleman  for  a  furlough  that  General 
D.  II.  Hill  endorsed  ''shooters  before  tooters."  During  the 
fall  of  1862  the  band  played  "Dixie"  one  evening  at  dress 
parade.  The  Yankee  band  on  the  other  side  of  the  river  re- 
peated it.  The  band  of  the  Twentieth  played  "Yankee  Doo- 
dle;" then  both  bands  joined  in  "Home,  Sweet  Home."  There 
was  many  a  moist  eye  when  the  music  ceased. 

The  Roster  of  North  Carolina  Troops  gives  with  some  de- 
gree of  accuracy  the  changes  in  commissioned  and  non-com- 
missioned officers  of  each  company,  and  considerable  infor- 
mation relative  to  the  killed  and  wounded,  which  I  do  not 
deem  necessary  to  insert  here.  It  is  a  credit  to  Worth  Caro- 
lina, showing  the  laudable  desire  to  perpetuate  the  names  and 
deeds  of  her  brave  sons,  but  it  is,  however,  very  inaccurate. 

The  regiment  remained  on  duty  at  Smithville  (now  South- 
port),  Fort  Caswell  and  Wilmington,  detailed  by  companies 
or  as  a  whole,  until  June,  1862.  The  duties  were  neither 
dangerous  or  burdensome,  in  fact  the  men  of  the  regiment 
became  restless  under  their  inaction  and  urged  to  be  sent 
where  they  could  take  part  in  the  glorious  triumphs  which 
made  famous  the  Army  of  Virginia,  for  they,  too,  longed  to 
snatch  from  the  shock  of  battle,  the  clash  of  resounding  arms, 
the  sulphurous  canopy  and  din  of  courageous  conflict, 
glimpses  of  the  bright  laurels  the  future  historian  would 
weave  around  the  ensanguined  brow  of  those  who  for  their 
country  "dare  to  do  or  die."  Whether  or  not  an  expression  of 
this  feeling  had  any  effect  in  hurrying  their  departure  from 
the  peaceful  shores  of  ITorth  Carolina  I  do  not  know.  At  any 

114  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

rate  we  left  ISTorth  Carolina  and  arrived  at  Kichmond  a  few 
days  before  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines,  one  thousand  and 
twelve  strong,  rank  and  file.  Placed  in  Garland's  Brigade, 
camping  on  the  Williamsburg  road,  on  31  May,  on  the  left  of 
Williamsburg  road,  we  were  initiated  into  the  realities  of  a 
soldier's  life. 

Inspired  by  Rodes  on  our  right  and  Anderson  supporting 
and  protecting  our  left,  the  regiment  entered  into  the  fight 
with  spirit  and  unfiinching  courage.  The  first  man  wounded 
was  Alonzo  Williamson,  Company  K,  the  ball  passing  through 
him  and  striking  T.  F.  Toon,  then  Captain  of  Company  K, 
slightly  wounding  him.  W.  E.  Williamson  was  also  wounded. 
During  this  fight  D.  H.  Hill's  Division  did  the  greater  part 
of  the  fighting,  he  losing  more  than  one-third  of  his  effective 

The  scene  around  Mechanicsville  26  June,  was  not  such  as 
is  calculated  to  cheer  raw  troops,  by  any  means — dead  or 
dying  artillery  horses,  booming  cannon,  shot,  shell  burst- 
ing, and  some  large  white  eyes,  and  occasionally  some  re- 
quests :  "Captain,  if  I  am  killed,  you  will  find  money  in  my 
left-hand  breeches  pocket  to  send  my  body  home,"  shovdng 
an  interesting  realization  of  surrounding  circumstances,  but 
no  fear. 

Gaines'  Mill,  27  June,  1862,  Corporal  Kiah  P.  Harris, 
Company  A ;  Alfred  Litaker,  Company  B ;  Corporal  W.  B. 
Collins,  Company  D ;  Corporal  Caleb  M.  Spivey,  Company 
D,  were  killed.  Sergeant  J.  Peterson,  Company  E;  C.  C. 
Little,  Company  G,  were  wounded. 

Cold  Harbor,  28  June — Fought  Sykes'  regulars.  Gar- 
land occupied  the  left  of  our  line,  entered  in  good  order  and 
style,  charged  and  captured  a  battery  twice — turned  it  upon 
the  enemy  with  telling  effect. 

I  recall  the  names  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Prank  J.  Faison, 
Captain  Llenry  C.  Smith,  Lieiitenant  Arthur  N.  Jones,  Cal- 
vin Meares,  Elisha  BuUard,  Elias  Bullard  and  others.  Com- 
pany C ;  Mc  Shaw,  Donnie  Stephens,  George  S.  Eeaves  and 
T.  T.  Melntire,  killed.  Captain  John  S.  Brooks,  Colonel 
Iverson,  Captain  T.  F.  Toon  and  W.  D.  Cherry,  wounded. 

In  the  Century,  Vol.  II,  "Battles  and  Leaders  of  the  Civil 

Twentieth  Regiment.  115 

War,"  General  S.  Garland  accords  to  the  Twentieth  North 
Carolina  the  honor  of  deciding  the  fate  of  the  day  hy  this 
charge  mid  capture.  After  the  various  conflicts  mentioned 
the  regiment  returned  with  the  division  to  camp  on  the  York 
Biver  Railroad  below  Richmond.  Left  there  by  General 
Lee  to  watch  the  remaining  force  of  McOlellan  we  joined  the 
army  on  the  march  against  Pope  as  soon  as  those  troops  left 
Westover.  In  July  or  August  we  left  camp  for  the  Army  of 
Northern  Virginia  and  were  engaged  watching  Porter  and 
holding  his  force  in  check  while  the  battle  of  Manassas  was 
being  fought. 

On  14  September,  1862,  was  fought  the  battle  of 
South  Mountain,  or  Boonsboro,  which  General  Hill  called 
a  battle  of  delusions.  When  ready  to  make  disposition  of  his 
small  force  to  disp\ite  the  passage  of  the  Union  army  at  that 
Thermopylae,  he  found  Garland  at  the  Mountain  House.  He 
was  directed  to  the  summit  of  the  mountain  at  Fox's  Gap, 
his  force  less  than  one  thousand  men.  About  9  o'clock  he  en- 
countered Cox's  Division,  about  three  times  as  many.  In 
this  battle  the  Twentieth  was  unflinchingly  suffering  from 
the  deadly  fire  of  a  Union  battery.  Captain  Atwell,  of 
Company  B,  with  his  skinmishers,  killed  the  commanding 
ofiicer  of  the  battery,  but  were  unable  by  reason  of  the  char- 
acter of  the  ground  and  the  force  opposed  to  them  to  secure 
the  guns.  In  this  fight  Captain  Atwell,  of  Company  B,  was 
killed.  He  was  an  intelligent,  high-toned  gentleman,  an  able 
officer  and  brave  soldier.  General  Garland's  death  renders 
the  place  solemnly  historic  to  our  brigade.  Captain  L.  T. 
Hicks,  of  Company  E,  says  the  enemy  came  within  fifteen 
feet  before  the  regiment  retreated  down  the  mountain,  which 
being  so  steep  the  enemy  fired  over  our  heads.  A  part  of  this 
company,  and  several  from  other  companies  of  the  Twentieth, 
were  separated  from  the  command,  during  which  time  their 
rations  were  green  corn  from  the  cob.  Captain  Hicks,  by 
permission,  attached  this  mixed  crowd,  of  which  he  had  as- 
sumed command,  to  General  Hays'  troops,  and  they  faithfully 
did  their  duty  as  brave  soldiers.  A  pet  dog  belonging  to 
Hays'  men  was  crazed  with  the  noise  and  confusion  of  bat- 
tle.    A  cannon  ball  cut  the  top  out  of  a  large  oak,  which  in 

116  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

falling,  imprisoned  a  skulker  behind  the  tree.  His  cries  for 
help  were  answered  by  the  dog.  I  never  saw  a  poor  man's 
pants  torn  so  badly  since.  He  suffered  more  than  he  would 
have  had  he  gone  into  the  fight.  At  the  battle  of  Sharpsburg 
17  Septetoiber,  we  were  at  the  Bloody  Lane  which  tells  its 
own  story.  Assisting  our  commanding  general  to  do  all 
he  set  out  to  do,  worn  out  with  marching,  fighting, 
starving  and  suffering,  we  re-crossed  the  Potomac  and 
went  into  camp  at  Bunker  Hill.  Leaving  Bunker  Hill 
30  October,  arrived  at  Upperville  3  November,  and 
Front  Royal  5  November;  waded  the  Shenandoah  at 
night  6  November,  heavy  snow  on  the  ground ;  then  operating 
between  the  forks  of  the  Shenandoah,  guarding  the  passes  in 
direction  of  the  enemy,  and  threatening  General  McClellan's 
flank  and  rear 

Tliose  friends  who  so  kindly  cared  for  the  sick  Confederate 
soldiers  ought  to  be  remembered  wherever  they  were,  but  we 
especially  ought  to  thank  Mr.  G.  W.  Timberlake,  near  Win- 
chester, for  special  service  to  members  of  my  regiment.  While 
sick  at  his  house  and  threatened  with  capture  by  an  advanc- 
ing enemy,  he  risked  his  own  safety  to  pilot  us  through  a 
mountain  road  to  our  army.  To  her,  that  noble  wife  and 
mother  of  that  Christian  household,  to  her  sweet  child  and 
daughter  "Evelyn,"  a  sick  soldier's  heart  will  ever  turn  with 
warmest  affection  and  gratitude.  Florence  Nightingale  may 
have  more  praise,  but  was  never  truer  or  more  devoted  than 
were  these  fit  representatives  of  the  women  of  the 
Valley.  Leaving  the  Valley  by  route  indicated  above, 
crossed  Blue  Eidge  Mountain,  probably  at  Brown's  Gap, 
and  marched  to  Fredericksburg,  thence  to  Port  Royal 
at  Corbin's  farm.  We  spent  the  Winter,  or  part  of  it, 
resting,  eating  government  rations  and  luxuries  at  sut- 
ler's prices  when  we  could  afford  it,  with  an  occasional  box 
from  loved  ones  at  home,  when  that  box  could  thread  the  in- 
tricacies  of  transportation  then  in  vogue,  and  escape  the  rav- 
ages of  hungry  employes.  On  12  December  we  began  to- 
cook  two  days'  rations  and  have  them  in  our  haversacks  to 
move  at  a  moment's  warning.  Hurrying  from  camp  near 
Port  Royal  we  arrived  during  the  night  of  13  Decern- 
cember  in  front  of  Fredericksburg.     At  Hamilton's  Cross- 

Twentieth  Regiment.  117 

ing  our  division  was  held  in  reserve.  The  first  man  woimded 
here  was  W.  H.  Enzor,  of  Company  0.,  by  a  shell.  My  regi- 
ment filled  part  of  the  space  which  was  occasioned  by  Archer's 
repulse.  The  regiment  was  commanded  by  Major  Nelson 
Slough.  After  months  of  careful  preparation  and  upon  a  field 
of  his  own  selection,  General  Burnside  was  forced  to  acknowl- 
edge Lee  master  of  the  situation.  Lee  in  turn  generously  gave 
the  credit  to  his  brave  soldiers  and  the  honor  to  God.  Back 
into  Winter  quarters  again  to  rest  as  best  we  could.  Cor- 
bin's  farm  camp  was  the  scene  of  some  changes  in  our  regi- 

Lieutenant-Colonel  W.  H.  Toon  resigned  February,  1863. 
Major  !N^.  Slough,  Senior  Captain  Jno.  S.  Brooks  and  Captain 
T.  F.  Toon,  Company  K,  were  ordered  before  a  Board  of  Ex- 
amination, composed  of  Colonel  Christie,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
R.  D.  Johnston,  of  the  Twenty-third,  and  Colonel  T.  M.  Gar- 
rett, of  the  Fifth.  Major  Slough  and  Captain  Brooks  waived 
their  rights  to  promotion  and  requested  the  board  to  recom- 
mend Captain  T.  F.  Toon  for  Colonel  of  the  regiment.  After 
the  examination  was  over,  the  appointment  was  accordingly 
made.  When  this  recommendation  and  appointment  was  en- 
dorsed by  the  officers  of  the  regiment,  the  office  was  accepted, 
for  it  was  held  that  the  regiment  had  a  right  to  elect  their  own 
officers,  notwithstanding  the  effort  of  the  Brigadier-General 
to  have  one  of  his  own  selection  appointed.  The  advice  and 
firm  support  of  General  A.  M.  Scales  and  Colonel  Bynum  as 
legal  advisers  are  hereby  acknowledged  in  behalf  of  the  of- 
ficers of  the  regiment.  Camp  duty,  drill,  picketing  the  Rap- 
pahannock and  an  occasional  general  inspection,  varied  with 
snow  fights  between  companies  and  sometimes  regiments,  oc- 
cupied the  remaining  Winter  and  early  Spring  days.  On 
Wednesday  morning,  29  April,  we  moved  from  the  camp 
near  Grace  Church  to  Hamilton's  Crossing. 

We  remained  here  until  Friday  morning,  when  we  began 
to  move  in  the  direction  of  Chaneellorsville ;  had  a  skirmish 
that  day;  on  Saturday  morning  relieved  General  Ramseur's 
Brigade,  and  in  doing  this  came  near  marching  in  column 
into  the  Yankee  line,  caused  by  thick  woods.  A  volley  of 
small  arms  and  canister  from  a  gun  caused  us  to  change  our 

118  North  Carolina  Troops,  186I-'65. 

course  to  the  left.  We  remained  in  line  until  10  o'clock ;  then 
followed  the  Catharpin  road  and  overtook  the  division  about 
4  p.  m.  We  immediately  formed  line  for  that  charge  which 
made  Rodes'  Division  the  recipient  of  unqualified  praise 
from  General  Jackson,  and  our  regiment  favorably  mentioned 
by  our  Brigadier-General.  We  here  occupied  the  extreme 
left  of  our  line  on  the  left  of  and  at  right  angles  to  the  plank 
road,  with  the  Twenty-third  North  Carolina  deployed  and 
marching  by  right  flank  protecting  our  left.  J.  J.  Pounds, 
Company  G,  asks  that  this  incident  be  mentioned.  He  writes : 
''I  started  when  you  took  yo^ir  cap  in  your  hand,  waving  it 
and  calling  on  the  men  to  follow  you,  led  the  charge.  My 
gun  got  out  of  order  and  I  ran  to  you.  and  reported  it.  You 
said:  'This  is  a  bad  place  to  be  without  a  gun.  Get  another 
and  go  ahead.'  Just  then  George  Turner,  of  Company  A, 
found  a  gun.  He  gave  it  to  me  and  I  overtook  you,  still  in 
the  lead."  I  remember  the  circumstances  and  the  brave,  in- 
spiring conduct  of  Jesse  Pounds.  After  the  battle  rested  at 
the  Little  Church  at  the  forks  of  the  road  in  rear.  We  were 
relieved  by  General  A.  P.  Hill's  troops.  May  3,  about  sunrise, 
we  moved  forward  with  the  second  line,  and  soon  became  en- 
gaged, owing  to  our  front  becoming  uncovered.  This  was  fu- 
rious fighting,  a  perfect  storm  of  shells  and  a  mist  of  minie 
balls.  Here  I  saw  the  two  Wilsons,  of  Company  F,  killed ; 
the  brother  saving  the  watch  from  his  brother  just  killed,  falls 
on  his  body  dead ;  tmns  in  birth,  twins  in  death.  I  received 
one  wound  early  in  the  morning  and  before  10  o'clock 
two  others,  and  left  the  field  and  regiment  in  command 
of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Slough.  I  was  there  long  enough 
to  witness  the  cool  and  daring  bravery  of  Lieutenants 
Oliver  Williams,  Company  C,  McQueen  Coleman,  Com- 
pany K ;  Lieutenant  E.  W.  Collins,  Company  D ;  Major 
J.  S.  Brooks,  Sergeant  Hawes,  Corporal  M.  M.  Harrelson, 
McD.  Ward,  Dan  Coleman,  George  Goodman,  Lieutenant 
Arch  Laughon,  Coimpany  F,  and  many  others.  Yea,  all  on 
that  battle  field  deserved  honorable  memory  and  mention  for 
they  stood  only  where  men  can  be  found.  In  addition  to  the 
above  named  Corporal  C.  A.  Patterson,  Company  A;  Cor- 
poral Richard  Faulk,  Company  C ;  D.  E.  Ellis,  Company  B ; 

Twentieth  Regiment.  119 

Josiah  Hudson,  Company  H;  Newberne  Tew,  Company  I, 
and  Thomas  A.  Morris,  Company  K,  were  placed  upon  the 
roll  of  honor. 

The  next  movement  led  us  to  the  field  of  Gettysburg,  July 
Ist,  2nd  and  3rd,  1863.  The  reports  of  the  battle  give 
twenty-nine  killed  and  ninety-three  wounded  in  the  Twen- 
tieth Eegiment.  General  Iverson  reports  500  men  of  his 
brigade  killed,  lying  in  as  good  order  as  if  on  dress  parade^ 
Why  these  men  were  kept  in  that  position  when  they  could 
only  die  without  being  able  to  inflict  injury  on  the  enemy,  I 
have  been  at  a  loss  to  understand.  Lieutenant  Oliver  Wil- 
liams says:  "I  was  wounded  early  in  the  fight.  I  believe 
every  man  who  stood  up  was  either  killed  or  wounded." 
itfearly  200  of  the  regiment  were  captured,  with  the  colors. 
Captain  A.  H.  Galloway,  Forty-fifth  North  Carolina,  recap- 
tured the  flag  and  a  number  of  our  men.  General  Ewell  com- 
plimented the  troops,  who  stood  till  the  greater  part  had  fallen 
in  line  of  battle. 

After  Gettysburg  the  regiment  was  engaged  in  an  affair 
at  ITagerstown,  while  guarding  a  wagon  train.  General 
Rodes,  in  his  report  for  1863,  says:  "Those  soldiers  from 
Georgia,  Alabama  and  North  Carolina,  who  for  weeks  kept 
their  ranks  with  swollen,  bloody  and  bare  feet,  are  the  heroes 
of  the  campaign."  "Camping  near  Madison  Court  House  in 
July  and  near  Orange  Court  Hoiise  in  August,  September 
and  October,  on  the  Rappahannock  river,  near  Morton's 
Ford.  At  the  latter  place,  11  October,  a  detachment  from 
Johnston's  brigade,  consisting  of  the  Twentieth  North  Caro- 
lina and  five  companies  of  the  Twelfth  North  Carolina,  un- 
der Colonel  Coleman,  the  whole  under  command  of  Colonel 
T.  F.  Toon,  Twentieth  North  Carolina,  had  a  very  brilliant 
affair  with  part  of  Buford's  Cavalry.  Brigadier  General 
Lomax  arrived  and  took  command.  We  repulsed  the  enemy 
and  drove  him  back  across  the  river.  The  brigadier  was 
pleased  to  report  our  part  in  the  affair  as  worthy  of  honor- 
able mention.  The  following  names  were  forwarded  as 
worthy  to  be  placed  on  the  roll  of  honor:  Chas.  W.  Yousts, 
Benjamin  F.  Blackwelder,  Company  A ;  Paul  Faggart,  Jno. 
R.  Bradford,  J.  A.  Bradford,  M.  C.  Cline,  Company  B ;  Lieu- 

120  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

tenant  Oliver  Williams,  Company  C ;  Jno.  Killet,  Company 
E ;  W.  J.  Gotten,  Company  F ;  William  Simmons  and  A.  S. 
Carney,  Company  G;  Ransom  G.  Hawley,  Company  H; 
Chas.  H.  Hall  and  Sergeant  B.  A.  Brown,  Company  I.  26 
ISTovember  in  the  trenches  at  Morton's  Ford;  27  ISTovember 
moved  out  of  camp,  marched  to  Lociist  Grove,  skirmished  all 
day.  By  order  from  General  Johnston  I  ihrew  out  two  com- 
panies to  protect  our  left,  there  being  a  gap  be- 
tween our  left  and  General  Edward  Johnson's  right. 
In  the  Mine  Bun  affair  both  sides  wasted  a  great 
deal  of  powder,  but  did  very  little  execution.  The 
remainder  of  the  Winter  was  spent  at  Taylorsville,  near 
Hanover  Junction,  guarding  the  railroad  bridges  over  the 
ISTorth  and  South  Anna  rivers ;  we  had  quite  a  pleasant  time 
at  this  camp,  good  country,  hospitable  people,  charming 
young  ladies,  all  conspired  to  this  end.  5  May  we  started 
to  the  Wilderness,  arriving  on  the  6th.  Supported  General 
Gordon  in  an  attack  on  General  Grant's  right;  sharply  en- 
gaged for  a  short  while.  Lieutenant  B.  Watson  was  killed ; 
General  Seymour  of  the  Sixth  Army  Corps,  United  States  of 
America,  was  captured.  On  the  7th  marched  through  dust 
and  heat  from  burning  woods ;  reached  Spottsylvania  Court 
House  a  short  time  before  sunset.  About  this  time  our  bri- 
gade (General  R.  D.  Johnston's)  was  placed  in  General 
Early's  Division.  On  the  8th  and  9th  unimportant  moves 
for  position.  On  the  10th,  about  5  o'clock,  Johnston's  jSTorth 
Carolina  Brigade  with  the  other  brigades  of  the  division, 
charged  to  recapture  the  works  taken  from  General 
Doles  by  massed  lines  of  the  enemy.  How  we  suc- 
ceeded and  the  credit  due  my  regiment  on  that  oc- 
casion is  best  shown  by  General  Lee's  letter  to  the  Secretary 
of  War,  a  copy  of  which  was  sent  to  my  regiment  afterwards, 
and  which  is  as  follows : 

Aemy  Noethekin'  Vieginia^ 

May  16,  1864. 
Sie: — Yesterday  evening  the  enemy  penetrated  a  part  of 
our  line  and  planted  his  colors  upon  the  temporary  breast- 

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Twentieth  Regiment.  121 

works  erected  by  our  troops.  He  was  immediately  repulsed, 
and  among  the  brave  men  who  met  him  the  Twentieth  North 
Carolina,  under  Colonel  T.  ¥.  Toon,  of  the  brigade,  com- 
manded by  General  R.  D.  Johnston,  captured  his  flag.  It 
was  brought  to  me  by  Major  Jno.  S.  Brooks,  of  that  regi- 
ment, who  received  his  promotion  for  gallantry  in  the  battle 
of  Chaneellorsville,  with  the  request  that  it  be  given  to  Gov- 
ernor Vance.  I  take  great  pleasure  in  complying  with  the 
wish  of  the  gallant  captors,  and  respectfully  ask  that  it  be 
granted,  and  that  these  colors  be  presented  to  the  State  of 
North  Carolina  as  another  evidence  of  the  valor  and  devotion 
that  have  made  her  name  eminent  in  the  armies  of  the  Con- 

Very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

R.  E.  Lee,  General. 

Hon.  Secretary  of  War,  Richmond,  Va. 

It  is  just,  in  this  connection,  to  bear  witness  to  the  daring 
bravery  of  Brigadier-General  Johnston,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Davis,  and  Major  Rob.  Alston,  of  the  Twelfth  North  Caroli- 
,na,  in  that  same  charge.  On  the  11th  raining,  muddy,  disa- 
greeable, under  ordinary  circumstances,  but  especially  so  to  a 
soldier  with  very  scanty  means  of  comfort.  On  the  12th, 
aroused  before  light,  precipitated  into  the  battle  before  we 
could  see;  met  the  successful  enemy  in  the  first  moments  of 
his  temporary  triumphs,  the  first  volley  we  fired  the  sheet  of 
flame  made  doubly  visible  by  the  darkness  and  fog,  met  that 
of  the  enemy  and  lighted  up  the  space  between.  I  can  now 
see  George  Stepps  in  the  mortal  combat,  with  the  color-bearer 
of  one  of  the  advancing  regiments,  and  Major  Jno.  S.  Brooks 
leap  wildly  into  the  air,  grasp  his  side,  and  fall  while  urg- 
ing the  Twentieth  North  Carolina  to  the  hottest  conflict  we 
ever  engaged  in.  We  lost  no  groimd,  however,  but,  with  oth- 
ers of  our  attacking  column,  regained  our  breastworks  and 
remained  fighting  until  9  o'clock  at  night,  when  we  were  with- 
drawn. Late  that  evening.  General  Johnston  was  wounded. 
I  also  received  a  shot  in  the  leg,  after  it  passed  through  Lieu- 
tenant George  Bullock's  coat  sleeve  without  wounding  him. 
This,  however,  disabled  me  only  for  a  few  days.     Adjutant 

122  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

E.  S.  Moore  was  also  wounded.  On  the  19th  we  advanced 
against  the  right  of  the  enemy  and  had  a  severe  skirmish; 
fell  back  to  our  line  that  night.  Our  brigade  brought  up 
the  rear.  My  regiment  was  rear  guard.  The  reconnois- 
sance  in  force  delayed  General  Grant  for  two  days  and  was 
of  great  benefit  to  General  Lee.  On  the  20th  we  moved  to 
Hanover  Junction,  thence  with  the  army  to  Second  Cold  Har- 
bor, where  we  were  under  artillery  fire  and  some  skirmish- 
ing. I  was  assigned  command  of  Johnston's  Brigade  4  June. 
I  think  about  15  June  General  Early  was  detached  and 
sent  to  meet  Hunter  at  Lynchburg.  We  arrived  there 
on  the  evening  of  the  18th,  skirmished  with  the  enemy. 
I  never  could  see  why  we  did  not  attack  the  enemy  at  once. 
'Next  day  we  pursued  the  enemy  to  Liberty,  Va.  Here 
Bryan  White  was  wounded.  In  spite  of  heat  and 
dust  almost  insupportable  the  troops  marched  on  an  ex- 
pedition against  Washington  down  the  Valley,  Hunter 
having  left  it  open  by  his  retreat  in  the  wrong  direction. 
Passing  White  Sulphur  Springs  and  jSTatural  Bridge  without 
much  time  to  try  the  health-giving  nature  of  the  one  or  en- 
joy the  beauty  and  sublimity  of  the  other.  4  July  enjoyed 
the  public  dinner  at  Harper's  Ferry  spread  by  General  Weber 
for  his  command  and  friends.  Fought  and  defeated  General 
Lew  Wallace  at  Monocacy  Bridge.  This  was  a  hard-fought 
battle  on  the  field  in  which  we  were  engaged.  Guilford  Ed- 
wards, one  among  the  best  soldiers  in  the  regiment,  lost  his 
leg  here.  This,  I  think,  was  9  July.  On  the  10th,  passed 
through  Rockville,  saw  the  Dome  of  the  Capitol,  and  pushed 
the  skirmish  line,  capturing  soldiers  in  long,  dress,  broad- 
cloth coats. 

One  Yankee  prisoner  said  they  were  counter  jumpers, 
clerks  in  the  War  Ofiice,  hospital  rats  and  stragglers.  I  know 
one  thing,  I  could  have  easily  taken  everything  in  my  front  if 
I  had  been  allowed  to  continue  my  advance.  Major  DeVane, 
a  gallant  spirit,  urged  me  to  disregard  the  order  to  fall  back 
and  rush  forward,  whatever  the  consequences  might  be.  I 
hated  to  withdraw,  but  always  tried  to  obey  orders.  On  the 
night  of  the  12th,  retreated  across  the  Potomac  river,  bring- 
ing the  accumulated  proceeds  of  the  campaign  in  horses,  beef 

Twentieth  Regiment.  123 

cattle,  cannon,  etc.  For  scttne  time  we  destroyed  railroads 
and  marched  a  countermarch.  20  July  we  had  an  affair 
with  Averill  and  Orook,  in  which  we  were  literally  run 
over.  This  was  near  Winchester.  I  think  both  retreated 
from  the  battle  field.  Parts  of  August  and  September  eating 
apple  butter  and  doing  picket  duty,  with  just  enough  skir- 
mishing to  break  the  monotony  of  soldier's  life.  19  Septem- 
ber fought  the  battle  of  Winchester,  and  in  the  battle,  al- 
though Early  was  defeated,  Eamseur's  division  was  not.  We 
held  our  own  until  ordered  to  retreat.  Early  in  the  morning 
the  cavalry  attacked  our  pickets.  I  moved  the  Twentieth 
North  Carolina  to  their  support.  Charge  after  charge  were 
repulsed.  When  closely  pressed  with  cavalry  on  both  flanks, 
I  formed  a  square  and  retreating  in  this  manner,  prevent- 
ed capture,  until  General  Wade  Hampton  came  to  my  rescue 
by  charging  in  column  those  on  my  left  and  driving  them 
back,  he  enabled  me  to  get  my  regiment  back  to  the  line  of 

The  "thin  gray  line"  which  Bradley  Johnston  saw  on  19 
September,  1864,  was  the  Twentieth  North  Carolina  Eegi- 
ment,  a  part  of  Johnston's  North  Carolina  Brigade. 

J.  E.  Kelly,  of  Company  K,  was  the  hero  of  the  hour. 
When  the  regiment  was  formed  in  a  square  almost  sur- 
rounded, hard  pressed,  a  shell  killed  the  horse  of'  Colonel 
Toon.  He  directed  Kelly  to  take  charge  of  his  belongings 
on  the  horse.  Kelly  at  that  moment  was  struck  in  the  shoul- 
der joint,  which  caused  the  loss  of  his  right  arm,  yet  he,  when 
General  Fitzhugh  Lee,  by  a  charge  on  our  left,  relieved  us, 
carried  everything,  saddle,  bridle,  blanket,  and  his  own  gun 
and  accoutrements,  to  the  hospital,  all  safe. 

J.  E.  Kelly  enlisted  from  Columbus  County,  lived  in  that 
county  for  years  after  the  war.  Raised  a  large  family.  Some 
years  since  moved  to  Wilmington.  Little  did  the  old  veterans 
of  that  patriotic  city  think  that  in  the  breast  of  that  one- 
armed  hack  driver  beat  a  heart  as  brave  as  the  bravest;  as 
true  as  tried  steel  to  his  beloved  Southland.  Such  was  Jas. 
E.  Kelly,  a  Yankee  boy;  a  Southern  volunteer;  a  drummer 
boy  hero  of  many  a  hard-fought  battle. 

October  came  with  its  triumphs  and  defeat  in  one  day.    At 

124  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Cedar  Run,  Johnston's  North  Carolina  Brigade  was  the  only 
body  of  organized  troops  that  left  the  field  in  order  and  which 
kept  firing  in  retreat  until  we  reached  a  bridge  over  the  creek 
blocked  up  by  wagons,  ambulances,  horses  and  men.  In  all 
of  the  uncertain  movements  of  this  army  we  took  part  and 
there  were  none  who  more  faithfully  discharged  their  duty. 
The  disparity  in  number  between  the  armies  contending, 
both  in  infantry  and  cavalry,  was  the  main  cause  of  the  de- 
feat of  the  Army  of  the  Valley.  General  Early  was  not  a 
great  commander  nor  a  great  general,  but  brave,  headlong  and 
risky.  Leaving  the  valley  we  were  assigned  to  picket  duty  on 
the  Roanoke  river.  We  encamped  on  the  premises  of  Mr. 
House,  and  between  the  hospitalities  of  his  house  and  that  of 
Mr.  Wyatt  (I  think  that  is  the  name)  we  spent  an  enjoyable 
Winter.  We  returned  to  Hatcher's  Run,  skirmished  and  ate 
shad  for  a  short  time.  On  25  March  was  fought  the  battle  of 
Hare's  Hill,  or  Fort  Steadman,  near  Petersburg,  Va.  My 
regiment  led  the  charge  on  the  works.  It  was  a  complete 
surprise,  many  were  killed  coming  out  of  their  tents  by  our 
men,  using  their  guns  as  clubs.  Why  were  we  not  supported  ? 
It  was  reported  to  us  that  as  soon  as  we  broke  the  line  Pick- 
ett's Division  would  support  us. 

About  9  o'clock  we  fell  back  to  our  lines  after  capturing  a 
good  many  prisoners.  Adjutant  Moore  was  wounded.  Here 
I  fought  my  last  battle,  being  desperately  wounded,  standing 
on  our  breastworks  rallying  our  troops  to  resist  an  expected 
attack  by  the  enemy.  Dr.  Schofield,  of  Petersburg,  was  kind 
to  me.  He  took  me  into  his  own  house  and  my  wounds  were 
tenderly  dressed  by  soft  hands  now  clasped  in  praise  on  the 
other  shore.  I  could  not  invoke  good  for  myself  were  I  not 
to  pray  for  better  for  those  good  people.  My  regiment  re- 
mained to  the  last  and  when  the  news  of  the  surrender  was 
promulgated  and  our  skirmishers  ordered  to  halt,  Major  De- 
Vane  said :  "I  liated  to  stop  just  then,  for  I  was  driving  the 
Yankee  skirmishers  like  sheep."  On  9  April,  at  Appomat- 
tox, hostilities  ceased  and  the  Twentieth  Regiment  laid  down 
their  arms  by  order  of  their  chieftain- — R.  E.  Lee.  We 
fought  not  for  slavery.  Our  rights  were  denied  us.  Slavery 
was  only  one  of  the  many  aggravating  circumstances  which 

Twentieth  Regiment.  125 

precipitated  hostilities.  Those  who  make  history  ought  to 
interpret  their  own  acts  and  be  considered  the  best  authority 
as  to  what  is  history. 

The  sharpshooters  from  the  regiment  deserve  especial  men- 
tion, and  acting  as  a  separate  command  justice  requires  it. 
Under  Plato  Durham,  Benj.  Robinson,  R.  A.  Smith,  Oliver 
Williams  and  McQueen  Coleman,  this  corps  did  splendid  ser- 
vice, and  was  the  most  important  arm  of  the  service.  Some 
one  belonging  to  this  corps  ought  to  write  its  history,  and  here 
I  will  couple  the  name  of  Fred.  D.  Bryan  with  this  request, 
hoping  he  will  do  justice  to  this  gallant  corps.  Mr.  Bryan, 
having  passed  through  all  of  these  scenes  of  conflict,  can  re- 
call its  history. 

Imperfect  as  this  sketch  must  be,  I  will  close  it,  acknowl- 
edging favors  and  help  from  the  following  soldiers,  partici- 
pants in  the  services  of  the  Twentieth  North  Carolina :  Rev. 
Captain  D.  K.  Bennett,  Company  G,  who  has  passed  over  the 
river  since  writing  me  on  the  subject ;  Lieutenant  Oliver  Wil- 
liams, Fair  Bluff,  IST.  C,  a  veteran  of  the  sharpshooters  corps ; 
Fred  D.  Bryan,  Marion,  S.  C,  the  beardless  boy,  the  daunt- 
less hero  of  the  same  corps ;  Edwin  S.  Moore,  Selma,  N.  C, 
Adjutant  of  the  regiment;  Captain  Louis  Hicks,  Faisons, 
N.  C,  a  quiet,  faithful  soldier  and  a  good  friend ;  Rev.  J. 
Soles  (Thirty-sixth  North  Carolina),  Mount  Tabor,  JST.  C. ; 
Jesse  J.  Pounds,  Company  G,  Hamlet,  IST.  C.  His  company 
ought  to  remember  him  with  gratitude.  Out  of  nearly  fifty 
letters  written  to  some  members  of  each  company  composing 
the  regiment  these  are  all  to  which  replies  have  been  re- 

The  following  brief  me;ntion  may  not  be  amiss: 

Thomas  Fentress  Toon  was  born  in  Columbus  County  N. 
C,  10  June,  1840.  Son  of  Anthony  F.  Toon,  Esq.,  of  Irish 
and  Welsh  extraction,  and  Mary  McMillan  Toon,  daughter  of 
Ronald  McMillan,  of  Scotland.  20  May,  1861,  he  enlisted 
as  a  private  in  Columbus  Guards  'No.  2,  a  company  raised  by 
his  half  brother.  Captain  William  H.  Toon,  who  was  after- 
wards Major  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the  Twentieth  JSTorth 
Carolina.  After  enlistment  he  returned  to  Wake  Forest  Col- 
lege and  graduated  June,  1861.   June  17,  1861,  elected  First 

126  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Lieutenant  of  his  company.  July  22,  1861,  elected  Captain  of 
his  company,  vice  Captain  W.  H.  Toon  elected  Major.  26 
February,  1863,  elected  Colonel  of  the  Twentieth  Kegiment. 
31  May,  1864,  appointed  Brigadier-General,  and  4  June 
assigned  to  command  of  Johnston's  JSTorth  Carolina  Brigade. 
He  followed  the  fortunes  of  Lee,  Jackson,  Gordon,  Early 
and  Ewell  in  all  important  engagements,  unless  deterred  by 
some  of  the  five  wounds  received  in  battle.  Lived  in  Robe- 
son County,  ]Sr.  C,  from  1891  until  elected  State  Superin- 
tendent of  Public  Instruction,  1900. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Nelson  Slough  was  a  veteran  of  the 
Mexican  War,  First  Lieutenant  January,  1847,  honorably 
discharged  Y  August,  1848.  He  was  severely  wounded  in 
the  leg,  the  etfects  of  which  were  evident  in  his  halting  step. 
When  North  Carolina  called  for  troops  he  promptly  raised 
a  Company  in  Cabarrus  County  and  offered  his  services  for 
her  defence.  When  the  Tenth  Volunteers  was  organized, 
which  regiment  was  afterwards  changed  to  Twentieth  North 
Carolina  Troops,  Captain  N.  Slough  was  given  the  post  of 
honor  as  Company  A.  He  followed  the  fortunes,  of  the  regi- 
ment ably  and  faithfully  discharging  his  duty ;  beloved  by  his 
men  and  respected  by  his  fellow  officers  for  his  generous, 
genial,  and  gentlemanly  deportment  and  for  his  unflinching 
bravery  in  battle. 

He  was  promoted  to  Major  of  the  regiment,  afterwards ■  to 
Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  resigned  on  account  of  wounds  and 
failing  health  2  Novejnber,  1863.  He  was  afterwards  sheriff 
of  his  county  for  many  years ;  popular,  beloved,  and  respected. 

To  those  who  knew  Colonel  Slough,  I  would  say  "now  that 
is  to  say  simply  for  instance"  I  know  no  braver  soldier  or 
more  faithful  officer  than  this  hero  of  two  wars.  He  died 
at  the  residence  of  his  daughter  in  Anderson,  S.  C.  in  1900. 

John  S.  Brooks,  Captain  Company  G,  born  in  Greenville, 
Pitt  Coimt,  N.  C,  20  October,  1840,  killed  12  May,  1864, 
at  Spottsylvania  Court  House,  Va.  At  the  opening  of  the 
war  he  raised  a  company  and  was  elected  Captain. 
26  February,  1863,  he  was  promoted  to  Major  and  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Slough  resigning  2  November,  1863,  he  was 

Twentieth  Regiment.  127 

promoted  to  Lieutenant-Colonel,  which  position  he  held  at  the 
time  of  his  death 

He  was  signally  honored  by  General  Lee  on  10  May,  1864, 
as  will  appear  by  correspondence  published.  Loved  by  all 
who  knew  him ;  honored  in  death,  his  dirge  was  sadly,  sweetly 
chanted  by  his  comrade  in  arms,  Brunswick  County's  Bard, 
Rev.  D.  K.  Bennett. 

JSTames  deserving  to  be  written  on  the  same  page :  Lieuten- 
ant J.  H.  Dosier  and  Lieutenant  Oliver  Mercer,  both  of  Com- 
pany G ;  Lieutenant  Oliver  Williams,  Company  C,  now  living 
at  Fair  Bluff,  Columbus  County,  N.  C. 

Thos.  r.  Toow. 
Kaleigh,  N.  C, 

9  April,  1901. 


1.  Robert  F.  Hoke,  Colonel.  3.    John  K.  Connally,  Captain,  Co.  B. 

2.  E.  W.  Wharton,  Captain,  Co.  E.  4.    R.  E.  Wilson,  Captain,  Co.  P. 

5.    L.  E.  Powers,  2d  Lieut.,  Co.  A. 


By  major  JAMES  F.    BEALL. 

In  writing  this  brief  sketch  nothing  more  than  a  short  out- 
line is  intended.  A  volume  would  be  too  small  to  contain 
all  that  could  be  said  of  this  illustrious  regiment.  Many  of 
the  facts  connected  with  it  and  the  part  it  played  in  the  gigan- 
tic struggle  for  Southern  Independence  cannot  now  be  writ- 
ten. But  it  may  not  be  amiss  for  living  witnesses  to  give 
their  testimony;  otherwise  much  that  is  valuable  to  history, 
may  be  lost. 


Early  in  June,  1861,  the  Twenty-first  ISTorth  Carolina  Reg- 
iment was  organized  and  mustered  into  the  Confederate  ser- 
vice at  Danville,  Va.  W.  W.  Kirkland  was  elected  Colonel. 
This  efficient  and  accomplished  officer,  with  vigorous  efforts, 
brought  the  regiment  to  a  state  of  perfection  in  discipline  and 
drill,  which  was  afterwards  properly  appreciated  by  those 
of  us  who  became  intimately  acquainted  with  the  stem  reali- 
ties of  war.  Just  prior  to  the  departure  of  the  regiment  from 
Danville,  it  was  drawn  up  into  line,  with  its  silken  -colors, 
(given  by  the  ladies)  waving  over  them,  presenting  as  fine  a 
body  of  men  as  one  ever  beheld — all  young  and  enthusiastic. 
Alas  !  how  many  of  those  noble  forms  now  lie  mouldering  in 
the  dust — on  almost  every  battlefield  from  Gettysburg,  Pa., 
to  New  Bern,  IST.  C.  ? .  And  how  many  we  meet  with  missing 
limbs  and  honored  scars  upon  them,  telling  of  death  and 
danger  dared !  The  Twenty-first  Regiment  was  engaged  in 
the  bloodiest  battles  of  the  war — some  of  the  greatest  in  his- 
tory. It  had  for  its  Major-Generals  those  noble  heroes — Ewell, 
Early,  Pegram  and  Ramseur.    For  its  Brigadiers: — Trimble, 


130  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

Hoke,  Godwin  and  Lewis.   Its  Field  and  Staff,  Company  Of- 
ficers— rank  and  file — were  inferior  to  none. 


The  regiment  left  Danville  15  July  mid  cheering  and 
waving  of  handkerchiefs  by  the  ladies,  arriving  at  Richmond 
the  same  evening;  17  July  it  was  ordered  to  report  to  Gen- 
eral Beauregard,  at  Manassas.  While  en  route  to  Manassas, 
we  had  a  considerable  wreck — caused  by  the  treachery  of  the 
engineer,  who  deserted  his  engine — leaving  the  train  standing 
on  the  track  in  the  night,  where  another  train  soon  came  crash- 
ing into  it,  disabling  about  twenty  of  the  regiment.  Without 
further  incident,  the  regiment  arrived  at  Manassas  early  on 
the  morning  of  the  18th.  Immediately  the  regiment  moved 
in  double  quick  time  to  our  position  at  Mitchell's  Eord  on 
Bull  Run — this  being  the  centre  of  the  Confederate  line  of 
battle.  Here  the  regiment  was  vigorously  shelled  by  the 
enemy's  batteries,  but  was  not  actively  engaged.  We  con- 
tinued to  hold  the  same  position  on  21  July — ^when  the 
first  battle  of  Mansassas  was  fought  and  a  victory  won  for 
the  Confederates,  which  electrified  the  whole  country.  After 
the  rout,  we  pursued  the  enemy  several  miles,  thinking  we 
were  going  right  into  Washington,  but  were  halted  and  or- 
dered to  retrace  our  steps. 


After  this  battle,  we  went  into  camp  on  Bull  Run,  where 
the  regiment  suffered  greatly  from  sickness.  In  September 
the  regiment  was  sent  to  Broad  Run  Station  to  recuperate.  In 
October  it  went  into  winter  quarters  at  Manassas,  and  there 
Trimble's  Brigade  was  formed  of  the  following  regiments, 
viz:  Twenty-first  Georgia,  Twenty-first  ISTorth  Carolina, 
Fifteenth  Alabama,  Sixteenth  Mississippi.  Shortly  after- 
wards, the  latter  regiment  was  transferred — the  Twelfth 
Georgia  Regiment  taking  its  place.  The  Twenty-first  Regi- 
ment after  doing  arduous  picket  duty  all  winter,  in  March 
broke  up  winter  quarters  and  took  up  line  of  march  to  Gor- 
donsville,  Va.     From  there  it  was  ordered  to  the  Valley  of 


Virginia  by  way  of  Swift  Eun  Gap,  to  report  to  General 
Jackson,  when  the  immortal  "Valley  Campaign"  was  begun, 
which  made  General  Jackson  and  his  command  famous.  His 
great  deeds  have  been  expressed  by  orator,  sung  by  the  poet, 
immortalized  in  statuary,  and  emblazoned  on  canvas. 


On  24  March,  1862,  the  regiment  was  engaged  at  the 
great  battle  of  Winchester  where  General  Banks  was  badly 
defeated  with  great  loss  of  men,  arms  and  commissary  stores. 
Just  previous  to  the  battle,  the  regiment  marched  all  night, 
lying  down  just  before  dawn  in  the  cold  dew,  to  rest,  but  not 
to  sleep.  The  sun  rose  fair  and  bright  on  the  field,  soon  to 
become  crimson  with  the  blood  of  the  bravest  hearts.  Shortly 
after  sun  up  we  were  ordered  to  storm  the  enemy's  position, 
simultaneously  with  the  command  on  our  left.  With  a  wild 
cheer  the  regiment  moved  swiftly  towards  the  enemy's  line 
behind  stone  walls,  and  was  met  by  a  most  terrific  fire  of  in- 
fantry and  grape  shot.  The  regiment  moved  right  on  to  the 
stone  wall,  from  which  the  enemy  were  pouring  forth  a  per- 
fect storm  of  canister  and  minie  balls  from  right  and  left — 
cross-firing  upon  us.  But  the  glorious  old  regiment  with  a 
valor  that  stands  unrivaled,  swept  everything  before  it.  The 
day  was  won  with  the  most  exalted  courage  and  desperate 
charge.  It  was  a  gallant  charge  and  a  gallant  defense.  The 
enemy  was  completely  routed,  with  great  slaughter  and  driven 
beyond  the  Potomac. 


The  writer  was  severely  wounded  and  left  on  the  field,  and 
the  sight  which  there  presented  itself  can  never  be  forgot- 
ten. Around  stood  several  pieces  of  artillery  deserted  by  the 
enemy.  Many  Federals  and  Confederates  lay  dead,  wounded 
and  dying  around  me.  Colonel  Kirkland,  while  waving  his 
sword  and  cheering  on  his  men  was  shot  through  the  thigh, 
but  did  not  leave  the  field.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Pepper  lay 
mortally  wounded,  but  still  cheering  his  men  on  to  victory. 
My  heart  still  bleeds  when  I  think  of  our  revered  Captain  J. 

132  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

0.  Hedgecock,  who  was  mortally  wounded,  pierced  by  half 
dozen  balls  or  more.  A  braver  or  truer  man  than  this  young 
lawyer  was  never  sent  to  the  field  of  battle.  He  and  the  gal- 
lant Pepper  sleep  in  the  cemetery  at  Winchester,  with  many 
of  their  brave  comrades.  Peace  to  their  ashes.  Company  A 
had  one  officer  killed  and  one  wounded — ten  men  killed  and 
eight  wounded.  The  loss  of  the  other  companies  of  the  regi- 
iment  was  proportionately  great.  I  am  unable  to  give  the  ex- 
act number. 


Never  were  men  more  mangled  or  pierced  with  so  many 
balls.  The  Confederate  and  Federal  medical  staffs  were  es- 
pecially interested  in  Captain  John  W.  Beard,  Company  F, 
who  was  pierced  with  eight  minie  balls — several  passing 
through  the  bowels — ^yet  recovery  was  complete  and  he  served 
through  the  entire  war ;  he  now  lives,  a  prosperous  merchant, 
in  the  State  of  Kansas.  This  conflict,  its  duration  consid- 
ered, and  the  number  engaged,  equals  or  surpasses  the  blood- 
iest battles  of  the  war.  And  yet,  an  eminent  biographer  in 
describing  the  movements  of  General  Jackson's  Corps,  makes 
but  one  allusion  to  the  North  Carolina  troops  in  these  few 
words :  "Here  the  Twenty-first  North  Carolina  Kegiment 
lost  heavily."  When  at  the  same  time  the  Memorial  Asso- 
ciation of  Winchester,  Va.,  said  that  their  cemetery  contained 
graves  of  more  soldiers  from  North  Carolina  than  from  any 
other  State,  a  fact  which  might  be  said  of  almost  every  bury- 
ing ground  in  Virginia.  Therefore,  I  hope  I  will  be  par- 
doned for  going  into  detail  in  describing  this  battle. 


After  the  battle  of  Winchester  the  regiment  was  marched 
and  countermarched  up  and  down  the  valley  many  weeks — 
engaging  almost  daily  in  combats  of  no  minor  importance, 
against  great  odds.  Fought  in  the  battles  of  Newtown,  Har- 
risonburg, and  Cross  Keys.  At  the  latter  place  it  pleased  Gen- 
eral Trimble  to  compliment  Colonel  Fulton  and  the  regiment 
for  its  gallant  conduct.  After  this  the  regiment  crossed  over 
the  Shenandoah  river,  engaged  in  the  battle  of  Port  Republic, 

Twenty-First  Regiment.  133 

and  assisted  in  sending  General  Shields  down  the  Luray  Val- 
ley, completely  routed  and  demoralized.  I  have  given  but  a 
poor  picture  of  the  series  of  brilliant  victories  of  this  valley 
catapaign,  in  which  the  Twenty-first  iN'orth  Carolina  Regi- 
ment left  on  record,  deeds  rarely  equaled,  her  banners  covered 
with  victories,  shedding  lustre  and  glory  on  North  Carolina 
and  the  Southern  arms.  General  Jackson's  Corps  having 
defeated,  in  repeated  engagements,  no  less  than  four  Federal 
armies,  sweeping  down  from  Port  Republic,  fell  like  an  ava- 
lanche on  General  McClellan's  right.  Then  ensued  that  suc- 
cession of  brilliant  engagements  which  resulted  in  sending 
the  enemy  under  the  protection  of  his  gun-boats  on  the  James 
river.  In  all  these  engagements  the  Twenty-first  bore  a  con- 
spicuous part,  losing  heavily;  9  August,  1862,  engaged  in 
the  sanguinary  battle  of  Cedar  Run.  In  this  battle  the  Fed- 
erals were  badly  whipped  and  driven  beyond  the  Rappahan- 
nock. In  this  fight,  the  regiment  captured  two  pieces  of  ar- 
tillery and  several  flags  of  the  enemy. 


After  the  fight  General  Trimble  ^made  a  little  speech  com- 
plimenting the  brigade,  in  which  he  said :  "Comrades,  I  feel 
that  I  am  on  my  way  to  my  home  in  Maryland."  On  18  Au- 
gust, 1862,  at  Hazel  river,  the  regiment  engaged  in  a  short, 
but  sanguinary  battle.  A  charge  through  a  thick  underbrush 
and  marshy  swamp,  and  with  great  courage,  drove  the  enemy 
from  his  temporary  breastworks.  This  action  on  the  part  of 
the  regiment  drew  forth  great  praise  from  General  Trimble. 
Though  this  fight  was  short,  our  loss  was  by  no  means  insig- 
nificant. We  then  bivouacked  on  the  battle  field,  which  we 
knew  how  to  appreciate,  having  been  almost  continually 
marching  and  fighting  for  several  days. 

IN  pope's  eeab. 

The  next  day  we  received  orders  to  prepare  three  days'  ra- 
tions, and  be  ready  to  march  at  a  moment's  warning.  20  Au- 
gust, 1862,  engaged  the  enemy  on  the  Rappahannock,  crossed 
the  river  and  again  encountered  him.  22  August,  recrossed 

134  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

the  river,  took  up  a  line  of  march,  passing  through  Thor- 
oughfare Gap  near  Manassas  and  appeared  in  Pope's  rear, 
destroying  several  trains  of  cars  and  immense  stores  at  Man- 
assas. The  regiment  was  engaged  in  the  series  of  fights  called 
■  the  Second  Manassas  and  Jackson's  Corps  withstood  for  two 
days  Pope's  entire  army,  repulsing  every  attack  with  heavy 
slaughter.  During  this  fight  the  Twenty-first  Kegiment  re-, 
pulsed  a  half  dozen  or  more  of  the  most  tremendous  charges 
that  were  ever  volleyed  and  thundered  at  the  head  of  mortal 
man.  Here  we  fought  face  to  face  with  men  filled  with 
whiskey,  determined  to  crush  G-eneral  Jackson.  30  August 
engaged  the  enemy  all  day  until  afternoon,  then  General 
Longstreet  came  up  when  Pope's  army  was  driven  beyond 
Bull  Run.  After  these  engagements  the  regiment  was  hors 
de  combat. 


The  next  day,  31st,  we  went  into  bivouac  and  rested  all 
day  Sunday,  saddened  by  the  absence  of  many,  many,  of  our 
brave  and  beloved  comrades,  who  had  fallen  in  the  series  of 
conflicts  through  which  we  had  just  passed.  Among  those 
who  fell  was  our  beloved  Colonel,  Saunders  P.  Ful- 
ton, a  man  who  was  absolutely  without  fear,  and  who  evi- 
dently believed  he  was  not  to  be  killed  in  battle.  1  September 
we  took  up  line  of  march  to  Ox  Hill,  where  we  again  grap- 
pled in  a  death  struggle  with  our  old  enemy.  When  we  first 
met  them,  the  Federals  seemed  greatly  surprised  and  con- 
fused, and  the  carnage  in  their  ranks  was  terrible.  Here 
Major-General  Kearney,  of  the  Federal  army,  was  killed  and 
fell  into  our  hands.  During  this  battle  a  terrific  thunder 
storm  prevailed,  the  rain  coming  down  in  torrents,  making  it 
quite  difiicult  to  keep  our  powder  dry.  The  Federals  were 
again  overwhelmingly  defeated,  and  hurled  into  their  fortifi- 
cations around  Washington.  Our  loss  in  this  engagement 
was  comparatively  small. 


After  this  battle  Jackson's  Corps  took  up  the  line  of  march 
to  Martinsburg,  Va.,  and  from  this  place  swept  down  on 

Twenty-First  Regiment.  135 

Harper's  Ferry  capturing  it  with  its  entire  garrison,  General 
D.  H.  Miles  commanding  the  garrison.  Our  loss  was  al- 
most nothing.  After  this  we  made  a  forced  march  to  Sharps- 
burg,  Md.,  where  we  arrived  17  September  and  engaged  in 
that  brilliant  and  bloody  battle.  Although  sorely  pressed, 
the  line  of  the  Twenty-first  Kegiment  was  broken  only  once 
during  that  fight.  After  falling  back  a  short  distance  and 
reforming,  we  again  charged,  repulsing  every  attack  of  the 
enemy.  Our  loss  here  was  considerable.  13  December  we 
engaged  in  the  great  battle  of  Fredericksburg  and  assisted  in 
driving  and  pursuing  the  enemy  into  the  plains  below,  who 
had  penetrated  an  interval  in  our  lines  near  Hamilton's 
Crossing.  I  believe  this  was  the  only  charge  made  by  the 
Confederates  in  this  fight.  The  loss  of  the  enemy  in  this 
charge  was  very  great,  while  ours  was  comparatively  small. 
Here  it  was  said  that  General  Lee  complimented  Colonel 
Hoke  who  commanded  the  brigade.  At  any  rate  he  was  made 
Brigadier-General  soon  after  this  fight. 


In  May,  1863,  engaged  in  the  great  battle  of  Chancellors- 
ville,  assisting  in  the  attack  on  General  Sedgwick's  fiank, 
forcing  him  into  the  bend  of  the  Rappahannock  river,  where 
his  whole  command  would  have  been  captured;  but  night 
coming  on  he  made  his  escape  across  the  river.  In  this  fight 
we  lost  many  valuable  ofiicers  and  men.  At  this  time  the 
brigade  was  composed  of  the  following  regiments:  Sixth, 
Twenty-first,  Fifty-fourth,  Fifty-seventh  North  Carolina 
Troops.  After  this  battle  our  corps,  commanded  by  Gen- 
eral Ewell,  who  succeeded  the  lamented  Jackson,  again  took 
up  line  of  march  to  the  Valley  of  Virginia,  where  the  Twenty- 
first  assisted  in  the  capture  of  Winchester  and  Martinsburg 
with  many  thousand  prisoners  and  a  great  many  pieces  of 
artillery,  many  thousand  small  arms,  wagon  trains  and  many 
stores.  The  loss  of  the  regiment  and  entire  command  was 
very  small. 


We  then  passed  over  the  Potomac  and  went  to  Little  York, 

136  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Pa.  1  July  the  two  armies  again  encountered  eacli  other,  at 
Gettysburg.  On  this  day  the  regiment  assisted  in  gaining  a 
very  decided  victory  over  the  enemy,  driving  him  back  in 
great  confusion,  through  Gettysburg.  On  the  second  day  we 
made  an  assault  on  the  enemy's  fortified  line  and  failed. 

In  the  general  history  which  will  go  down  to  posterity,  of 
course  nothing  more  than  a  brief  and  cursory  reference  can 
or  will  be  made,  to  the  service  of  any  small  command.  Yet 
it  is  due  this  gallant  brigade  (then  Hoke's)  as  also  to  those 
who  lived  not  to  see  the  clouds  and  darkness  of  other  days, 
to  refer  briefly  to  the  glorious  services  of  as  brave  a  set  of 
men  as  the  sun  ever  shone  upon.  I  will  in  my  feeble  way, 
attempt  to  show  how  those  indomitable  patriots  demeaned 
themselves  amid  the  wild  carnage  of  that  stricken  field.  The 
impressions  of  the  writer,  of  that  memorable  day  are  not  a 
picture  of  mere  fancy,  but  one  of  actual  experience.  Methinks 
I  still  hear,  through  the  long  vista  of  years,  the  rolling  echo  of 
those  awful  accents  of  battle.  After  a  lapse  of  thirty-seven 
years,  I  recall  not  without  emotion,  the  incidents  of  the  bat- 
tle which  occxirred  on  that  second  day  at  Gettysburg,  and 
while  life  lasts,  will  cherish  my  remembrance  of  the  mag- 
nificent courage  displayed  by  our  command. 


After  lying  all  day  under  a  July  sun,  suffering  with  in- 
tense heat,  and  continually  annoyed  by  the  enemy's  sharp- 
shooters from  the  heights,  from  sheer  desperation,  we  hailed 
with  delight  the  order  to  again  meet  the  veteran  foe,  regard- 
less of  his  advantage  in  numbers  and  position.  Really,  the 
enemy's  artillery,  reopening  at  the  going  down  of  the  sun,  fell 
like  music  upon  our  ears.  At  the  time  the  assault  was  made, 
the  enemy  had  massed  heavily  in  our  front,  and  placed  bat- 
teries in  the  rear  of  his  own  lines,  which  were  used  with  fear- 
ful effect  against  us,  firing  over  the  heads  of  his  own  men. 
The  ground  we  had  to  pass  over  was  ascending,  but  the  troops 
advanced  in  double  quick  time,  and  with  a  cheer  Avent  over 
the  rifle  pits  in  advance  of  the  enemy's  main  line  of  works, 
killing  and  capturing  a  few  of  them — the  greater  part  taking 

Twenty-First  Regiment.  137 

refuge  behind  the  main  line  of  breastworks.  Here  the  iight- 
ing  was  desperate,  but  like  an  unbroken  wave,  our  maddened 
column  rushed  on,  facing  a  continual  stream  of  fire.  After 
charging  almost  to  the  enemy's  line,  ^ve  Avere  compelled  to  fall 
back,  but  only  a  short  distance.  The  column  reformed  and 
charged  again,  but  failed  to  dislodge  the  enemy.  The  bri- 
gade held  its  ground  with  unyielding  determination — ever 
keeping  afloat  our  flag  to  battle  and  breeze. 


Four  out  of  five  of  the  color-bearers  who  dared  hold  up  that 
flag,  went  down  to  a  heroic  death.  As  often  as  the  flag 
went  down  it  was  taken  up  and  flaunted  in  the  face  of  the 
enemy,  holding  an  impregnable  position.  The  hour  was  one 
of  horror.  Amid  the  incessant  roar  of  cannon,  the  din  of 
musketry,  and  the  glare  of  bursting  shells  making  the  dark- 
ness intermittent — adding  awf  ulness  to  the  scene — the  hoarse 
shouts  of  friend  and  foe,  the  piteous  cries  of  wounded  and 
dying,  one  could  well  imagine,  (if  it  were  proper  to  say  it), 
that  "war  is  hell."  Further  effort  being  useless,  we  were 
ordered  to  fall  back  a  short  distance  imder  cover.  To  re- 
main was  certain  capture,  to  retreat  was  almost  certain 
death.  Few,  except  the  wounded  and  dead,  were  left 
behind.  Here,  these  brave  North  Carolinians  "stood, 
few  and  faint,  but  fearless  still."  The  enemy  did  not  follow 
or  show  any  disposition  to  leave  their  defences. 


Our  loss  in  officers  and  men  was  great.  All  the  field  offi- 
cers of  the  Twenty-first  were  killed  and  wounded  except  Col- 
onel W.  W.  Kirkland,  who  was  after  this  fight,  promoted  to 
Brigadier-General.  Here  the  lamented  Colonel  Isaac  E. 
Avery,  commanding  the  brigade,  laid  down  his  noble  life  on 
the  altar  of  his  country's  freedom.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Ran- 
kin was  badly  wounded  and  left  in  the  hands  of  the  enemy, 
where  he  remained  a  prisoner  throughout  the  war.  It  is  re- 
corded in  Vol.  125,  Official  Records  Umon  and  Confederate 
Armies,     that    Private     Oliver     P.     Rood     was     awarded 

138  North  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

a  medal  for  conspicuous  bravery  in  capturing  a  flag 
of  the  Twenty  first  North  Carolina  Kegiment  in  a  charge 
on  our  lines  at  Gettysburg  3  July.  As  I  have  just 
stated  above,  a  most  frightful  and  determined  conflict 
raged  on  the  night  of  the  2nd.  The  ground  was  strewn 
with  dead  and  wounded.  Man  after  man  went  down, 
among  them  Major  Alexander  Miller,  who  picked  up  the  flag 
after  the  first  color-bearer  fell.  He  soon  shared  the  fate  of 
the  former.  It  was  soon  taken  up  by  J.  W.  Bennett,  Com- 
pany F,  who  was,  also,  in  quick  succession,  shot  down.  The 
colors  were  then  taken  by  the  writer  and  very  soon  after  this, 
we  fell  back  to  the  works,  which  we  had  just  passed  over  a 
few  paces  and  continued  such  a  terrific  fire  upon  the  enemy, 
that  their  rifle  fire  was  completely  silenced,  the  enemy  crouch- 
ing behind  their  works.  About  this  time  Corporal  Eli  Wiley, 
Company  M,  asked  permission  to  take  the  fiag,  saying  he 
did  not  see  it  when  it  fell.  It  was  given  to  him  and  after  the 
writer  had  gone  a  few  paces  along  the  line,  orders  were  given 
to  retire  at  once,  which  was  accomplished  under  a  severe  fusil- 
lade. We  had  retreated  about  twenty-five  yards  when  I  saw 
the  flag  for  the  last  time.  Corporal  Wiley  was  killed,  and 
left,  together  with  the  flag,  in  the  lines  of  the  enemy.  In  the 
darkness  and  confusion  the  flag  was  not  missed  until  we  had 
rallied  under  cover  about  the  distance  of  two  hundred  yards. 
The  enemy  did  not  follow,  or  show  any  disposition  to  do  so, 
as  stated  above.  Soon  all  firing  ceased  and  the  battle  was 
ended.  This  was  2  July,  and  as  Private  Kood  claims  to 
have  captured  the  fiag  in  a  charge  on  our  lines,  3  July,  it  is 
evident  that  he  did  not  capture  the  fiag  in  battle  at  all,  as  our 
regiment  was  not  engaged  after  2  July.  Therefore,  it  is 
conclusive  that  he  picked  up  the  fiag  on  the  battle  field  on  the 
following  day,  the  3rd,  and  it  is  altogether  probable  that  he 
took  the  flag  from  the  body  of  the  dead  hero  who  had  been 
cold  and  stark  in  death  for  many  hours.  The  r-egiment,  bri- 
gade or  corps,  were  not  at  any  time  charged  by  the  enemy. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  charging  was  all  done  by  the  Confed- 
erates and  we  reached  Cemetery  Heights,  taking  possession  of 
their  works,  and  if  the  attack  had  been  pressed  on  our  right, 
the  enemy  could  have  been  prevented  from  concentrating  upon 

Twenty-First  Regiment.  139 

the  brigades  of  Hoke  and  Hayes,  compelling  them  to  retire, 
after  having  victory  in  their  grasp.  Eor  details,  see  Greneral 
Early's  report.  We  do  not  wish  to  detract  from  an  antago- 
nist any  distinction,  but  the  records  should  be  kept  straight. 
4  July  we  left  Gettysburg,  our  division  bringing  up  the 
rear  of  Lee's  army.  Halted  at  Hagerstown  several  days, 
then  retired  across  the  Potomac. 

THE  battle  of  PLYMOtTTH. 

The  regiment  was  engaged  in  the  memorable  battle  of  Ply- 
mouth, ]Sr.  0.,  20  April,  1864,  where  it  successfully  assaulted 
the  enemy's  fortified  position,  the  entire  garrison  surren- 
dering to  Greneral  Hoke.  The  enemy's  position  here  was  a 
very  strong  one,  protected  by  forts  and  gun  boats.  About 
dark  we  were  ordered  to  make  an  assault  upon  one  of  the 
outer  forts  up  to  which  oiir  brigade  charged,  time  after  time, 
with  persistent  courage  and  stern  detenmination.  In  the 
third  attempt  the  parapet  was  gained.  Here  the  fighting 
was  desperate  and  at  close  quarters  and  deadly — ^waxing 
hotter  from  beginning  to  finish.  The  commander  of  the  fort, 
though  mortally  wounded,  refused  to  surrender,  cursing  his 
lieutenant,  (who  had  assumed  command),  for  hoisting  the 
white  flag  and  surrendering. 


It  was  indeed  a  gallant  defense.  The  Twenty-first  Georgia 
and  Twenty-first  North  Carolina  Regiments,  as  at  the  first  of 
the  war,  again  fought  side  by  side  in  this  fierce  conflict — 
mingling  their  voices  together  in  the  same  deafening  yell  of 
triumph.  Many  of  them  were  stricken  down  on  this  bloody 
field  and  many  of  them  sleep  in  a  common  grave.  In  this 
fight  ofiicers  and  men  in  both  regiments,  vied  with  each  other 
in  deeds  of  unsurpassed  courage.  Where  all  acted  as  heroes, 
it  would  seem  invidious  to  make  any  special  mention  of 
names,  but  I  must  call  attention  to  the  distinguished  and  dar- 
ing courage  of  Captain  James  0.  Blackburn,  Company  G,  and 
Private  Francis  Clinard,  Company  A.  Both  fell  far  in  ad- 
vance of  our  line  in  making  the  assault.     The  command  then 

140  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

laid  down  under  arms,  in  line  of  battle,  among  the  dead  and 
wounded,  hearing  all  night  the  distressing  cries  of  ^  the 
wounded.  Knowing  what  was  before  us,  we  slept  but  little, 
expecting  to  make  an  attack  on  the  main  fort  near  the  town 
early  the  following  day.  But  the  Confederate  ram,  the  "Al- 
bemarle," coming  down  the  Eoanoke  river,  sank  or  ran  off  the 
Federal  gun  boats.  Then,  after  a  brief  and  futile  resistance  to 
our  coanbined  land  and  naval  forces,  the  entire  garrison  sur- 
rendered unconditionally  to  General  Hoke,  who  paid  the  bri- 
gade a  handsome  tribute  by  saying:  "My  men,  my  confi- 
dent expectations  in  you  have  been  fully  realized  in  this 


We  then  made  a  forced  march  to  New  Bern,  N.  C,  and 
after  a  fierce  combat,  drove  the  enemy  into  his  fortifications. 
Then  we  were  hurriedly  forwarded  to  Drewry's  Bluff,  where 
the  regiment  again  met  the  veteran  foe  in  another  death  strug- 
gle. The  Federals  were  badly  defeated  and  sent  back  to  the 
protection  of  their  gun  boats  on  James  river.  In  this  bat- 
tle the  regiment  held  its  position  under  very  trying  circum- 
stances, being  flanked  both  right  and  left. 


3  July,  1864,  engaged  in  the  great  battle  of  Cold  Harbor, 
where  Grant  was  repeatedly  repulsed  with  a  slaughter  never 
equaled.  It  is  said  on  this  occasion  he  lost  10,000  men.  His 
men  sullenly  refused  to  renew  the  charge.  At  this  time  the 
writer  was  in  command  of  the  division  sharpshooters  who 
were  a  considerable  distance  in  front  of  our  works,  the  enemy 
making  a  sharp  attack  on  the  skirmish  line  on  our  right. 
They  began  to  fall  back  when  General  Ramseur  rode  tip  to  me 
and  said:  "Don't  fall  back,  hold  your  position  at  all  haz- 
ards." He  immediately  wheeled  his  horse  and  left.  Just 
then  a  shell  burst  directly  in  front  of  my  horse  over  a  rifle  pit, 
killing  five  men,  among  them  Lieutenant  B.  Y.  Mebane,  of 
the  Sixth  North  Carolina  Regiment.  No  braver  or  truer 
man  ever  went  doAvn  in  battle.     General  Kamseur  then  re- 


1.  W.  W.  Kirkland,  Colonel.  4.    Alexander  Miller,  Lieut. -Colonel. 

2.  Saunders  Fulton,  Colonel.  B.    W.  J,  Pfohl,  Ma,ior. 

3.  B.  Y.  Graves,  Ijieut.-Oolonel.  6.    James  F.  Beall,  Major. 

7.    W.  G.  Foy,  Ist.  Lieut,  and  Adjutant. 

Twenty-First  Regiment.  141 

appeared,  ordering  me  to  fall  back  at  once.  Turning  to  start 
off  his  horse  tripped  and  fell,  throwing  his  brave  rider  who 
rolled  over  and  over  in  the  dust.  Horse  and  man  seemed 
to  rise  together,  and  went  away  amidst  a  storm  of 
shot  and  bursting  shell.  18  July,  after  a  forced  and  very 
tedious  march,  we  met  Hunter  at  Lynchburg,  who 
had  made  his  murderous  and  marauding  expedition  up  the 
valley,  where  many  a  fair  mansion  fell  before  the  incendi- 
ary fire-brand.  After  a  severe  skirmish,  he  fled  in  the  direc- 
tion of  Kanawha,  W.  Va.  The  regiment  lost  a  few  men  in 
this  fight. 

A  stream  reddened  with  blood. 

Then  began  that  memorable  march  down  the  valley  to 
Washington  City.  9  July  we  engaged  the  enemy  in  the 
battle  of  Monocacy,  Md.,  near  a  railroad  bridge.  The  en- 
emy being  badly  defeated,  fied  to  his  fortifications  around 
Washington.  General  Gordon,  in  his  report  of  this  battle, 
said :  "I  desire  in  this  connection,  to  state  a  fact  of  which  I 
was  an  eye  witness,  and  which,  for  its  rare  occurrence,  and 
the  evidence  it  affords  of  the  sanguinary  character  of  this 
struggle,  I  consider  worthy  of  official  mention.  One  portion 
of  the  enemy's  second  line  extended  along  a  branch,  from 
which  he  was  driven,  leaving  many  dead  and  wounded  in  the 
water  and  upon  its  banks.  So  profuse  was  the  flow  of  blood 
fr^m  the  killed  and  wounded,  that  it  reddened  the  stream  for 
more  than  one  hundred  yards  below." 


12  July  we  engaged  the  enemy  in  a  severe  skirmish  in 
front  of  Fort  Stephens,  retreating  the  same  night.  19  Sep- 
tember engaged  the  enemy  again  at  Winchester,  after  they  had 
driven  back  in  great  confusion  the  divisions  of  Gordon  and 
Ramseur.  At  no  time  during  the  war  was  the  courage,  en- 
durance and  discipline  of  the  regiment  put  to  a  greater  test 
than  in  this  battle.  Amid  great  confusion,  it  fought  with  a 
desperation  rarely  equaled,  and  by  its  steadiness,  contributed 
largely  in  preventing  a  disastrous  rout.     At  no  time  was  its 

142  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

line  broken.  20  September  engaged  tbe  enemy  at  Fisher's 
Hill,  where  our  entire  command  was  driven  back  in  great 
confusion;  our  division,  in  this  retreat,  again  bringing  up 
the  rear.  This  regiment,  in  retreating  column,  fought  the 
enemy  several  days,  the  enemy  pressing  us  with  great  vigor 
all  the  time.  In  this  retreat,  the  men  suffered  great  fatigue, 
being  poorly  fed  and  clad,  and  miserably  shod.  They  had 
no  change  of  clothes  for  weeks. 


19  October,  1864,  early  in  the  morning,  under  cover  of 
darkness  and  fog,  we  succeeded  in  surprising  the  enemy,  and 
in  turning  his  left  flank,  capturing  many  pieces  of  artillery 
and  many  prisoners.  The  enemy  fell  back  in  great  confu- 
sion, with  heavy  loss,  but  being  heavily  re-enforced,  rallied, 
and  in  turn  assumed  the  offensive,  and  with  overwhelming 
numbers  made  a  most  furious  assault  on  the  two  divisions  on 
our  left,  crushing  them  in  detail.  Our  division  looked  help- 
lessly on  the  terrible  struggle — having  all  that  we  could  at- 
tend to  in  our  own  front. 


During  this  battle,  occurred  one  of  the  most  trying  ordeals 
of  the  writer's  life.  We  were  moving  on  the  enemy,  when 
the  writer  met  his  brother.  Captain  T.  B.  Beall,  of  the  Four- 
teenth North  Carolina  Regiment,  coming  out  desperately 
wounded  through  the  lung,  the  blood  spurting  from  his  breast. 
There  wasn't  time  to  give  him  a  word  of  sympathy,  much  less 
attention,  leaving  him  as  I  then  thought  for  the  last  time  in 
this  world.  He  had  the  good  fortune  soon  after,  to  meet  with 
an  ambulance,  which  took  him  and  the  gallant  Lieutenant  W. 
G.  Foy,  of  the  Twenty-first  North  Carolina  Regiment,  who 
was  also  desperately  wounded,  to  the  field  hospital.  They 
received  immediate  attention,  and  both  finally  recovered,  but 
were  left  more  or  less  disabled  for  life.  In  this  battle  fell  the 
lamented  Eamseur. 

Twenty-First  Regiment.  143 


Here  I  wish  to  relate  the  heroic  deed  of  Private  Johnson, 
(ambulance  driver).  General  Ramseur  was  seen  to  fall,  and 
Johnson  was  ordered  by  Major  Pfohl  to  go  after  him,  which 
he  did  under  a  terrific  fire.  He  succeeded  in  getting  him, 
but  was  overtaken  and  captured  on  the  retreat.  General  Pe- 
gram  seeing  that  the  day  was  lost  to  the  Confederates,  ordered 
the  division  to  fall  back,  saying :  "Men,  you  must  do  this  in 
order — firing  as  you  retreat,  for  your  own  and  the  army's 
safety  deonand  it."  Never  was  greater  heroism  displayed  by 
both  men  and  officers  than  in  this  terrible  retreat.  Then  the 
enemy,  maddened  by  recent  defeat,  and  fiushed  with  sudden 
victory,  with  their  whole  line  made  a  furious  assault  upon 
our  discomfited  line,  which  was  driven  back  in  great  confu- 
sion. In  our  futile  efforts  to  stem  the  tide  of  battle  that 
threatened  to  overwhelm  us,  we  lost  many  brave  officers  and 
men.  Among  the  killed  was  the  heroic  Pfohl,  commander  of 
the  regiment.  No  man  ever  exhibited  in  such  a  time  greater 
coolness,  skill  and  bravery,  which  excited  the  admiration  of 
his  men.  In  this  fight  near  Strasburg,  Va.,  ended  our  last 
attempt  to  invade  the  North  by  way  of  the  Shenandoah.  Af- 
ter this  battle,  the  writer  assumed  command  of  the  regiment, 
which  he  had  the  honor  to  hold  until  24  March,  1865,  when 
he  was  severely  wounded  at  Petersburg  in  an  assault  on  the 
enemy's  lines. 


The  command  was  then  sent  to  Petersburg,  went  into 
winter  quarters  on  Hatcher's  Run,  where  it  remained  all  win- 
ter, doing  very  fatiguing  picket  duty.  16  February,  1865, 
the  regiment  engaged  the  enemy  in  a  very  fierce  combat  on 
Hatcher's  Run.  It  was  here  Captain  Byrd  Snow  fell  mortally 
wounded.  He  was  in  command  of  the  regiment  during  this 
fight,  as  brave  and  true  a  soldier  as  ever  drew  sword  in  his 
country's  honor.  24  March,  1865,  this  regiment,  the  ad- 
vance of  the  assaulting  column,  successfully  charged  the  en- 
emy's works  between  Fort  Steadman  and  Battery  No.  10. 
Then  turning  right  and  left,  captured  several  pieces  of  ar- 

144  North  Carolina  Troops,  186 J -'65. 

tillery  and  many  prisoners.  When  we  were  ordered  to  re- 
treat, the  enemy's  artillery  fire  was  kept  up  so  continuously, 
it  was  almost  impossible  to  get  Back  to  our  works.  However, 
we  brought  back  about  all  of  our  regiment  except  the 
wounded.  General  Grant  in  his  report,  claimed  the  Confed- 
erate loss  was  4,000,  but  the  number  of  Confederates  engaged 
was  not  much  more  than  half  that. 


A  few  days  after  this  the  Army  of  ISTorthern  Virginia  re- 
treated from  Petersburg,  falling  back  about  a  hundred  miles 
or  more,  repeatedly  giving  battle,  but  finally  from  sheer  ex- 
haustion, surrendered  at  Appomattox.  We  did  not  lose  a 
great  many  killed  on  this  march,  but  it  saddens  me  to  think 
that  any  had  to  die,  after  going  through  the  whole  war,  and 
when  so  near  the  end  of  it.  In  this  last  sad  scene  of  the 
war,  the  Twenty-first  JSTorth  Carolina  Eegianent  furled  for- 
ever the  flag  to  which  she  had  added  such  lustre;  to  be  em- 
balmed in  the  affectionate  remembrance  of  those  who  re- 
mained true  to  the  end. 


W.  W.  KiEKLAND,  Colonel  commanding,  June,  1861,  pro- 
moted to  Brigadier-General. 

Egbert  F.  Hoke^  Colonel,  promoted  to  Major-General. 

Gaston  Lewis,  Colonel,  promoted  to  Brigadier-General. 

S.  F.  Fulton,  Colonel,  killed. 

James  M.  Leach^  Lieutenant-Colonel,  resigned. 

W.  L.  ScoTT^  Lieutenant-Colonel,  resigned. 

E..  K.  Pepper^  Lieutenant-Colonel,  killed. 

B.  Y.  GeaveSj  Lieutenant-Colonel,  resigned. 

W.  S.  Eankin^  Lieutenant-Colonel,  prisoner. 

Alexander  Miller^  Lieutenant-Colonel,  killed. 

J.  M.  EicHAEDsoN^  Major,  resigned. 

W.  J.  ProHL,  Major,  killed. 

Jambs  F.  Beall,  Major. 

William  Foy^  Adjutant. 

Twenty-First  Regiment.  145 

List  of  Captains  of  Twenty-fikst  North  Carolina 
Regiment — J.  H.  Miller,  Captain  Company  A;  R.  E.  Wil- 
son, Captain  Company  B ;  Byrd  Snow,  Captain  Com- 
pany C ;  R.  A.  Barrow,  Captain  Company  D ;  John 
W.  Beard,  Captain  Company  F;  Thos.  B.  Gentry,  Cap- 
tain Company  G;  James  H.  Jones,  Captain  Company  H; 
Matthew  C.  Moore,  Captain  Company  I ;  John  L.  Pratt,  Cap- 
tain Company  K ;  John  E.  Gilmer,  Captain  Company  M. 

Note. — The  loss  of  this  regiment  in  killed,  wounded  and 
dead  was  at  least  75  per  cent,  from  the  beginning  to  the  end 
of  the  war.  Forty  or  more  combats  and  skirmishes  of  no 
minor  importance  are  not  included  in  this  sketch  and  many 
incidents  both  instructive  and  amusing,  might  be  given  which 
would  extend  this  paper  to  a  much  greater  length,  but  the 
long  list  of  names  of  wounded  and  killed  speak  more  elo- 
quently than  tongue  of  the  service  of  this  regiment.  I  have 
avoided  speaking  of  incidents  connected  with  other  com- 
mands, but  have  endeavored  to  confine  myself  to  the  deeds 
of  the  Twenty-first  Regiment  only.  I  have  written  what  I 
saw  or  knew  of  my  own  personal  knowledge  and  from  infor- 
mation received  from  reliable  and  official  sources. 

Special  Mention. — Matthew  Chamberlain,  private, 
Twenty-first  North  Carolina  Regiment,  Stokes  county,  never 
had  a  furlough,  never  ^missed  a  battle  in  which  his  regiment 
was  engaged,  never  received  a  wound.  He  died  in  1896. 
Strange  to  say  there  is  no  report  of  Company  L  in 
Moore's  Roster. 

The  conduct  of  Lieutenant  Logan  T.  Whitlock,  who 
was  in  command  of  the  sharpshooters  at  the  battle 
of  Plymouth,  cannot  be  too  highly  commended,  and 
should  not  be  omitted.  It  was  ascertained  that  to  make  an 
assault  upon  the  main  fort  the  command  would  have  to  charge 
across  a  perfectly  level  and  open  field,  which  could  not  be 
done  without  great  loss.  At  this  critical  time,  where  "to  hes- 
itate was  to  be  lost,"  Whitlock  volunteered  to  reconnoitre 
within  the  enemies  lines.     He  foiind  that  he  could  go  into  the 


146  North  Carolina  Troops,  l861-'65. 

town  and  get  behind  and  close  up  to  the  enemy's  fortifica- 
tions by  crawling  along  the  bank  of  the  river.  The  brigade 
followed  Whitlock  and  his  sharpshooters.  After  coming 
into  position,  near  the  fort,  the  attack  was  made  and  with  the 
help  of  the  Confederate  Earn  "Albemarle,"  the  enemy  imme- 
diately surrendered. 

I  wish  to  recall  another  incident  worthy  of  observation  of 
all  ages.  Lieutenant  P.  A.  Oaks  lost  his  arm  at  Cold  Har- 
bor. Some  months  after,  he  caane  to  the  regiment  at  Fisher's 
Hill.  When  he  arrived,  the  regiment  was  on  the  line  and 
under  fire,  and  against  the  appeals  of  officers  and  men,  he 
persisted  in  going  into  the  fight.  After  fighting  all  the  even- 
ing he  was  finally  shot  through  the  left  breast.  In  a  month 
or  so  Oaks  was  back  with  his  regiment  again,  saying  it  was 
too  lonesome  to  stay  at  home.  The  night  before  we  engaged 
the  enemy  in  the  battles  around  Richmond,  Private  H.  C. 
Walser,  who  was  less  than  18  years  old,  had  his  foot  and  ankle 
badly  scalded.  He  was  left  in  camp,  excused  by  the  surgeon, 
but  soon  after  the  firing  commenced,  Walser  made  his  ap- 
pearance bare-footed  and  went  through  the  whole  battle,  in 
bamboo  briers  and  mud  and  water  up  to  his  knees. 

In  conclusion,  I  cannot  do  better  than  to  quote  an  extract 
from  an  address  made  by  Colonel  Chas.  S.  Venable,  of  Gen- 
eral Lee's  staff:  "Comrades!  we  need  not  weave  any  fable, 
borrowed  from  Scandinavian  lore  into  the  woof  of  our  his- 
tory, to  inspire  our  youth  with  admiration  of  glorious  deeds 
in  freedom's  battles  done !  In  the  true  history  of  this  Army 
of  Northern  Virginia  which  laid  down  its  arms — not  con- 
quered, but  wearied  with  victory,  you  have  a  record  of 
deeds  of  valor,  of  unselfish  consecration  to  duty,  and  faith- 
fulness in  death  which  will  teach  our  sons,  and  son's  sons  how 
to  die  for  liberty.  Let  us  see  to  it  that  it  shall  be  transmitted 
to  them."  James  F.  Be  all. 

LiNWOOD,   N.  C, 

9  April,  1901. 


1.  Samuel  0.  James,  Captain,  Co.  D.  4.    John  W.  Miller,  Captain,  Co.  D. 

2.  J.  H.  Miller,  Captain,  Co.  A.  5.    L.  T.  "Whitlock,  Ist  Lieut.,  Co.  C. 

3.  J.  E.  Gilmer,  Captain,  Co.  M.  6.    J.  D.  McTver,  Sergeant,  Co.  A. 

7.    J.  O.  Blackburn,  Captain,  Co.  G. 


By  lieutenant  L.  E.  POWERS,  Company  A. 


Shields  occupied  a  coinmanding  position.  He  had  a  six- 
gun  battery  on  a  plateau  of  the  mountain  that  could  sweep 
the  whole  field  to  the  river,  and  there  was  no  way  to  approach 
him  without  coming  within  its  galling  range.  It  was  abso- 
lutely necessary  that  that  battery  should  be  silenced,  and  the 
only  way  to  do  so  was  to  walk  up  to  it  and  take  it.  With  this 
battery  in  our  hands,  Jackson  made  short  work  of  Shields. 
His  army  was  soon  routed  and  nearly  all  captured,  which  left 
us  with  that  side  of  the  river  clear  of  foes  and  in  peaceful 
possession  of  the  bridge.  Jackson  had  left  nearly  all  of  Ew- 
ell's  Division,  and  perhaps  part  of  the  old  division,  confront- 
ing Fremont,  who,  as  soon  as  he  discovered  we  were  fighting 
Shields,  made  an  attack  on  Ewell  and  was  repulsed  at  every 
point.  It  was  in  this  engagement  with  Fremont  that  I  saw  a 
whole  regiment  annihilated  at  a  single  fire.  It  was  the  Sev- 
enth ISTew  York,  composed  of  freshly  imported  Germans  who 
could  scarcely  speak  the  English  language  intelligibly.  They 
were  so  foolish  as  to  attempt  to  march  through  an  open  clover 
field  to  a  body  of  timber  within  our  lines,  with  no  sharp  shoot- 
ers in  front  to  locate  our  position.  Two  regiments  of  my 
brigade,  the  Twenty-first  Georgia  and  Sixteenth  Mississippi, 
were  posted  behind  a  fence  that  ran  along  the  edge  of  this 
woods.  There  was  a  large  hollow  in  the  clover  field  just  in 
front  of  our  position,  behind  the  fence.  -The  Germans  came 
marching  across  the  clover  field  in  beautiful  line,  carrying 
their  guns  at  "support  arms."  The  Colonel  walking  back- 
wards in  front  of  them,  seeing  that  they  preserved  a  perfect 
alignment  just  as  though  they  were  simply  drilling.  The 
Georgians  and  Mississippians  were  lying  fiat  on  the  ground, 

148  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

with  their  guns  in  the  bottom  crack  of  the  fence.  When  the 
Germans  got  in  the  hollow  above-mentioned,  they  could  not 
be  seen ;  but  when  they  crossed  it  and  came  into  view  again, 
they  were  within  fifty  yards  of  the  fence.  Colonel  Mercer, 
of  the  Twenty-first  Georgia,  who  was  commanding  this  de- 
tachment, sent  an  order  down  the  line  that  if  any  man  fired 
before  he  gave  orders  to  fire,  he  would  have  him  shot.  As  the 
Germans  came  up  out  of  the  hollow,  their  flag  and  that  of  the 
Georgians  exactly  confronted  each  other  This  gave  the  Mis- 
sissippians  an  enfilading,  or  raking  fire.  The  men  had  their 
sights  drawn  and  their  fingers  on  the  triggers,  and  in  a  quiver 
of  excitement  they  saw  the  Germans  coming  up  out  of  the 
hollow  and  waited  for  the  order  to  fire.  Colonel  Mercer 
made  them  hold  their  fire  until  they  could  be  seen  from  their 
feet  up.  Our  men  had  a  full,  clear  view,  a  lying  down  rest 
and  an  unobstructed  range  of  not  more  than  forty  yards. 
When  the  order  "Fire !"  rang  out  from  Mercer,  a  volley  from 
a  thousand  guns  sounded  in  the  air,  and  a  thousand  bullets 
flew  to  their  deadly  work.  The  poor  Germans  fell  all  across 
each  other  in  piles. 


We  pushed  on  up  the  Valley  until  we  struck  the  Virginia 
Central  Railroad,  where  we  found  a  lot  of  trains  of  cars 
awaiting  us.  So  actively  had  this  march  been  conducted, 
that  not  a  person  along  our  route  knew  that  Jackson  was 
moving  until  they  saw  the  army  marching  by.  We  were  packed 
in  and  on  the  cars  almost  like  sardines  in  a  box,  and  went 
whirling  through  the  great  Blue  Eidge  tunnel  on  to  Rich- 
mond, or  as  near  Richmond  as  it  was  advisable  to  go,  and 
tumbled  out  of  the  cars,  straightened  out  our  limbs  and  took 
up  the  march  for  McClellan's  rear. 


The  battle  of  Cold  Harbor,  in  which  we  were  engaged  the 
next  day,  27  June,  was  a  desperate  and  bloody  one.  I  was 
still  serving  on  the  ambulance  corps  and  had  heavy  work  car- 
rying the  wounded  back  to  the  field  hospital,  where  the  field 

Twenty-First  Regiment.  149 

Burgeons  would  dress  their  wounds  or  amputate  their  limhs, 
as  might  be  necessary.  One  of  the  finest  and  most  efficient 
surgeons  of  the  whole  army  was  Dr.  Tanner,  a  citizen  of  Fair- 
fax County,  Virginia,  who  was  assigned  to  our  regiment  and 
served  with  it  nearly  all  the  war.  He  had  improvised  a 
rough  table,  or  couch,  with  a  blanket  spread  over  it,  upon 
which  we  would  lay  the  wounded  men,  and  his  quick  trained 
eye  soon  discovered  whether  amputation  was  necessary  or  not. 
With  his  sleeves  rolled  up  to  his  shoulders,  he  stood  at  that 
table  and  amputated  feet  and  legs,  and  hands  and  arms, 
throwing  them  on  a  blanket  spread  on  the  ground,  until  there 
were  as  many  as  four  men  could  carry  off  and  bury.  It  was 
necessary  to  carry  off  this  blanket  full  several  times  during 
the  day.  Under  the  influence  of  chloroform  some  of  the  poor 
fellows  stormed  and  swore;  some  would  sing,  while  others 
would  lie  still  and  quiet,  as  the  scalpel  and  saw  did  their  work. 
*  *  *  This  was  the  opening  of  a  series  of  desperate  and 
bloody  battles,  known  in  history  as  the  "Seven  Days'  Battle," 
between  McClellan  and  Lee,  near  the  city  of  Richmond,  in 
which  the  former,  with  a  well  fortified  position  and  well 
equipped  army,  vastly  outnumbering  that  of  Lee,  was  driven 
from  his  fortifications  and  beaten  back  to  the  sheltering  pro- 
tection of  a  strong  array  of  marshaled  Fleets  and  forced  to 
abandon  the  siege  of  a  city  he  had  commenced  and  conducted 
with  so  much  eclat,  lii  this  series  of  battles  there  was  so  much 
fighting,  so  much  charging  and  so  many  thrilling  incidents 
and  displays  of  personal  and  individual  courage,  that  I  pass 
over  them,  not  having  a  sufficiently  clear  recollection  at  this 
time  to  relate  them  in  detail. 


We  did  not  remain  long  in  this  camp.  In  fact,  no  part  of 
the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  had  much  rest  at  any  time 
during  the  active  and  bloody  year  of  1862.  The  armies  of 
Fremont,  Banks  and  Shields,  whom  we  had  so  roughly  han- 
dled in  the  Valley  a  short  time  previous,  had  been  united 
and  formed  an  invading  column  under  the  braggart,  Pope, 
who  declared  that  the  only  part  of  a  rebel  he  had  ever  seen 
was  his  back,  issuing  his  orders  from  headquarters  in  the  sad- 

150  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

die,  which  would  seem  to  boast,  "I  am  going  to  do  something. 
I  am." 


Learning  of  the  advance  of  this  column,  we  broke  camp  at 
Gordonsville  and  marched  to  meet  it,  determined  that 
Pope  should  see  our  faces  when  we  met.  We  en- 
countered our  friend  and  commissary,  Banks,  at  Cedar 
Mountain,  where  we  were  so  persistent  in  present- 
ing our  faces  to  view  that  this  part  of  Pope's  army 
soon  presented  us  a  brief  view  of  their  backs  and  disappeared. 
In  this  battle  I  obtained  the  finest  view  of  an  en- 
gagement I  ever  had.  Cedar  Mountain  is  an  isolated  knob 
with  a  broad,  open  country  all  around  it.  From  this  elevated 
position  we  could  plainly  see  the  two  lines  approach,  and 
when  they  opened  fire  and  engaged  in  deadly  strife,  how  my 
heart  ached  for  the  result  as  I  looked  upon  this  living  pano- 
rama of  war,  with  the  greatest  possible  anxiety  for  the  suc- 
cess of  our  men.  As  long  as  they  stood  and  fired  at  each 
other  the  result  was  in  great  dotibt ;  but  when  our  men  raised 
the  "Rebel  Yell,"  and  swept  down  among  them  in  an  old- 
fashioned  Confederate  charge,  that  settled  it.  The  Federals 
were  swept  from  the  field  and  driven  off  in  confusion,  and 
Banks  was  made  to  honor  another  requisition  from  Jackson 
on  his  commissary  department. 

It  having  been  definitely  ascertained  that  the  army  of  Mc- 
Clellan  was  being  withdrawn  from  the  Peninsula  and  sent  to 
Pope,  General  Lee  began  to  transfer  his  army  to  the  fields  of 
Northern  Virginia  again.  Jackson  began  one  of  his  favorite 
movements  to  turn  Pope's  flank  and  get  into  his  rear.  To  do 
this,  we  had  to  make  a  detour  of  sixty  or  seventy  miles,  sweep- 
ing around  close  to  the  foot  of  the  Blue  Ridge  so  as  to  turn 
his  right  flanlc.  The  march  was  a  forced  and  vigorous  one, 
so  as  to  execute  the  movement  before  Pope  could  be  apprised 
of  our  purpose.  While  marching  up  a  river  and  about  a 
mile  from  it,  a  regiment  of  the  enemy  crossed  over, 
threw  out  a  line  of  sharpshooters  and  began  to  reconnoiter 
our  columns.  They  supposed,  no  doubt,  that  it  was  Mosby 
with  his  little  battalion  of  bush-whackers,  hanging  on  their 

Twenty-First  Regiment.  151 

flanks  and  annoying  them,  as  was  his  custom,  and  they  would 
run  him  off  before  he  could  do  them  any  mischief.  They 
struck  our  column  at  our  brigade.  We  quickly  faced  into 
line  and  charged  them,  running  them  back  to  the  river,  into 
which  they  plunged  precipitately  as  they  came  to  it.  We 
rushed  down  to  the  bank  and  found  the  river  full  of  Federals, 
struggling  to  reach  the  other  bank,  where  many  were  climbing 
up  out  of  the  river.  We  paid  no  attention  to  those  in  the 
water,  it  being  such  a  fair  and  tempting  shot  at  those  climb- 
ing the  other  bank.  We  were  rolling  them  back  in  the  river 
at  a  fearful  rate  when  we  were  ordered  to  join  the  column 
and  resume  the  march.  We  resumed  our  march  and 
pressed  forward  with  all  the  speed  we  could  make.  So  rap- 
idly did  we  move  from  place  to  place,  always  turning  up  at 
a  place  entirely  unexpected  by  the  enemy,  that  we  were 
known  as  "Jackson's  Foot  Cavalry."  In  fact,  we  could  on 
long  marches  outmarch  the  cavalry  during  the  latter  part  of 
the  war.'  They  cotild  ride  off  from  us  for  the  first  few  days, 
but  their  horses  being  thin,  would  soon  become  jaded  and  we 
would  overtake  them  and  march  on  by  them  in  a  week's  time. 
We  made  a  complete  success  of  turning  Pope's  flank  and 
marched  around  into  his  rear.  We  struck  the  raih'oad  at  a 
place  called  Brandy  Station,  distant  only  three  or  four  miles 
from  Manassas  Junction,  at  about  11  o'clock  at  night.  We 
had  been  there  but  a  few  minutes  when  we  heard  the  whistle 
of  a  train  in  the  direction  of  Pope's  army,  and  discovered  it 
was  coming  toward  us.  We  tried  to  tear  up  a  rail  from  the 
track  but  did  not  succeed  before  the  train  came  thundering 
by.  We  fired  a  volley  into  it  as  it  sped  towards  Manassas 
Junction.  Soon  we  heard  another  whistle  coming  from  the 
same  direction.  This  time  we  succeeded  in  getting  some 
rails  up  and  turned  them  so  as  to  cause  the  engine  to  jump 
the  track  down  a  steep  embankment.  We  then  moved  iip  the 
road  a  short  distance,  and  as  it  came  by  we  fired  a  volley  into 
it.  The  engineer  pulled  the  throttle  wide  open  and  gave  his 
engine  all  the  steam.  When  it  struck  the  turned  rails,  it 
jumped  clear  out  from  the  rails  and  buried  itself  in  the  earth 
at  the  foot  of  the  embankment.  The  cars  tumbled  into  piles, 
leaving  not  more  than  half  the  train  standing  on  the  track. 

152  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Soon  we  heard  another  whistle,  and  moving  up  the  road, 
greeted  the  train  with  a  volley  as  it  passed.  The  engineer 
did  as  the  other,  giving  it  all  the  speed  he  could,  out  about 
half  way  through  the  cars  standing  on  the  track,  scattering 
them  in  all  directions  and  doubling  up  his  own  train  into  a 
jumbled  mass.  Soon  we  heard  the  whistle  of  another  train, 
and  treating  it  as  we  had  the  others,  drove  it  headlong  into 
the  mass  of  wreckage  that  already  encumbered  the  track. 
This  was  the  last  one  to  come  down,  and  we  had  three  long 
trains  piled  up  in  a  mass  of  wreckage  on  the  track.  They 
were  all  long  trains  of  empty  box  ears,  filled  up  with  rough, 
board  seats,  and  were  transporting  McClellan's  troops  to 
Pope.  The  first  engine  we  ditched  was  called  "The  Presi- 
dent," and  had  a  very  fair  picture  of  President  Lincoln 
painted  on  the  steam  dome,  with  one  of  our  bullet  holes 
through  his  head. 

If  we  had  struck  the  trains  going  the  other  way,  they  woTild 
have  been  full  of  troops,  and  we  would  have  made  a  big  haul 
of  prisoners.  The  first  train  that  succeeded  in  passing  us  re- 
ported at  the  junction,  where  there  was  a  company  of  artillery 
that  Mosby's  gang  had  fired  on  it  as  it  passed  Brandy  Sta- 
tion and  they  might  look  out  for  an  attack  before  day.  But 
for  this  warning,  we  would  have  caught  the  artillerymen  in 
their  beds. 

My  regiment  was  sent  forward  to  capture  the  junction, 
which  we  reached  about  1  o'clock  in  the  morning.  The  artil- 
lerymen, warned  by  the  train  that  escaped  us,  had  their  guns 
loaded  with  grape  shot  and  canister  and  were  in  position  wait- 
ing for  us.  Grape  shot  are  iron  balls  about  the  size  of  mar- 
bles, and  a  12-pound  gun  is  loaded  with  about  a  half  gallon  of 
them.  Canister  is  a  tin  can  about  the  size  of  a  three-po\ind 
tomato  can,  sealed  up  full  of  musket  balls  loaded  into  the 
cannon  that  way.  When  fired,  the  can  is  torn  to  pieces  and 
the  bullets  scatter  out.  Marching  up  to  cannon  loaded  with 
grape  and  canister  is  rough  medicine,  but  soldiers  some  limes 
have  to  take  it.  We  approached  the  station  as  silently  and 
stealthily  as  we  could  and  succeeded  in  covering  behind  some 
box  cars  standing  on  the  track.  We  were  wanting  them  to 
fire,  knowing  they  would  get  a  shot  any  way,  but  we  were 

Twenty-First  Regiment.  153 

dreading  the  fire  at  the  same  time.  They  held  their  fire 
until  we  got  within  a  hundred  yards,  but  we  could  not  see 
them  well  enough  to  shoot  them,  and  they  were  waiting  to  see 
us  plainly.  Finally  we  made  such  a  noise  among  the  cars 
they  thought  we  were  charging,  and  fired  all  four  of  their 
guns.  Fortunately  for  us,  their  aim  in  the  darkness  was 
bad.  Their  grape  shot  and  bullets  went  whistling  over  our 
heads,  and  no  one  was  hurt.  This  was  the  opportuuity  we 
were  wishing  for.  Their  guns  were  now  empty  and  we  were 
careful  not  to  give  them  time  to  load  again.  With  a  quick 
dash  we  were  soon  among  them  and  made  them  all  prisoners 
before  they  could  reload  their  guns.  Having  secured  our 
prisoners  and  arranged  for  their  safe  keeping,  we  laid  down 
and  slept  soundly  until  next  morning. 


The  large  warehouse  full  of  rations  that  we  had  burned 
about  six  months  before,  had  been  rebuilt  and  was  full  of 
army  supplies,  this  point  being  used  as  Pope's  base.  It  will 
be  observed  that  Jackson,  with  his  corps  only,  was  square  in 
the  rear  of  Pope's  army,  which  consisted  of  the  united  forces 
of  Banks,  Fremont  and  Shields,  with  heavy  reinforcements 
from  McClellan's  army.  All  this  force  was  between  us  and 
the  main  body  of  our  army.  In  addition  to  this,  on  the  other 
side  of  us  and  not  far  off,  was  the  main  body  of  McClellan's 
great  army,  pressing  up  from  Acquia  creek  to  join  Pope.  We 
were  exactly  between  these  two  great  armies  and  completely 
cut  off  from  our  friends,  and  it  looked  as  though  they  only 
had  to  move  together  and  crush  us  with  their  mighty  weight. 
The  men  as  well  as  the  generals  knew  that  our  position  was 
an  extremely  critical  one,  but  not  one  of  us  had  any  fears  of 
being  crushed  or  captured.  That  Jackson  was  with  us  and 
could  lead  us  out,  was  felt  and  expressed.  If  our  friends 
could  not  reach  us  before  this  great  anaconda  closed  around 
us,  we  knew  that  Jackson  would  concentrate  his  strength  on 
some  weak  point  and  cut  his  way  through  and  walk  off  where 
he  pleased.  We  all  felt  we  were  able  to  do  that  in  a  great 
emergency.     We  filled  our  haversacks  and  loaded  our  wagons 

154  North  Carolina  Troops,  ,  1861-'65. 

as  well  as  several  others,  that  we  captured  at  the  junction, 
with  Federal  rations,  again  drawing  on  our  good  commissary, 
Banks,  for  supplies.  We  then  applied  the  torch  to  the  re- 
mainder, again  burning  down  Manassas  warehouse  full  of 
provisions.  Pope  now  realizing  the  situation,  began  to  press 
down  upon  us  with  the  view  of  crushing  us  before  Lee  could 
send  us  any  assistance.  We  simply  moved  out  a  few  miles 
from  the  junction  and  took  position  on  a  part  of  the  ground 
on  which  the  famous  battle  of  Bull  Eun  was  fought  a  little 
more  than  a  year  previous.  The  lines,  however,  were  nearly 
at  a  right  angle  to  those  of  the  previous  battle,  as  we  were 
being  approched  from  a  different  direction.  Pope  had  taken 
the  precaution  to  place  a  force  at  each  of  the  mountain  passes 
to  prevent  reinforcements  from  reaching  us,  and  began  to 
press  us  with  his  whole  army,  making  the  attack  on  29  Au- 
gust. This  was  the  famous  "Second  Battle  of  Manassas," 
and  was  one  of  the  most  stubbornly  fought  battles  of  the  war. 
Jackson  had  only  his  own  corps  during  this  first  day's  fight  to 
withstand  the  surging  mass  of  Federals  that  was  hurled 
against  him.  But  this  he  did  in  true  Stonewall  style,  beating 
them  back  and  holding  our  position  throughout  the  day.  In 
the  meantime  Longstreet  was  hastening  with  all  possible 
speed  to  our  assistance,  and  when  he  came  to  the  mountain 
gap  through  which  it  was  necessary  for  him  to  pass  in  order 
to  reach  us,  he  did  not  permit  the  force  guarding  it  to  be  any 
obstacle  in  his  way.  He  simply  ran  over  them  with  his  old 
veterans.  He  reached  us  late  in  the  afternoon  of  the  30th, 
and  was  beating  back  Pope's  left  wing  before  that  General 
knew  he  had  crossed  the  mountains.  On  the  morning  of  the 
30th  Pope  hurled  his  forces  against  us  with  the  evident  in- 
tention of  crushing  us  before  other  help  could  reach  us,  and 
it  is  doubtful  if  he  yet  knew  that  Longstreet  was  there  wait- 
ing for  him.  He  (Pope)  had  still  been  further  reinforced 
from  McOlellan's  army  and,  no  doubt,  felt  able  to  run  over 
us.  During  this  day  some  of  the  hardest  fighting  that  had 
occurred  thus  far  was  had.  On  one  occasion  the  hostile 
forces  met  at  a  railroad  fill  and  fought  desperately  by  throw- 
ing stones  across  the  fill  at  each  other,  neither  side  daring  to 
cross  it  to  the  other. 

Twenty-First  Regiment.  155 

We  struck  the  enemy  in  a  gully,  or  branch,  that  ran  along 
a  hollow.  We  came  to  a  fence  on  the  ridge  about  one  hundred 
yards  distant  that  seemed  to  run  parallel  with  the  enemy's 
position.  We  halted  at  this  fence  and  quickly  tore  it  down 
and  piled  the  rails  in  front.  It  offered  us  good  protection, 
where  we  lay  down  on  the  ground.  We  opened  fire  on  the  en- 
emy, but  it  soon  became  so  dark  that  we  could  not  see  the  en- 
enemy's  position,  but  we  would  fire  at  the  fiashes  of  their 
guns,  as  I  suppose  they  would  fire  at  our  flashes.  We  re- 
ceived orders  at  one  time  to  charge  the  enemy,  and  started  to 
do  so,  but  did  not  go  many  steps  before  we  were  ordered  to 
halt  and  lie  down  again.  Our  regiment  was  commanded  by 
the  gallant  Colonel  Fulton,  of  Stokes  County.  It  was  during 
this  little  advance  that  he  fell  at  my  side,  falling  against  me, 
shot  through  and  killed  outright.  We  slept  on  our  arms, 
expecting  to  renew  the  battle  at  daylight,  but  when  morning 
came  the  Federals  were  gone.  We  followed  up  the  retreat- 
ing enemy  until  he  was  safely  back  in  the  fortifications 
around  Washington.  General  Pope  had  for  once,  at  least, 
seen  the  rebels  faces  and  had  been  forced,  very  reluctantly,  no 
doubt,  to  show  them  his  back.  So  great  was  his  mortification 
after  all  of  his  intemperate  boasting  that  as  soon  as  he  had 
his  army  safely  behind  the  great  fortifications  of  Washing- 
ton he  resigned  his  commission  and  we  never  heard  anything 
more  of  Pope.  All  the  great  and  well  equipped  armies 
that  had  entered  Virginia  so  cheerily  in  the  early  Spring,  and 
marched  on  to  Richmond,  the  Confederate  Capital,  confident 
of  its  capture,  found  themselves  hurled  back  and  cooped  up 
in  the  fortifications  around  their  own  Capital  and  engaged 
in  its  defence. 


One  the  morning  of  the  15  th,  having  everything  ready,  we 
opened  a  merciless  fire  upon  the  doomed  garrison.  From 
high  up,  almost  over  their  heads  and  from  every  side,  came 
the  shower  of  shells  pouring  in  upon  them,  from  which  their 
fortifications  afforded  no  protection.  In  our  immediate 
front,  the  ground  was  comparatively  level,  or  rather  it  was  not 

156  NoKTH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

so  mountainous,  and  on  the  crest  of  a  ridge  the  enemy  had  a 
strong  line  of  entrenchments  heavily  manned.  General  Jack- 
son and  staff  were  sitting  on  their  horses  near  my  regiment's 
position,  watching  the  effect  of  the  bombardment.  A  battery 
of  artillery  on  our  right,  I  think  it  was  Little  Lattimore's, 
that  was  playing  on  the  enemy's  line,  limbered  and  galloped 
to  the  front,  took  a  new  position  on  a  hill  in  two  or  three 
hundred  yards  of  the  enemy  and  fired  as  rapidly  as  I  ever 
saw  artillery  handled  in  my  life.  It  was,  in  fact,  an  ar- 
tillery charge.  Presently  we  saw  Jackson  turn  to  his  cour- 
iers and  speak  a  few  words  to  them  and  immediately  they 
went  galloping  off  to  the  different  divisions.  Our  hearts 
trembled.  We  knew  the  orders  those  couriers  were  carrying. 
It  was  the  order  for  a  general  and  simultaneous  charge  all 
along  the  line.  The  bristling  line  of  bayonets  behind  strong 
fortifications,  was  a  dangerous  thing  to  approach  and  we 
knew  that  many  of  us  would  fall  before  we  could  hope  to 
scale  its  ramparts  and  beat  back  its  defenders.  But  while 
we  were  bracing  our  nerves  in  solemn  dread  for  the  deadly 
encounter,  a  thing  occurred  that  sent  a  thrill  of  joy  to  every 
heart.  On  the  enemy's  works,  in  plain  view,  was  unfurled 
and  fluttered  out  in  the  breeze,  the  white  flag  of  peace.  The 
enemy  had  surrendered.  Cheer  after  cheer  rent  the  air.  We 
had  now  accomplished  the  object  of  our  recent  campaign  and 
supposed  we  would  go  into  camp  and  have  a  rest,  but  to  our 
surprise,  three  days'  rations  were  issued  with  orders  to  cook 
them  and  be  ready  to  march  by  2  o'clock.  Jackson  did  not 
even  take  time  to  receive  the  surrender,  but  left  that  honor  to 
A.  P.  Hill,  and  when  the  sun  went  down  on  that  victorious 
day  we  were  many  miles  away  retracing  our  steps  over  the 
same  route  we  had  come.  We  had  been  on  a  forced  march 
for  some  days  and  in  line  of  battle  all  the  night  previous,  fre- 
quently shifting  from  one  position  to  another,  so  that  but  lit- 
tle sleep  or  rest  could  be  obtained  and  now  we  had  to  march 
all  night,  hastening  to  join  Lee,  who  was  in  danger  of  being 
attacked  by  the  united  armies  of  McClellan. 

Two  or  three  miles  from  the  ford,  near  a  small  town  called 
Sharpsburg,  we  found  the  army  in  line  of  battle  with  the 
sharpshooters  of  the  two  armies  popping  away  at  each  other. 

Twenty-First  Regiment.  157 

I  soon  found  my  regiment  in  line,  taking  what  rest  and  sleep 
they  could,  while  awaiting  the  attack  of  the  enemy.  During 
the  remainder  of  the  day  there  was  very  little  fighting,  both 
armies  manoeuvering  for  position.  That  night  we  slept  on 
our  arms  in  line  of  battle.  We  were  so  exhausted,  not  having 
camped  for  three  or  four  days  and  nights  previous,  that  as 
soon  as  we  could  get  still  we  were  asleep,  depending  on  the 
sharpshooters  in  front  to  apprise  us  of  the  approach  of  the 
enemy.  Next  morning  we  repulsed  an  assault  by  the  enemy 
in  heavy  force.  After  waiting  for  some  time  and  seeing 
no  disposition  on  the  part  of  the  enemy  to  make  a  fur- 
ther advance  upon  us,  who  rather  seemed  to  enjoy  standing 
there  and  shooting  at  us  while  we  lay  still  and  took  it  with- 
out molesting  them,  we  concluded  to  take  part  in  the  play. 
We  had  a  decided  advantage  of  position,  in  that  we  were 
lying  flat  behind  a  fence  and  could  not  be  seen,  while  they 
stood  upright  in  the  open  ground  and  could  be  seen  from 
their  feet  up,  giving  us  their  full  length  at  which  we  could 
take  deliberate  and  careful  aim.  The  distance  between  us 
was  about  300  yards,  which  is  close  and  easy  range  for  the 
good  Enfield  rifles  with  which  we  were  now  armed.  When 
the  "Ready"  came,  every  man  lying  flat  on  his  stomach,  with 
the  muzzle  of  his  gun  through  the  crack  of  the  fence,  took 
careful  aim  and  when  the  order  "Fire"  rang  out  on  the  air, 
a  sheet  of  flame  shot  out  from  the  fence  up  and  down  its 
entire  length,  and  a  line  of  bullets  on  the  wings  of  lightning 
sped  over  the  bosom  of  the  fleld  on  their  hurried  mission  of 
death.  When  the  smoke  lifted,  which  it  quickly  did,  it  could 
be  plainly  seen  that  the  line,  so  dark  and  full  when  our 
fingers  pressed  the  triggers,  was  now  full  of  long,  open  gaps, 
and  staggering  under  the  shock  of  the  fire. 

Then  came  the  order  "Forward,  charge !"  Over  the  fence 
we  sprang  and  raising  the  yell,  as  the  enemy  called  it,  went 
at  them  with  all  speed. 

In  this  charge  the  Color-Sergeant,  whose  name  was  Ryer- 
son,  I  think,  did  a  heroic  thing.  I  am  sorry  I  cannot  be  pos- 
itive about  his  name,  as  he  was  a  member  of  another  com- 
pany. He  ran  ahead  of  the  advancing  line  to  within  100 
yards  of  the  enemy's  line  of  battle  (which  had  been  rein- 

158  North  Carolina  Troops,   1801-65. 

forced  by  a  fresh  line)  and  jumping  upon  a  stump,  waved  tlie 
flag  defiantly  at  the  enemy,  making  himself  a  most  conspicu- 
ous target  for  their  marksmen.  Of  course,  he  could  not 
have  lived  many  seconds  on  that  stump,  but  his  brilliant 
dash  had  an  inspiring  influence  on  our  entire  line,  which, 
raising  the  "Rebel  Yell,"  rushed  with  such  impetuosity  upon 
the  enemy  that  they  were  quickly  driven  from  the  field  and 
the  gallant  Sergeant,  amid  the  cheers  of  his  comrades,  de- 
scended from  the  stump  unharmed.  History  loves  to  dwell 
upon  the  gallant  act  of  Sergeant  Jasper,  in  climbing  the  flag- 
staff under  the  enemy's  bombardment,  and  restoring  to  its 
place  the  flag  that  had  been  shot  down  at  Fort  Moultrie,  but 
Sergeant  Jasper's  act  was  one  of  prudence  and  safety,  com- 
pared with  the  rashness  and  peril  of  that  of  Sergeant  Kyer- 


On  13  December  the  enemy  opened  the  battle,  moving  a 
heavy  force  against  our  lines  near  Hamilton's  Crossing,  where 
Jackson's  Corps  was  posted,  with  himself  in  personal  com- 
mand. They  made  a  bold  rush  upon  us,  but  we  met  them 
with  such  a  storm  of  shell  and  canister  and  bullets  that  they 
were  soon  driven  back.  There  was  a  place  where  our  lines 
did  not  connect  and  a  column  of  the  enemy  penetrated  this 
gap  and  gained  the  crest  of  the  hills;  but  we  had  a  reserve 
line  which  raised  the  "Rebel  Tell,"  and  charged  upon  them 
and  sent  them  flying  down  the  hills  again.  In  their  retreat  a 
large  number  of  the  enemy  took  shelter  in  a  railroad  cut  that 
ran  along  the  foot  of  the  hills  and  our  pursuing  line  charged 
right  on  over  them,  leaving  them  in  the  rear,  while  it  pursued 
the  others  out  in  the  open  plain  beyond.  In  returning  to  the 
lines  all  those  men  in  the  railroad  cut  were  made  prisoners, 
which  they  recognized  themselves  as  being  when  we  passed 
over  them.  The  battle  of  Fredericksburg  was  now  over,  but 
we  did  not  know  it  and  we  took  advantage  of  the  night  to  re- 
arrange our  lines  and  strengthen  our  position  for  the  next 
day's  anticipated  conflict.  But  when  the  morning  of  the 
next  day  came  and  we  were  bracing  ourselves  for  another 
grapple  with  the  enemy,  we  discovered  in  looking  out  over 

Twenty-First  Regiment.  159 

the  plain  that  they  were  not  there.  The  enemy  had  learned 
by  sad  experience  the  impossibility  of  forcing  us  from  our  ad- 
mirable position,  and  while  we  were  busily  engaged  during 
the  night  in  strengthening  our  position,  he  was  silently  re- 
moving to  the  other  side  of  the  river  out  of  the  range  of  our 
guns  on  those  frowning  hills. 

L.  E.  Powers, 
Lieutenant  Company  A. 


9  April,  1901. 

Note. — Soon  after  Pope  issued  his  braggart  proclamation,  above  re- 
ferred to,  including  his  famous  declaration  his  "Headquarters  were  in 
the  saddle,"  news  came  rapidly  of  his  successive  and  overwhelming  de- 
feats. Whereat  the  New  York  Herald,  pithily  and  wittily  said,  "What 
else  could  you  expect  from  a  general  who  did  not  know  his  headquar- 
ters from  his  hindquarters."  Copies  of  the  paper  got  into  the  Southern 
lines  and  created  much  amusement. — Bd. 


1.    Johnston  J.  Pettigrew,  Colonel.  3.    Graham  Daves,  1st  Lieut,  and  Adjt. 

8.    Thos.  D.  Jones.  Captain,  Co.  A.  4.    W.  W.  Dickson,  2d  Lieut.,  Co.  A. 

5.    Walter  Clark,  2d  Lieut,  and  Drill  Master. 


By  adjutant  GRAHAM  DAVES. 

The  Twenty-second  Eegiment  of  North  Carolina  Troops 
was  organized  in  camp  near  Kaleigh  in  July,  18C1,  by  the 
election  of  the  following  Field  Officers : 

J.  JoiiKSTOiy  Pettigebw,  Colonel,  of  Tyrrell  County,  then 
a  resident  of  Charleston,  S.  C.  Colonel  PettigreAv  had  seen 
service  with  the  forces  in  South  Carolina,  and  conunanded  a 
regiment  at  the  siege  and  capture  of  Fort  Sumter  by  the 
Confederates  in  April,  1861. 

John  O.  Long^  Lieutenant-Colonel,  of  Eandolph  County, 
a  graduate  of  the  United  States  Military  Academy  at  West 

Thomas  S.  Galloway,  Jr.,  Major,  of  Eockingham  Coun- 
ty, a  graduate  of  the  Virginia  Military  Institute  at  Lexing- 
ton, Va. 

The  commissions  of  the  Field  Officers  all  bore  date  of  11 
July,  1861. 

The  regiment  was  composed,  originally,  of  twelve  compa- 
nies, but  two  of  them,  C  and  D,  were  very  soon  transferred  to 
other  commands,  and  the  lettering.  A,  B,  E,  F,  G,  H,  I,  K,  L, 
and  M,  for  the  ten  companies,  was  retained.  This  fact  is 
mentioned  because  the  lettering  of  the  companies  of  this  regi- 
ment as  reported  in  the  Eegister  published  by  the  Adjutant- 
General  of  the  State  in  IN^ovember,  1861,  and  in  the  roster  of 
the  troops  published  by  the  State  in  1882,  is  incorrectly 

The  several  companies  at  the  time  of  their  first  enlistment, 
and  before  their  organization  into  a  regiment,  adopted  local 
names,  which,  as  part  of  their  history,  it  may  be  of  interest 
to  preserve : 

Company  A,  of  Caldwell  County,  Captain  W.  F.  Jones, 


162  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

was  called  the  "Caldwell  Eough  and  Eeady  Boys"  ;  Company 
B,  of  McDowell  County,  Captain  Jas.  M.  N'eal,  tlie  '^McDow- 
ell Eifles"  ;  Company  E',  of  Guilford  County,  Captain  Colum- 
bus C.  Cole,  the  "Guilford  Men"  ;  Company  F,  of  Alleghany 
County,  Captain  Jesse  F.  Eeeves,  the  "Alleghany  True 
Blues" ;  Company  G,  of  Caswell  Coimty,  Captain  Edward  M. 
Scott,  the  "Caswell  Eifles" ;  Company  H,  of  Stokes  County, 
Captain  Hamilton  Scales,  the  "Stokes  Boys" ;  Company  I,  of 
Eandolph  County,  Captain  Shubal  G.  Worth,  the  "Davis 
Guards" ;  Company  K,  of  McDowell  County,  Captain  Alney 
Burgin,  the  "McDowell  Boys";  Company  L,  of  Eandolph 
County,  Captain  Eobert  H.  Gray,  the  "Uwharrie  Eifles"; 
Company  M,  of  Eandolph  County,  Captain  John  M.  Odell, 
the  "Eandolph  Hornets." 

Companies  C  and  D,  which,  as  before  mentioned,  were 
transferred  to  other  regiments,  were  named :  Company  C,  of 
Surry  County, ,  Captain  Eeaves,  the  "Surry  Eegulators" ; 
Company  D,  of  Ashe  County,  Captain  Cox,  the  "Jefferson 
Davis  Mountain  Eifles." 

The  organization  of  the  regiment  was  completed  by  the  ap- 
pointment of  Lieutenant  Graham  Daves,  of  Craven  County, 
as  Adjutant,  24  July,  1861 ;  Dr.  James  K.  Hall,  of  Guilford 
County,  Surgeon,  24  July,  1861;  Dr.  Benj.  A.  Cheek,  of 
Warren  County,  Assistant  Surgeon,  24  July,  1861;  James 
J.  Litchford,  of  Wake  County,  Assistant  Quartermaster,  19 
July,  1861 ;  Eev.  A.  B.  Cox,  of  Alleghany  County,  6  July, 
1861,  Chaplain;  and  Hamilton  G.  Graham  (Company  I),  of 
Craven  County,  as  Sergeant  Major. 

First  called  the  Twelfth  Volunteers,  the  regiment  was 
shortly  after  mtobered  and  designated  the  Twenty-second 
Troops.  The  change  was  made  in  the  Adjutant  General's 
office  at  Ealeigh  to  avoid  confusion.  With  the  exception 
of  the  "Bethel  Eegiment,"  or  First  Volunteers,  which  served 
for  six  months  only,  the  troops  first  enlisted  were  mustered 
into  service  for  one  year  and  were  called  volunteers.  The 
Legislature,  however,  also  authorized  the  enlistment  of  ten 
regiments  "for  three  years  or  the  war" — eight  of  infantry, 

Twenty-Second  Regiment.  163 

one  of  cavalry  (Ninth),  and  one  of  artillery  (Tenth), 
to  be  called  "State  Troops,"  and  numbered  one  to  ten. 
This  would  have  caused  the  numbering  of  ten  regi- 
ments each  of  "State  Troops"  and  of  "Volunteers"  res- 
pectively to  have  beeii  the  same,  and  the  numbers  of  the  vol- 
unteer regiments  were  therefore  moved  forward  ten.  This 
will  explain  a  change  in  the  numbering  of  the  regiments,  to 
include  the  .Fourteenth  Volunteers,  afterwards  the  Twenty- 
fourth  Troops,  which  might  not  to  be  understood.  A  dupli- 
cation of  this  sort  in  the  numbering  of  certain  regiments  of 
Georgia  and  South  Carolina  troops  did  actually  exist  and 
caused  much  confusion. 

The  first  Captain  of  A  Company  was  W.  F.  Jones,  of  Cald- 
well County,  who  was  succeeded  by  Thos.  D.  Jones,  of  the 
same.  The  entire  number  of  rank  and  file  in  this  company 
serving  at  one  time  or  another  during  its  whole  term  of  ser- 
vice was  187  men.  Company  B  had  for  its  first  Captain 
James  M.  ISTeal,  of  McDowell  County,  and  numbered  rank 
and  file  from  first  to  last  171  men.  Captain  Columbus  C. 
Cole,  of  Greensboro,  commanded  E  Company,  which  num- 
bered 184  rank  and  file,  while  in  service.  Jesse  F.  Reeves, 
of  Alleghany  County,  was  first  Captain  of  F  Company,  which 
numbered  160  men  during  its  term.  J.  A.  Burns  was  Cap- 
tain of  G  Company  at  the  organization  of  the  regiment,  but 
was  shortly  after  succeeded  by  John  W.  Graves.  The  com- 
pany numbered  in  all  145  men.  Hamilton  Scales,  of  Stokes 
County,  was  Captain  of  H  Company,  which  numbered  in  all 
200  men.  I  Company's  first  Captain  was  Shubal  G.  Worth, 
of  Randolph  County.  The  company  numbered  188  men  all 
told.  Alney  Burgin,  of  McDowell  County,  was  first  Captain  of 
K  Company ;  Robert  H.  Gray,  of  L  Company,  and  John  M. 
Odell,  of  M  Company,  which  numbered  respectively,  during 
their  several  terms  of  service,  151,  178  and  146  men.  These 
figures  are  mentioned  here  for  convenience,  and  represent,  of 
course,  enlistments  and  assignments  for  the  whole  period  of 
the  war.  At  the  completion  of  its  organization  the  regiment 
numbered  nearly  1,000  enlisted  men.  Shortly  after  its  or- 
ganization it  was  ordered  to  Virginia,  and  made  its  first  halt 

164  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

in  Eiehmond.  Eemaining  in  camp  there  for  a  short  time,  it 
was  next  ordered  to  the  Potomac  to  form  part  of  the  com- 
mand of  General  Theophilus  H.  Holmes,  and  was  first  sta- 
tioned at  Brook's  Station  near  Acquia  Creek.  Soon,  how- 
ever, it  marched  to  Evansport,  a  point  on  the  Potomac  river, 
the  present  Quantico  Station,  between  the  Chappewamsic 
and  Quantico  creeks,  where  batteries  of  heavy  guns  were  to 
be  established  to  blockade  the  Potomac  below  Washington, 
Going  into  camp  at  this  place  late  in  September,  the  regi- 
ment was  stationed  there  during  the  Autumn  and  winter  of 
18 61-' 62,  on  duty  in  the  erection  and  support  of  the  batteries 
which  were  in  great  part  constructed  by  details  of  its  men. 
There  were  three  of  these  batteries  at  first,  mounted  with 
9-inch  Dalghren  guns,  smooth  bore  32  and  42  pounders,  and 
one  heavy  rifled  Blakely  gun,  and  they  were  thought  to  be 
formidable  in  those  days.  ISTo.  2  Battery  was  in  part  manned 
by  Company  I,  of  the  regiment,  detailed  for  that  purpose, 
where  it  continued  to  serve  as  long  as  the  post  was  occupied. 
After  the  batteries  opened,  traffic  by  water  to  Washington 
ceased  almost  entirely,  but  the  river  there  being  about  two 
miles  wide,  some  craft  succeeded  in  running  the  gauntlet  from 
time  to  time,  among  others  the  steam  sloop  of  war  Pensacola, 
which  passed  at  night. 

While  on  duty  at  Evansport,  about  the  middle  of  October, 
1861,  the  following  roster  of  the  line  officers  of  the  regiment, 
with  dates  of  their  commissions,  was  returned: 

Compajsty  a — Thomas  D.  Jones,  Captain,  8  August,  1861 ; 
J.  B.  Clark,  First  Lieutenant,  8  August,  1861;  Eelix  G. 
Dula,  Second  Lieutenant,  8  August,  1861 ;  Wm.  W.  Dick- 
son, Second  Lieutenant,  8  August,  1861. 

CoMPAisTY  B — James  H.  Neal,  Captain,  8  May,  1861 ;  A. 
G.  Halyburton,  First  Lieutenant,  8  May,  1861 ;  J.  M.  Hig- 
gins.  Second  Lieutenant,  8  May,  1861 ;  Samuel  H.  Adams, 
Second  Lieutenant,  8  May,  1861. 

Company  E — Columbus  C.  Cole,  Captain,  23  May,  1861 ; 
H.  E.  Charles,  First  Lieutenant,  23  May,  1861 ;  W.  H.  Fau- 
cett,  Second  Lieutenant,  23  May,  1861 ;  John  N".  Nelson, 
Second  Lieutenant,  27  July,  1861. 

Twenty-Second  Regiment.  165 

Company  F — Preston  B.  Eeeves,  Captain,  10  September, 
1861 ;  John  Gambol,  First  Lieutenant,  11  September,  1861 ; 
Horton  L.  Reeves,  Second  Lieutenant,  27  May,  1861 ;  George 
Mc.  Reeves,  Second  Lieutenant,  2Y  August,  1861. 

Company  G^ — John  W.  Graves,  Captain,  11  October, 
1861;  J.  J.  Stokes,  First  Lieutenant,  28  May,  1861;  P. 
Smith,  Second  Lieutenant,  28  May,  1861 ;  John  JST.  Black- 
vi^ell.  Second  Lieutenant,  24  August,  1861. 

Company  H — Hamilton  Scales,  Captain,  1  June,  1861 ; 
Fphraim  Bouldin,  First  Lieutenant,  1  June,  1861 ;  S.  Mar- 
tin, Second  Lieutenant,  1  June,  1861 

Company  I — Shubal  G.  Worth,  Captain,  5  June,  1861; 
E-  H.  Winningham,  First  Lieutenant,  12  August,  1861 ; 
Alex.  C.  McAllister,  Second  Lieutenant,  12  August,  1861 ; 
Hamilton  C.  Graham,  Second  Lieutenant,  15  August,  1861. 

Company  K — Alney  Burgin,  Captain,  5  June,  1861 ; 
Chas.  'H.  Burgin,  First  Lieutenant,  5  June,  1861 ;  A.  W. 
Crawford,  Second  Lieutenant,  5  June,  1861 ;  Isaac  E.  Morris, 
Second  Lieutenant,  5  June,  1861. 

Company  L — Robert  H.  Gray,  Captain,  18  June,  1861 ; 
Claiborne  Gray,  First  Lieutenant,  18  June,  1861 ;  J.  A.  C. 
Brown,  Second  Lieutenant,  18  June,  1861 ;  W.  G.  Spencer, 
Second  Lieutenant,  18  June,  1861. 

Company  M — John  M.  Odell,  Captain,  10  June,  1861; 
Laban  Odell,  First  Lieutenant,  10  June,  1861 ;  J.  M.  Pounds, 
Second  Lieutenant,  10  June,  1861 ;  Henry  C.  AUred,  Second 
Lieutenant,  10  June,  1861. 

At  different  times  during  its  entire  term  of  service  the 
following  were  line  officers  of  the  Twenty-second  Regiment ; 
the  list  is  not  quite  complete : 

Company  A — Captains:  W.  F.  Jones,  Thomas  D.  Jones, 
James  M.  Isbell,  Wm.  B.  Clark.  Lieutenants:  Joseph  B. 
Clark,  James  W.  Sudderth,  Felix  G.  Dula,  Wm.  W.  Dick- 
eon,  Marcus  Deal,  J.  W.  Justice. 

Company  B — Captains:  James  M.  Neal,  J.  T.  Conley, 
George  H.  Gardin.  Lieutenants :  Samuel  H.  Adams,  James 
M.  Higgins,  Robert  A.  Tate,  S.  P.  Tate. 

Company  E — Captains :  Columbus  C.  Cole,  Chas.  E.  Har- 

166  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

per,  Joseph  A.  Hooper,  Martin  M.  Wolfe,  Eobert  W.  Cole, 
Lieutenants :  Andrew  J,  Busick,  W.  H.  Faucett,  Jas.  H.  Ban- 
ner, John  ISr.  Nelson,  0.  0.  Wheeler. 

Company  F — Captains:  Jesse  F.  Eeeves,  Preston  B. 
Eeaves,  W.  L.  Mitchell,  S.  G.  Caudle.  Lieutenants:  John 
GamboU,  N.  A.  Eeynolds,  David  Edwards,  Horton  S.  Eeeves, 
Calvin  Eeeves,  George  G.  Eeeves,  Calvin  C.  Carrier. 

Company  G — Captains:  Edward  M.  Scott,  J.  A.  Burns, 
John  W.  Graves,  Stanlin  Brinchfield.  Lieutenants:  O.  W. 
Eitzgerald,  James  T.  Stokes,  Peter  Smith,  J.  N.  BlackweU, 
B.  S.  Mitchell,  Martin  H.  Cobb. 

Company  H — Captains :  Haimilton  Scales,  Ephraim  Boul- 
din,  Wm.  H.  Lovins.  Lieutenants :  S.  Martin,  C.  C.  Smith, 
John  K.  Martin,  Sam  B.  Ziglar,  Shadrach  Martin,  Joshua  D. 

Company  I — Captains :  Shubal  G.  Worth,  Geo.  V.  Lamb. 
Lieutenants :  Eobert  Hanner,  Eli  H.  Winningham,  J«hn  H. 
Palmer,  B.  W.  Burkhead,  Wm.  McAuley,  Hamilton  C.  Gra- 
ham, Alex.  C.  McAllister,  J.  S.  Bobbins,  E.  A.  Glenn,  E.  W. 

Company  K — Captains :  Alney  Burgin,  Chas.  H.  Burgin, 
Wm.  B.  Gooding,  E.  J.  Dobson.  Lieutenants :  Isaac  E.  Mor- 
ris, A.  W.  Crawford,  J.  L.  Greenlee,  J.  B.  Burgin,  John  M. 
Burgin,  J.  E.  Bailey. 

Company  L — Captains :  Eobert  H.  Gray,  J.  A.  C.  Brown, 
Lee  Eussell,  Yancey  M.  C.  Johnson.  Lieutenants :  Claiborn 
Gray,  Wm.  G.  Spencer,  E.  C.  Llarney,  Oliver  M.  Pike,  Cal- 
vin H.  Welborn. 

Company  M — Captains:  John  M.  Odell,  Laban  Odell, 
Warren  B.  Kivett,  Columbus  F.  Slier.  Lieutenants :  J.  M. 
Bobbins,  James  M.  Pounds,  Henry  C.  AUred,  Lewis  F.  Mc- 
Mastexs,  John  M.  Lawrence,  A.  W.  Lawrence. 

Besides  the  Lieutenants  named  above,  the  Captains  of  the 
several  companies  had  in  nearly  every  instance  served  as  Lieu- 
tenants previous  to  their  promotion.  Hon.  Walter  Clark, 
now  senior  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  State,  who 
will  compile  and  edit  the  histories  of  our  North  Carolina  Eeg- 
iments,  was  at  its  organization  a  drill  master  in  the  Twenty- 

Twenty-Second  Regiment.  167 

second.     He  was  then  not  yet  15  years  of  age,  fresh  from 
Colonel  Tew's  Military  Academy  at  Hillsboro. 

Until  March,  1862,  the  regiment  remained  in  support  of 
the  batteries  at  Evansport,  in  brigade  at  different  times  with 
the  First  Arkansas,  the  Second  Tennessee,  a  Virginia  regi- 
ment, and  perhaps  other  regiments,  under  command  at  differ- 
ent times,  in  the  order  named,  of  Generals  John  G.  Walker, 
Isaac  R.  Trimble  and  Samuel  G.  French.  While  there  the 
health  of  the  men  was  good,  except  for  measles,  which 
seemed  to  be  epidemic  in  all  the  regiments.  The  batteries 
were  frequently  engaged  with  the  enemy's  gunboats, 
and  with  batteries  on  the  Maryland  side  of  the  Po- 
tomac, but  the  casualties  were  very  few.  Company  I 
had  several  men  wounded  by  the  bursting  of  a  42- 
pounder  gun  in  Battery  No.  2.  While  on  duty  at  Evansport, 
Colonel  Pettigrew  was  promoted  Brigadier-General,  but  feel- 
ing that  his  services  were  of  more  value  in  furthering  the  re- 
enlistment  and  re-organization  of  the  regiment,  then  near  at 
hand,  he  declined  the  appointment — a  rare  instance  of  patri- 
otism and  devotion  to  the  public  good.  When  the  army  fell 
back  from  Manassas  and  the  Potomac  in  March,  1862,  to  the 
line  of  the  Rappahannock,  General  French  commanded  the 
brigade,  which  took  post  at  Fredericksburg.  Soon  after  Gen- 
eral French  was  transferred  to  a  command  in  ISTorth  Caro- 
lina, and  the  regiment  was  marched  to  the  Peninsula  below 
Richmond  and  shared  in  the  Williamsburg  and  Yorktown 
campaign.  Returning  to  the  vicinity  of  Richmond,  and 
Colonel  Pettigrew  having  been  again  appointed  brigadier,  in 
command  of  the  brigade,  which  appointment  he  this  time  ac- 
cepted, Lieutenant-Colonel  Chas.  E.  Lightfoot,  previously  of 
the  Sixth  Regiment,  was  promoted  Colonel.  Under  his  com- 
mand the  regiment  went  into  the  fight  at  Seven  Pines  in  May- 
June,  1862,  in  which  it  was  heavily  engaged,  and  its  losses 
were  severe.  General  Pettigrew  was  here  wounded  and  made 
prisoner.  Colonel  Lightfoot  was  also  captured.  Captain 
Thomas  D.  Jones  and  Lieutenant  S.  H.  Adams  were  killed, 
besides  many  others,  and  the  aggregate  loss  of  the  regiment 
was  147  in  all. 

168  North  Carolina  Troops,  186J-'65. 

Soon  after  Seven  Pines  the  regiment  was  re-organized, 
when  the  following  were  elected  Field  Officers :  James  Con- 
nor, of  South  Carolina,  Colonel;  Captain  Kobert  H.  Gray, 
of  Company  L,  Lieutenant-Colonel;  and  Captain  Columbus 
C.  Cole,  of  Company  E,  Major.  They  took  rank  from  14 
June,  1862.  There  were  many  changes  also  in  the  line  officers. 
Previously  Adj  utant  Graham  Daves  had  been  promoted  Cap- 
tain and  assigned  to  duty  as  Assistant  Adjutant-General  on 
the  general  staff,  and  Lieutenant  P.  E.  Charles  became  Adju- 
tant. A  new  brigade,  too,  was  formed,  consisting  of  the  Six- 
teenth, Twenty-second,  Thirty-fourth  and  Thirty-eighth 
North  Carolina  Regiments,  and  placed  under  the  command 
of  Brigadier-General  Wm.  D.  Pender,  in  the  division  of 
General  A.  P.  Hill. 

An  officer  in  describing  the  bearing  of  the  Twenty-second 
at  Seven  Pines  says:  "In  all  my  readings  of  veterans,  and 
of  coolness  under  fire,  I  have  never  conceived  of  anything 
surpassing  the  coolness  of  our  men  in  this  fight." 

In  the  "Seven  Days'  Fight"  around  Richmond  the  regi- 
ment was  next  engaged:  First,  at  Mechanics ville,  26  June, 
in  which  Colonel  Connor  was  badly  wounded;  at  Ellison's 
Mill;  at  Gaines'  Mill,  27  Jime,  where  it  won  the  highest 
encomiums.  General  A.  P.  Hill  says  of  it  in  his  report  of 
the  battle :  "The  Sixteenth  North  Carolina,  Colonel  McEl- 
roy,  and  the  Twenty-second,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Gray,  at 
one  time  carried  the  crest  of  the  hill,  and  were  in  the  enemy's 
camp,  but  were  driven  back  by  overwhelming  numbers." 
And  General  Pender :  "My  men  fought  nobly  and  main- 
tained their  ground  with  great  stubbornness."  Next  at  Fra- 
zier's  Farm,  30  June.  In  this  fight  the  regiment  was  very 
conspicuous  and  suffered  severely.  Among  the  killed  were 
Captain  Harper  and  Lieutenant  P.  E.  Charles,  of  Company 
E.  The  latter  was  bearing  the  regimental  colors  at  the  time, 
and  near  him,  in  a  space  little  more  than  ten  feet  square,  nine 
men  of  the  color  guard  lay  dead.  Captain  Ephraim  Boul- 
din,  of  Company  H,  was  also  killed. 

On  9  August,  the  battle  of  Cedar  Mountain  was  fought. 
In  this  engagement  the  Twenty-second  Regiment  was  charged 
by  a  regiment  of  cavalry  which  it  easily  repulsed  and  pun- 

Twenty-Second  Regiment.  169 

ished  sharply.  Lieutenant  Kobert  W.  Cole,  of  Company  E, 
succeeded  Lieutenant  Charles,  as  Adjutant.  The  regiment 
was  with  Jackson  in  his  battles  with  Pope  of  28  and  29  Au- 
gust, and  bore  an  active  part  at  Second  Manassas  on  30  Au- 
gust. In  these  actions  it  was  efficiently  commanded  by  Major 
C  C.  Cole,  owing  to  the  extreme  sickness  of  Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Gray.  Two  days  later  it  was  again  engaged  with  the  enemy 
at  Chantilly,  or  Ox  Hill,  fought  in  a  terrible  thunder  storm,  in 
which  the  artillery  of  heaven  and  of  earth  seemed  to  strive 
in  rivalry.  The  hard  service  and  heavy  losses  of  this  cam- 
paign may  be  understood  by  the  fact  that  at  this  time  there 
were,  out  of  the  twelve  field  officers  of  the  four  regiments  of 
the  brigade,  but  three  left  on  duty  with  their  commands,  and 
some  of  the  companies  were  commanded  by  corporals. 

Pope,  the  braggart,  had  made  good  use  of  his  "Headquar- 
ters in  the  saddle"  to  get  out  of  Virginia,  and  had  learned  all 
about  "Lines  of  Retreat." 

The  Twenty-second  Regiment  took  part  in  the  reduction 
and  capture  of  Harper's  Ferry  15  August,  where  it  re- 
mained until  the  17th,  the  day  the  battle  of  Sharpsburg  was 
fought.  On  that  day  the  regiment,  with  the  rest  of  A.  P. 
Hill's  division,  arrived  on  the  battlefield  after  a  forced 
march  of  seventeen  miles,  in  time  to  aid,  in  the  afternoon,  in 
the  decided  repulse  of  Bumside's  attack  at  the  "Stone 
Bridge,"  thereby  preventing  the  turning  of  General  Lee's 
right  and  saving  the  day  to  the  Confederates.  On  the  night 
of  the  18th,  the  army  re-crossed  the  Potomac  and  on  the  19th 
was  followed  by  a  division  of  Federals,  which  was  promptly 
attacked  by  part  of  A.  P.  Hill's  command,  routed  and  driven 
back  across  the  Potomac  at  Shepherdstown  with  great  slaugh- 
ter. The  Twenty-second  took  an  active  part  in  this  success- 
ful fight.  After  the  enemy  had  been  driven  into  the  river,  a 
heavy  fire  was  opened  on  the  Confederates  by  the  Federal  bat- 
teries and  sharp  shooters  from  its  north  bank.  Under  this 
fire  a  detachment  of  the  Twenty-second  under  Major  Cole 
lay,  with  very  slight  protection,  for  nearly  twelve  hours,  and 
could  be  withdrawn  only  after  nightfa,ll. 

Shortly  after  Shepherdstown,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Gray  re- 
joined the  regiment,  and  Lieutenant  J.  R.  Cole,  previously 

170  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

of  the  Fifty-fourth  Eegiment,  was  assigned  to  the  Twenty- 
second  as  Adjutant.  On  22  JSTovember,  A.  P.  Hill's  Divis- 
ion, which  had  been  on  duty  near  Martinsburg  and  at  Snick- 
er's Gap  in  the  Blue  Ridge,  (where  there  was  constant  skir- 
mishing), marched  for  Fredericksburg,  where  it  arrived 
2  December,  a  distance  of  180  miles.  In  this  winter 
march  many  of  the  men  were  barefooted  but  made  merry 
over  it.  At  the  battle  of  Fredericksburg,  13  December, 
Jackson's  Corps  formed  the  right  of  Lee's  ■  army  and  Pen- 
der's Brigade  was  on  the  left  of  A.  P.  Hill's  Division  in  the 
first  line.  The  regiment  acquitted  itself  in  this  famous  ac- 
tion in  a  way  well  worthy  its  old  reputation.  The  night  of 
the  12th  a  detail  from  the  regiment,  by  a  bold  dash,  succeeded 
in  burning  a  number  of  haystacks  and  houses  very  near  to, 
and  affording  cover,  to  the  Federal  lines.  Major  C.  C.  Cole 
was  in  charge  of  the  detail,  and  next  day  commanded  the 
skirmish  line  in  front  of  Pender's  Brigade.  He  was  ably, 
seconded  by  Captain  Laban  Odell,  of  Company  M,  and  Lieu- 
tenant Clark,  of  Company  A.  The  brigade  maintained  its 
position  throughout  the  action,  repulsing  every  attack  upon 
it,  but  not  without  heavy  loss.  Major  Cole  was  much  com- 
plimented for  his  handsome  action  in  dispersing  the  strong 
force  of  the  enemy's  skirmishers  on  the  brigade  front.  Gen- 
eral Pender  was  wounded,  and  his  Aid-de-Camp,  Lieutenant 
Sheppard,  was  killed  in  the  engagement.  Some  time  before 
Fredericksburg  the  Thirteenth  North  Carolina  Eegiment, 
Colonel  Alfred  M.  Scales,  had  been  added  to  Pender's  Bri- 

The  winter  of  1862-63  was  passed  in  picket  and  other  duty 
on  the  Eappahannock  below  Fredericksburg.  Colonel  James 
Connor  rejoined  the  regiment  while  it  was  stationed  there, 
but  was  still  unfitted  by  his  severe  wound  for  active  duty. 
The  services  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Gray  were  lost  to  the  reg- 
iment at  this  time.  Always  a  man  of  delicate  health,  he  died 
16  March,  1863.  Major  C.  C.  Cole  was  promoted  to 
Lieutenant-Colonel  and  Captain  Odell  became  Major  their 
commissions  dating  16  March,  1862 — positions  that  these  ex- 
cellent officers  were  to  hold  but  a  short  time. 

At  Chancellorsville  in  May,  1863,  the  regiment  was  in 


1.  J.  B.  Clarke,  1st  Lieiif..  Co.  A.  3.    S.  F.  Harper.  Private,  Co.  A 

2.  Sion  H.  Oxford,  Ensign,  4.    William  T  Abernathy,Private,Co.  A. 

5.    Aurelius  J.  Dula,  Private,  Co.  A. 

Twenty-Second  Regiment.  171 

Jackson's  flank  attack  on  Hooker,  and  tkrougliout  the  whole 
of  the  action  was  heavily  engaged.  Its  losses  were  very 
severe.  Colonel  Cole  and  Major  Odell  were  both  killed,  two 
hundred  and  nineteen  men  and  twenty-six  out  of  thirty-three 
ofiicers  were  killed  or  wounded,  and  though  the  regiment  was 
distinguished  by  its  accustomed  efficiency  and  gallantry,  noth- 
ing could  compensate  for  this  terrible  destruction.  Chan- 
cellorsville  was  the  eighteenth  battle  of  the  Twenty-second 
Eegiment,  and  the  most  fatal.  It  went  through  the  Mary- 
land campaign  of  1863,  and  Gettysburg,  with  credit.  G-eneral 
Wm.  D.  Pender  had  been  made  a  Major  General  and  was 
now  in  command  of  the  division,  and  Colonel  Alfred  M. 
Scales,  of  the  Thirteenth  Regiment,  was  promoted  Brigadier 
in  command  of  the  brigade.  It  participated  in  the  first  day's 
brilliant  success  at  Gettysburg,  was  engaged  also  on  the  sec- 
ond day,  and  on  the  third  the  brigade  was  part  of  General 
I.  R.  Trimble's  division.  General  Pender  having  been  mor- 
tally wounded,  in  sxipport  of  Heth's  division,  then  under  Pet- 
tigrew,  in  the  famous  charge  on  Cemetery  Ridge.  In  this 
charge,  Archer's  and  Scales'  brigades  occupied  and  held  for 
a  ti'me  the  Federal  works,  and  when  they  retreated  to  the 
Confederate  lines,  Scales'  Brigade  had  not  one  Field  Officer 
left  for  duty,  and  but  very  few  Line  Officers.  Its  total  loss 
was  102  killed  and  322  wounded. 

After  the  return  of  the  regiment  to  Virginia  it  was  re-or- 
ganized, when  Thomas  S.  Galloway,  Jr.,  at  one  time  its 
Major,  was  elected  Colonel,  to  date  from  21  September,  1863 ; 
Wm.  L.  Mitchell  was  Lieutenant-Colonel;  J.  H.  Welborn, 
Adjvitant;  J.  D.  Wilder,  Quartermaster;  P.  G.  Robinson, 
Surgeon.  Benj.  A.  Cheek  was  still  Assistant  Surgeon.  The 
Line  Officers,  with  dates  of  commission,  were  as  follows : 

Company  A— Captain,  Wm.  B.  Clark,  12  October,  1862 ; 
First  Lieutenant,  Joseph  B.  Clark,  28  October,  1862 ;  Sec- 
ond Lieutenant,  Wm.  A.  Tuttle,  25  April,  1863. 

Company  B — Captain ;  First  Lieutenant,  Robert 

A.  Tate,  1  August,  1863 ;  Second  Lieutenant,  George  H.  Gar- 
din,  11  May,  1863;  Second  Lieutenant,  Samuel  P.  Tate,  1 
August,  1863. 

172  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

OoMPANT  E — Captain,  Eobert  W.  Cole,  15  September, 
1863;  First  Lieutenant,  Andrew  J.  Busick,  15  September, 
1863 ;  Second  Lieutenant,  Oliver  0.  Wheeler,  25  April,  1863. 

Company  F — Captain  ;  First  Lieutenant,  David 

Edwards,  20  October,  1862 ;  Second  Lieutenant,  Shadrach  G. 
Caudle,  25  April,  1863. 

Company  G — Captain,  George  A.  Graves,  1  May,  1862; 
First  Lieutenant,  Peter  Smith,  10  May,  1862 ;  Second  Lieu- 
tenant, Eobert  L.  Mitchell,  1  May,  1862 ;  Second  Lieuten- 
ant, Martin  H.  Cobb,  25  April,  1863. 

Company  H — Captain,  Thomas  T.  Slade,  23  October, 
1863  ;  First  Lieutenant,  John  K.  Martin,  25  May,  1863 ;  Sec- 
ond Lieutenant,  Mason  T.  Mitchell,  25  April,  1863 ;  Second 
Lieutenant,  C.  L.  Graves,  25  May,  1863. 

Company  I — Captain,  Gaston  V.  Lamb,  18  July,  1862 ; 
First  Lieutenant,  Burwell  W.  Burkhead,  1  July,  1863 ;  Sec- 
ond Lieutenant,  Richard  W.  Winburne,  1  August,  1863  ;  Sec- 
ond Lieutenant,  Robert  A.  Glenn,  1  August,  1863. 

Company  K — Captain,  W.  B.  Gooding,  13  November, 
1862;  First  Lieutenant,  ,  ■;  Second  Lieuten- 
ant, E.  J.  Dobson,  5  November,  1862. 

Company  L — Captain,  Lee  Russell,  , ;  First 

Lieutenants,  Yancey  M.  C.  Johnson,  1  August,  1863 ;  Second 
Lieutenant,  Oliver  M.  Pike,  15  July,  1863 ;  Second  Lieuten- 
ant, Calvin  H.  Winbome,  1  August,  1863. 

Company  M — Captain,  Columbus  F.  Siler,  2  May,  1863 ; 
First  Lieutenant,  James  M.  Robbins,  2  May,  1863 ;  Second 
Lieutenant,  John  M.  Lawrence,  25  April,  1863. 

Under  this  organization  the  regiment  shared  in  the  events 
of  the  "campaign  of  strategy"  in  October  and  ISTovember, 
1863,  on  the  Eapidan,  and  endured  the  cold  and  other  priva- 
tions in  the  affair  at  Mine  Run,  2  December.  Going  into 
winter  quarters  after  that,  there  were  no  occurrences  of 
much  note  until  the  opening  of  the  great  campaign 
in  the  Spring  of  1864.  Major-General  Cadmus  M. 
Wilcox  had  been  assigned  to  the  command  of  the  division, 
General  Pender  having  died  of  the  wound  received  at  Gettys- 
burg, and  this  division  with  that  of  Heth,  at  the  Wilderness 

Twenty-Second  Regiment.  173 

5  May,  withstood  and  repulsed  with  heavy  loss  every 
attack  of  Grant's  forces  on  that  memorable  day.  So  severe 
had  been  the  struggle  that  at  night  when  General  Heth  asked 
permission  to  readjust  his  lines,  much  disordered  by  the  per- 
sistent fighting,  General  A.  P.  Hill  simply  replied :  "Let  the 
tired  men  sleep,"  a  decision  which,  with  the  delay  of  Lon- 
street's  corps  the  next  morning  in  getting  into  position,  had 
nearly  caused  disaster.  The  Twenty-second  bore  well  its  part 
here,  and  so  on,  always  maintaining  its  high  reputation,  at 
Spottsylvania,  North  Anna,  Cold  Harbor,  and  through  the 
weary  winter  of  hardship  and  want  of  1864-'65,  borne  with 
fortitude,  in  the  trenches  at  Petersburg ;  on  the  trying  retreat 
at  Appomattox  in  April,  1865,  where  the  sad  end  came. 


After  Grant's  disastrous  attack  upon  Lee  at  Cold  Harbor  in 
June,  18 64,  he  withdrew  from  Lee's  front  and  began  the  move- 
ment which  transferred  his  operations  to  the  vicinity  of  Pe- 
tersburg. To  conceal  this  movement  Warren's  Corps  was  sent 
up  the  roads  towards  Eichmond  to  make  demonstrations,  and 
to  meet  Warren,  Wilcox's  Division,  in  which  were  Scales'  Bri- 
gade and  the  Twenty-second  Regiment,  was  sent.  After  a 
hard  march  Gary's  Brigade  of  cavalry  was  found  falling 
back  before  a  heavy  force  and  Lane's  and  Scales'  Brigades  of 
infantry  were  at  once  ordered  forward.  These  drove  back 
Wilsdn's  cavalry  division  for  one  and  a  half  miles,  and 
secured  and  held  a  cross-roads  near  a  place  called  Smith's 
Shop,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Frazier's  Farm  battlefield.  In 
this  fight  and  advance  (of  more  than  an  hour)  the  centre  of 
the  Twenty-second  Regiment  passed  at  one  time  over  an  open 
knoll,  which  had  been  cleared  for  artillery  two  years  before, 
where  they  received  the  full  fire  of  Wilson's  men  and  lost 
heavily,  but  still  pressed  on,  driving  the  enemy  before  them, 
and  held  the  position  as  mentioned  above. 


In  his  account  of  this  action  in  August,  1864,  Swinton 
errs  in  saying  that  three  charges  were  made  by  the  Confed- 

174  North  Carolina  Troops,   18U1-'65. 

erates,  iivo  of  which  were  repulsed.  The  first  charge,  as  he 
terms  it,  was  merely  an  advance  of  a  battalion  of  sharpshoot- 
ers, under  Captain  John  Young,  which  drove  in  the  Federal 
pickets  and  skirmishers.  Captain  Young  reported  that  there 
was  only  a  line  of  picket  pits  in  our  front.  Under  this  im- 
pression the  Sixteenth,  Twenty-second  and  Thirty-fourth 
North  Carolina  regiments,  and  Benning's  Georgia  Brigade, 
were  ordered  to  charge.  On  reaching  the  edge  of  the  woods, 
Benning's  men,  seeing  a  strong  line  of  works,  well  manned,  in 
their  front,  were  halted.  The  Twenty-second  Kegiment 
charged  up  to  the  works,  but,  having  lost  their  support  on 
their  right,  were  withdrawn.  They  were  not  repulsed.  Pri- 
vate Ellison,  of  Company  L,  snatched  an  United  States  flag 
from  the  earth  works  in  this  charge,  and  brought  it  away 
with  him.  Shortly  after  this  Lane's,  MacRae's  and  another 
brigade  of  ITeth's  Division,  with  the  Twenty-second  Regi- 
ment covering  their  left  flank,  charged  the  position  and  car- 
ried the  works  in  splendid  style.  Hampton's  cavalry  shared 
in  the  attack  and  rendered  most  efficient  service. 

An  incident  worthy  of  record  occurred  in  the  winter  of 
1864:-'65,  while  the  Twenty-second  N^orth  Carolina  was  on 
duty  on  the  lines  south  of  Petersburg,  Va.,  in  support  of  Bat- 
tery 45.  General  A.  P.  Hill,  commanding  the  corps,  was 
desirous  of  getting  certain  information  with  regard  to  the 
force  and  position  of  the  enemy  on  his  front.  This  he  thought 
might  be  obtained  by  the  capture  of  some  prisoners,  and  he 
directed  General  A.  M.  Scales,  commanding  brigade,  to  make 
a  foray  on  the  skirmiish  line  or  picket  posts  of  the  enemy  op- 
posite his  lines.  General  Scales  detailed  Captain  C.  Prank 
Siler,  of  Company  M,  of  the  Twenty-second  JSTorth  Carolina, 
to  undertake  the  expedition  with  a  part  of  the  sharpshooters 
of  the  brigade. 

Captain  Young,  who  commanded  the  sharpshooters,  was 
temporarily  absent.  Siler  was  ordered  to  report  to  General 
James  H.  Lane  and  get  a  reinforcement  from  the  sharpshoot- 
ers of  that  brigade,  but  before  making  the  move,  Siler  wished 
to  reconnoitre  the  position.  To  effect  this  thoroughly,  he 
adopted  a  ruse.  Crossing  to  the  Yankee  lines  he  offered, 
with  the  usual  signals,  to  exchange  newspapers,  as  was  often 

Twenty-Second  Regiment.  175 

done.  While  haggling  about  the  exchange  he  examined  the 
position  and  its  surroundings  carefully  and  selected  a  path  by 
which  it  might  be  approached  advantageously,  iietuming 
to  his  command,  he  rode  over  to  General  Lane's  quarters  to 
get  the  reinforcements  as  ordered,  General  Scales  having 
loaned  him  a  horse  for  the  purpose.  !N"ow,  for  the  better  de- 
fence of  Battery  45,  the  men  of  the  Twenty-second  had 
dammed  up  a  small  stream  in  its  vicinity  which  had  the  effect 
of  collecting  much  water  in  the  battery's  front  and  rendering 
the  approach  to  it  very  difficult.  Along  the  top  of  this  dam  was 
the  shortest  route  between  the  two  brigades,  and  over  it  Siler 
attempted  to  ride.  It  was  very  dark,  however,  and,  as  he  af- 
terwards discovered,  his  horse  was  "moon-eyed,"  and  in  con- 
sequence, horse  and  man  tumbled  off  the  dam  into  the  water 
and  mud  seventeen  feet  below.  Nothing  daunted,  and  in 
spite  of  cold  and  bruises,  he  fished  himself  and  horse  out, 
and  after  much  tribulation  he  succeeded,  "accoutred  as  he 
was,"  in  finding  Major  Wooten,  who  commanded  Lane's 
sharpshooters,  and  got  the  detail  wanted.  Uniting  them 
with  his  own  men  they  all  proceeded  quietly  to  the  Yankee 
rifle  pits  by  the  path  Siler  had  previously  selected.  Arrived 
at  tlie  pits,  they  found  all  there  asleep  except  a  sentinel  in 
front  of  the  works,  upon  whom  they  closed  before  he  could 
discharge  his  piece.  The  sentry  ran  into  the  works  and  tried 
to  use  his  bayonet,  but  Siler  turned  it  aside  and  secured  him 
before  he  cotild  give  the  alarm.  The  command  then  swept 
up  and  down  the  rifle  pits,  and  after  capturing  sixty  men, 
made  good  their  retreat  with  their  prisoners,  to  the  Confed- 
erate lines,  not,  however,  without  receiving  a  heavy  fire  from 
the  Yankees,  who  had  recovered  from  their  surprise,  which, 
owing  to  the  darkness,  fortunately,  did  no  damage.  From 
some  of  the  prisoners  captured  all  information  wanted  was 
obtained,  and  Captain  Siler  and  his  men  were  highly  compli- 
mented for  their  gallant  action. 

southeeland's  STATIOH". 

An  incident,  well  worth  recording,  happened  near  this  sta- 
tion, after  our  troops  had  evacuated  the  works  on  Hatcher's 

17()  North  Cakolina  Troops,   1861-'G5. 

Run.  Colonel  Galloway,  of  the  Twenty-second  Eegiment, 
who  was  temporarily  in  command  of  Scales'  Brigade,  sent 
Companies  I,  L,  and  M,  of  that  regiment — all  of  Randolph 
County — under  command  of  Captain  C.  F.  Siler,  of  Com- 
pany M,  to  hold  a  woods  a  little  in  advance  on  his  right.  An 
ammunition  wagon  had  broken  down  near  by  and  Captain 
Siler  had  several  boxes  of  cartridges  carried  to  his  line  and 
distributed.  From  this  position  he  repelled  with  his  small 
command,  two  attacks  of  a  full  regiment,  and  held  it  until  he 
was  ordered  to  retire.  Captain  Siler  was  an  excellent  man 
and  officer,  equally  at  home  in  a  fight  or  a  revival,  and  ef- 
ficient in  both. 

Colonel  Thos.  S.  Galloway  is  still  living.  His  residence 
is  now  in  Somerville,  Tenn. 

Dr.  Benj.  A.  Clark,  of  Warren  County,  who  was  with  the 
Twenty-second  Kegiment  as  Assistant  Surgeon,  or  as  Surgeon, 
during  the  entire  war,  reported  in  the  Spring  of  1865  that, 
up  to  that  time,  the  death  roll  of  the  regiment  amounted  to 

It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  brunt  of  the  fight  on  the  right, 
in  the  first  day's  struggle  at  tlie  Wilderness  in  May,  1864, 
was  borne  by  Heth's  and  Wilcox's  divisions  of  A.  P.  Hill's 
Corps.  They  maintained  their  positions  and  repelled  all  at- 
tacks all  day,  of  a  superior  force,  successfully.  The  Twenty- 
second  Eegiment  was  in  Wilcox's  Division,  and  was  heavily 

The  Twenty-second  Eegiment  served  throughout  the  war  in 
the  Army  of  ISTorthern  "Virginia,  and  participated  actively  in 
every  action  of  consequence  in  which  that  army  was  engaged, 
except  the  first  battle  of  Manassas. 

At  Seven  Pines,  Company  A,  of  the  regiment,  took  into 
action  one  hundred  men,  of  whom  eighteen  were  killed,  or 
mortally  wounded,  besides  the  Captain,  Thos.  F.  Jones.  At 
Shepherdstown  four  were  killed  out  of  thirty  engaged.  At 
Chancellorsville  eight  out  of  thirty-five;  at  Gettysburg  four 
out  of  thirty. 

In  all,  out  of  about  180  who  served  with  the  company 
during  the  whole  period  of  the  war,  44  were  killed  outright, 
10  were  discharged  as  disabled  by  wounds,    13    were    dis- 

Twenty-Second  Regiment.  177 

charged  under  the  provisions  of  the  Conscript  Act,  and  23 
died  of  sickness. 

Private  A.  J.  Dula,  of  Company  A,  was  standing  very 
near  General  "Stonewall"  Jackson  when  the  latter  received 
his  death  wound  at  Chancellorsville. 

In  Vol.  125,  "Official  Records  Union  and  Confederate 
Armies,"  p.  816,  claim  is  made  hy  Corporal  Thomas  CuUen, 
of  Company  I,  Eighty-second  New  York  Volunteers,  that  he 
captured  the  flag  of  the  Twenty-second  North  Carolina  Regi- 
ment in  the  fight  at  Bristoe  Station,  Va.,  14  October,  1863, 
"while  advancing  under  fire."  The  claim  is  a  very  absurd  one, 
and  looks  like  a  bid  by  the  corporal  for  a  little  notoriety  at  the 
expense  of  the  truth.  The  Twenty-second  North  Carolina 
Regiment  was  not  in  the  engagement  at  Bristoe  at  all,  nor  -did 
any  part  of  Scales'  Brigade  participate  in  that  action.  In 
further  proof,  if  it  were  needed,  the  statement  of  the  Colonel 
then  in  command  of  the  Twenty-second  Regiment,  with  re- 
gard to  the  claim,  is  appended,  and  it  will  be  seen  that  his 
denial  of  the  claim  is  most  positive.  His  remarks  are  in  re- 
ply to  an  inquiry  from  the  writer  who  wished  to  have  the  Col- 
onel's ofiicial  corroboration  of  his  own  knowledge  of  the  facts 
in  the  case : 

"In  reply  I  have  to  say,  and  I  do  so  emphatically,  that  the 
statement  is  untrue.  I  was,  at  the  time  of  that  action.  Colo- 
nel in  command  of  the  Twenty-second  Regiment  North  Caro- 
lina Troops,  and  know  positively  that  my  regiment  was  not  en- 
gaged at  Bristoe  at  all.  We  did  not  arrive  on  the  field  until 
the  fighting  was  over.  I  can  further  state  that  the  Twenty- 
second  North  Carolina  Regiment  never  lost  a  fiag  while  I 
commanded  it,  from  23  September,  1863,  to  Appomattox. 
"Very  truly  your  friend, 

"Thomas  S.  Galloway; 
"Late  Colonel  Twenty-second  Regiment,  N.  C.  Troops,  In- 


15  November,  1900. 

It  may  not  be  amiss  to  add  that  Corporal  CuUen  is  reported 

178  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

as  stating  that  he  "captured  the  flag  of  the  Twenty-second  or 
Twenty-eighth  ISTorth  Carolina  Regiment  at  Bristoe  Station, 
14  October,  1863,  while  advancing  under  fire."  His  state- 
ment as  to  the  Twenty-eighth  North  Carolina  is  as  untrue  as 
that  as  to  the  Twenty-second.  The  Twenty-eighth  Eegiment 
was  of  General  James  H.  Lane's  Brigade,  of  Wilcox's  Divis- 
ion, and  was  not  in  the  engagement  at  Bristoe.  The  brigades 
most  actively  engaged  in  that  disastrous  fight  were  Cooke's 
and  MacRae's,  of  Heth's  Division,  A.  P.  Hill's  Corps. 

It  is  significant  that  the  report  of  these  flag  captures,  of 
which  there  purport  to  be  many,  (Vol.  125,  p.  814-817, 
"Official  Records  Union  and  Confederate  Armies/')  adds, 
after  recounting  Corporal  CuUen's  doughty  exploit,  that  he  is 
"now  a  prisoner  of  war." 

Quere. — As  there  were  no  exchanges  of  prisoners  at  the 
time,  is  it  not  probable  that  it  was  CuUen,  and  not  the  flag, 
that  was  captured  at  Bristoe  ?  Something  seems  to  have  con- 
fused his  memory. 

At  the  surrender  at  Appomattox  9  April,  1865,  the  brigade 
was  under  command  of  Colonel  Joseph  H.  Hyman, 
of  the  Thirteenth  Regiment,  (of  Edgecombe  county), 
and  numbered,  all  told,  720  men,  of  whom  92  were 
ofiicers,  of  the  different  grades,  and  628  were  enlisted 
men.  Of  the  Twenty-second  Regiment  there  were  paroled 
97  men  and  the  following  officers :  Colonel,  Thomas  S.  Gal- 
loway, Jr. ;  Lieutenant-Colonel,  W.  L.  Mitchell ;  Captains, 
George  H.  Gardin,  Company  B ;  Robert  W.  Cole,  Company 
E ;  Gaston  V.  Lamb,  Company  I ;  E.  J.  Dobson,  Company  K ; 
Yancey  M.  C.  Johnson,  Company  I;  Columbus  E.  Siler, 
Company  M.  Lieutenants:  Wm.  A.  Tuttle,  Company  A; 
Samuel  P.  Tate,  Company  B ;  Andrew  J.  Busick,  Company 
E;  W.  C.  Orrell,  Company  E;  Calvin  H.  Wilborne,  Com- 
pany L.  In  Company  E  but  eight  privates  "present  for 
duty,"  were  left,  and  in  Company  H  but  five.  Besides  those 
mentioned  several  members  of  the  regiment,  who  were  on  de- 
tached service,  were  paroled  elsewhere. 

And  so  the  regiment  was  disbanded  and  its  few  surviving 
members  sought  their  distant  homes,  with  heavy  hearts,  in- 

Twenty-Second  Regiment.  179 

deed,  at  the  failure  of  the  cause  they  had  upheld  so  long  and 
so  bravely,  undeterred  by  privation  and  unappalled  by  dan- 
gers, but  still  sustained  by  the  parting  words  of  their  illus- 
trious chief,  and  the  consciousness  of  right,  and  of  duty  well 
done.  1^0  nobler  band  of  men  ever  offered  their  all  at  the  be- 
hest of  the  sovereign  State  to  which  they  owed  allegiance,  and 
to  the  little  squad  of  them,  now  "in  the  sere,  the  yellow  leaf," 
who  have  not  yet  "crossed  over  the  river  and  rest  under  the 
shade  of  the  trees,"  an  old  comrade  sends  warmest  greeting 
and  best  wishes.  Would  that  his  feeble  efforts  in  attemp-c- 
ing  to  preserve  some  portion,  at  least,  of  their  record  were 
more  worthy  of  their  matchless  deeds.  Few  of  them,  if  any, 
there  were  who,  when  all  was  over,  might  not  have  said  in 
the  words  of  St.  Paul :  "I  have  fought  a  good  fight.  *  * 
I  have  kept  the  faith." 

And  to  those  of  the  regiment — that  larger  regiment  by 
far — ^who  sleep  their  last  sleep  where  at  duty's  call  they  laid 
down  their  lives,  on  the  plains  and  hillsides  of  Virginia  and 
Maryland,  from  the  xippomattox  to  the  Antietam,  is  gladly 
rendered  the  fullest  meed  of  grateful  praise.  Their  fidelity 
and  devoted  sacrifice  shall  be  celebrated  in  song  and  story,  and 
shall  be  borne  in  loving  memory  while  time  shall  last. 

*  *  *  "Lament  them  not! 

ISTo  love  can  make  immortal 

That  span  which  we  call  life ; 

And  never  heroes  passed  to  heaven's  portal 

From  fields  of  grander  strife." 

In  offering  this  imperfect  history  of  the  Twenty-second 
Regiment  of  JSTorth  Carolina  Troops  in  the  late  war  between 
the  States,  the  writer  will  say,  in  explanation  of  its  many 
omissions  and  shortcomings,  that  during  more  than  the  last 
two  years  of  its  service,  he  had  been  transferred  to  other  duty 
and  was  not  a  member  of  the  regiment.  He  gratefully  ac- 
knowledges his  indebtedness  to  Lieutenant  J.  R.  Cole,  some 
time  its  Adjutant,  for    much    valuable    information.     He 

180  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

hopes  the  brave  story  of  the  part  the  regiment  bore  in  the  mO' 
mentoTis  campaigns  of  18  64-' 6  5  will  yet  he  told  in  full  detail, 

Graham  Daves, 
New  Been,  N.  C, 
9  April,  1901. 


1.    E.  D.  Johnston,  Colonel.  4.    C.  C.  Blacknall,  Colonel, 

a.    J.  F.  Hoke,  Colonel.  5.    J.  W.  Leak,  Lieut.-Colonel. 

3.    D.  H.  Christie,  Colonel.  6.    E.  J.  Christian,  Major. 

7.    Rev.  Theophilus  W.  Moore,  Chaplain. 


CAPTAIN  V.  E.  TURNER,  A.  Q.  M. 
H.  C.  WALL,  Seegeant  Company  A. 

Up  to  the  re-arrangement  of  the  regimental  numbers  follow- 
ing the  Confederate  Conscription  Act,  which  went  into  effect 
lY  May,  1862,  this  regiment  had  been  known  as  the  Thir- 
teenth Regiment  of  ITorth  Carolina  Volunteers.  The  reason 
of  the  change  is  very  clearly  given  by  Major  Gordon  in  the 
history  of  the  organization.  As  repetition  is,  as  far  as  possible, 
to  be  avoided  in  these  sketches  we  will  not  give  it  here. 

No  North  Carolinians  were  more  forward  in  the  cause  of 
Southern  defence  than  the  men  who  formed  the  Twenty- 
liiird.  They  were  among  the  first  to  respond  when  the  State 
called  upon  her  sons  to  repel  invasion.  The  organization 
of  most,  if  not  all  the  companies,  ante-date  the  Ordinance 
of  Secession,  passed  20  May,  1861. 

This  was  only  ten  days  after  the  act  authorizing  their  en- 
listment was  passed.  Of  course  in  this  case,  as  in  many  oth- 
ers, the  action  of  the  State  had  been  foreseen  and  an- 
ticipated, and  the  raising  of  companies  had  begun  before. 

The  act  authorizing  the  enlistment  of  the  ten  regiments  of 
"State  Troops"  had  been  passed  on  8  May,  two  days  earlier. 

The  power  of  appointing  all  commissioned  officers  in  the 
"State  Troops"  was  lodged  in  the  Governor.  But  the  "Vol- 
unteers" to  which  the  Twenty-third,  then  the  Thirteenth, 
belonged,  were  empowered  to  elect  their  own  officers,  to  be 
commissioned  by  the  Governor.  The  men  of  each  company 
were  to  elect  their  respective  Line  or  Company  Officers.  The 
Line  Officers  were,  by  balloting  among  themselves,  to 
elect  Field  or  Regimental  officers.  The  enlistment  for  the 
"Volunteers"  was  for  twelve  months;  that  of  the  "State 
Troops"  as  long  as  the  war  lasted.  It  is  hardly  necessary  to 

182  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

add  that  both  of  the  above  classes  of  troops  were  in  fact  vol' 
unteers,  the  enlistment  of  both  being  entirely  voluntary. 

The  personnel  of  the  Twenty-third  was  doubtless  as  repre- 
sentative of  the  diverse  racial  strains  of  the  State  as  any  com- 
mand raised  within  her  borders.  The  three  companies  raised 
in  Granville  County,  were  virtually  pure  English,  descend- 
ants of  the  early  Virginia  settlers  who  later  settled  in  this 
State.  In  the  company  from  Eichmond  and  Anson  Counties 
there  was  a  strong  infusion  of  Highland  Scotch,  descendants 
of  the  stout-hearted,  strong  armed  CuUoden  lads  who  were 
"out  wi'  Charlie  in  the  '45."  In  those  from  Catawba,  Lin- 
coln and  Gaston,  the  German  stock,  that  trending  down  from 
Pennsylvania  had  largely  settled  that  part  of  the  State, 
abounded.  While  the  names  in  these  and  other  companies 
from  that  region  show  the  presence  of  many  Scotch-Irish  who 
had  been  co-settlers  with  the  Germans. 

The  regiment  was  composed  of  the  following  compa- 
nies. We  give  the  original  name  which  each  com- 
pany bore,  and  the  county  in  which  it  was  raised. 
Seeking  to  do  justice  to  all,  we  give  as  complete  as 
we  are  able  to  make  it,  a  roster  of  the  Line  and  Field  officers, 
showing  the  promotions  and  casualties  to  the  end  of  the  Avar. 
We  regret  that  lack  of  space  excludes  that  of  equally  worthy 
non-commissioned  officers  and  privates.  But  North  Caro- 
lina has  not  been  unmindful  of  them.  All  and  the  casualties  of 
each,  though  not  as  accurately  as  could  be  wished,  down  to  th.e  - 
humblest,  appear  in  the  general  roster  of  which  a  large  num- 
ber of  copies  were  published  by  the  State  in  1882. 

Company  A — Anson  Ellis  Rifles,  Anson  County — Captain 
Wm.  F.  Harlee,  of  Anson  County;  commissioned  May  22, 
1861,  resigned  December  15,  1861.  Captain  James  M. 
Wall,  of  Anson  County,  commissioned  December  15,  1861. 
Captain  Frank  Bennett,  of  Anson  County,  commissioned 
May  10,  1862  ;  promoted  from  First  Sergeant ;  wounded  May 
29,  1862;  wounded  at  Chancellorsville ;  wounded  May  12, 
1864,  at  Spottsylvania  Court  House;  wounded  at  Hatcher's 
Hun.  W.  D.  Redfearne,  First  Lieutenant,  of  Anson  Coun- 
ty; commissioned  May  22,  1861.     James  C.  Marshall,  First 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  183 

Lieutenant,  of  Anson  County;  commissioned  May  10,  1862; 
transferred  as  Adjutant  to  Fourteenth  Regiment  in  1862. 
John  M.  Little,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Anson  County;  com- 
missioned May  22,  1861.  James  Crowder,  Second  Lieuten- 
ant, of  Anson  County;  commissioned  May  22,  1861;  wound- 
ed and  captured  at  Sharpsburg ;  wounded  at  Lynchburg  June, 
1864.  Samuel  F.  Wright,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Anson 
County;  commissioned  May  10,  1862;  captured  at  Gettys- 

CoMPAiTY  B — Hog  Hill  Guards,  Lincoln  County — Geo. 
W.  Seagle,  Captain,  Lincoln  County ;  commissioned  May  23, 

1861.  Wesley  Hadspeth,  Captain,  Lincoln  County;  com- 
missioned May  10,  1862;  promoted  from  ranks;  wounded  at 
Sharpsburg;  killed  at  Chancellorsville  May  3,  1863.  G.  W. 
Hunter,  Captain,  Lincoln  County;  promoted  from  ranks. 
Josiah  Holbrook,  Captain,  Lincoln  County;  promoted  from 
ranks.  T.  J.  Seagle,  First  Lieutenant,  Lincoln  County ; 
commissioned  May  23,  1861.  M.  H.  Shuford,  First  Lieu- 
tenant, Lincoln  Coimty;  commissioned  May  23,  1861.  Lee 
Johnson,  Second  Lieutenant,  Lincoln  County;  commissioned 
May  23,  1861.  S.  A.  Shuford,  Second  Lieutenant,  Lincoln 
County;  commissioned  May  10,  1862.  Wm.  R.  Sloan,  Sec- 
ond Lieutenant,  Mecklenburg  County;  commissioned  May 
10,  1862.  M.  H.  Shuford,  Second  Lieutenant,  Lincoln 
County;  commissioned  May  10,  1862.  W.  A.  Thompson, 
Second  Lieittenant,  Lincoln  County;  commissioned  May  10, 

1862.  M.  M.  Hines,  Second  Lieutenant,  Lincoln  County; 
commissioned  November  20,  1861 ;  prisoner  September  19, 

Company  C — Montgomery  Volunteers  No.  1 — C.  J.  Coch- 
rane, Captain,  of  Montgomery  County;  commissioned  May 
27,  1861.  E.  J.  Christian,  Captain,  of  Montgomery  Coun- 
ty, commissioned  May  10,  1862;  promoted  Major  May  10, 
1862,  and  killed  May  31,  1862  at  Seven  Pines.  A.  F.  Sear- 
borough,  Captain,  of  Montgomery  County;  commissioned 
May  10,  1862 ;  killed  May  30,  1862.  E.  H.  Lyon,  Captain, 
of  Granville  County;  commissioned  May  31,  1862;  trans- 
ferred from  Company  E;  prisoner  September  19,  1864. 
E.  J.  Christian,  First  Lieutenant,  of  Montgomery  County; 

184  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

commissioned  May  27,  1861 ;  promoted  and  killed.  John  E. 
Nicholson,  First  Lieutenant,  of  Montgomery  County;  com- 
missioned May  10,  1862.  E.  J.  Garris,  Second  Lieutenant, 
of  Montgomery  County;  commissioned  May  10,  1862;  killed 
W.  Montgomery,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Montgomery  County ; 
commissioned  May  27,  1861.  Jeremiah  Coggins,  Second 
Lieutenant,  of  Montgomery  County;  commissioned  May  10, 
1862 ;  prisoner  at  Gettysburg  July  1,  1863 ;  one  of  the  600 
officers  placed  under  Confederate  fire  at  Charleston,  S.  C. ; 
died  at  Fort  Delaware.  A.  F.  Saunders,  Second  Lieutenant, 
of  Montgomery  County;  commissioned  May  10,  1862;  killed 
at  Spottsylvania  May  9,  1864.  J.  P.  Leach,  Second  Lieuten- 
ant, of  Montgomery  County;  commissioned  April  14,  1863. 

Company  I) — Pee  Dee  Guards — Lewis  H.  Webb,  Captain, 
of  Eichmond  County;  commissioned  May  30,  1861;  resign- 
ed. A-  T.  Cole,  Captain,  of  Eichmond  County ;  commissioned 
May  10,  1862  ;  wounded  at  Sharpsburg;  wounded  and  captur- 
ed at  Chancellorsville ;  captured  at  Spottsylvania  C.  H. 
May  12,  1864 ;  one  of  the  600  officers  placed  under  Confeder- 
ate guns  at  Charleston,  S.  C.  James  S.  Knight,  First  Lieu- 
tenant, of  Eichmond  County;  commissioned  May  30,  1861; 
killed  at  Chancellorsville  May  3,  1863.  Eisden  T.  Nichols, 
First  Lieutenant,  of  Eichmond  County;  commissioned  May 
10,  1862 ;  died  in  1862.  J.  H.  Chappell,  First  Lieutenant, 
of  Eichmond  County.  John  W.  Cole,  Second  Lieutenant, 
of  Eichmond  County;  commissioned  May  30,  1861.  B.  H. 
Covington,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Eichmond  County;  com- 
missioned May  30,  1861.  W.  C.  Wall,  Second  Lieutenant, 
of  Eichmond  County;  commissioned  October  17,  1861;  pro- 
moted Captain  Company  F;  wounded  at  Monacacy  July 
1864.  James  H.  Chappell,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Eich- 
mond County;  commissioned  October  10,  1862;  severely 
wounded  at  Chancellorsville;  captured.  E.  A.  McDonald, 
Second  Lieutenant,  of  Eichmond  County ;  commissioned  Oc- 
tober 10,  1862 ;  severely  wounded  at  Chancellorsville. 

Company  E — Granville  Plough  Boys,  Granville  County — 
J.  H.  Horner,  Captain,  of  G-ranville  County;  commissioned 
June  5,  1861.  B.  F.  Bullock,  Captain,  of  Granville  County; 
commissioned .     E.  E.  Lyon,  First  Lieutenant,  of 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  185 

Granville  County;  commissioned  June  5,  1861.  T.  W. 
Moore,  First  Lieutenant,  of  Granville  County ;  commissioned 
August  15,  1861.  J.  H.  Mitchell,  Second  Lieutenant,  of 
Granville  County;  commissioned  June  5,  1861.  A.  D. 
Peace,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Granville  County ;  commission- 
ed June  5,  1861 ;  wounded  twice.  E..  V.  Minor,  Second 
Lieutenant,  of  Granville  Coimty;  commissioned  September 
25,  1862.  E.  H.  Lyon,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Granville 
County;  commissioned  JSTovember  12,  1861;  transferred  as 
Captain  of  Company  C.  B.  F.  Bullock,  Second  Lieutenant, 
of  Granville  County;  commissioned  December  6,  1861.  J. 
T.  Bullock,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Granville  County;  com- 
missioned May  10,  1862;  captured  May  12,  1864;  one  of 
the  600  officers  placed  under  Confederate  guns  at  Charleston, 

5.  C.  A.  S.  Webb,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Granville  County ; 
commissioned  May  10,  1862  ;  resigned. 

Company  F — Catawba  Guards,  Catawba  County — M.  L. 
McCorkle,  Captain,  of  Catawba  County;  commissioned  June 

6,  1861.  W.  C.  Wall,  Captain,  of  Bichmond  County;  com- 
missioned May  10,  1864.  Jacob  H.  Miller,  First  Lieuten- 
ant, of  Catawba  County;  commissioned  June  6,  1861.  T. 
W.  Wilson,  First  Lieutenant,  of  Catawba  County;  killed  at 

■  Spottsylvania  May  10,  1864.  M..  L.  Helton,  Second  Lieu- 
tenant, of  Catawba  County;  commissioned  June  6,  1861. 
R.  A.  Cobb,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Catawba  County;  com- 
missioned Jime  6,  1861.  G.  P.  Clay,  Secpnd  Lieutenant,  of 
Catawba  County;  commissioned  May  10,  1862.  T.  W.  Wil- 
son, Second  Lieutenant,  of  Catawba  County;  commissioned 
May  10,  1862.  W.  C.  Wall,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Rich- 
mond County;  commissioned  May  10,  1862. 

Company  G^ — Granville  Rifles — C.  C.  Blacknall,  Captain, 
of  Granville  County;  commissioned  Jtine  11,  1861 ;  wounded 
at  Seven  Pines ;  promoted  Major  May  31,  1862 ;  captured  at 
Chancellorsville ;  wounded  and  captured  at  Gettysburg; 
promoted  Colonel  August,  1863 ;  mortally  wounded 
September  19,  1864.  I.  J.  Young,  Captain,  of  Granville 
County;  commissioned  May  31,  1862;  wounded  May  31, 
1862,  at  Seven  Pines;  resigned  August  1862;  wounded  at 
Malvern  Hill.     T.  J.  Crocker,  Captain,  of  Granville  County ; 

186  North  Carolina  Troops,  l861-'65. 

commissioned  August  15,  1862 ;  wounded,  disabled  and  re- 
signed. James  A.  Breedlove,  Captain,  of  Granville  County ; 
commissioned  in  1864;  wounded;  promoted  from  First  Lieu- 
tenant. Isaac  J.  Young,  First  Lieutenant,  of  Granville 
County;  commissioned  June  11,  1861;  promoted,  wounded, 
and  resigned.  T.  J.  Crocker,  First  Lieutenant,  of  Granville 
County;  commissioned  May  31,  1862;  promoted,  wounded, 
and  resigned;  J.  A.  Breedlove,  First  Lieutenant,  of  Gran- 
ville County;  commissioned  June  11,  1861;  promoted  and 
wounded.  Washington  F.  Overton,  First  Lieutenant,  of 
Granville  County;  commissioned  in  1864;  wounded  and 
burned  in  woods  at  Chancellorsville.  G.  W.  Kittrell,  Second 
Lieutenant,  of  Granville  County;  commissioned  June  11, 
1861.  Vines  E.  Turner,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Granville 
County;  commissioned  June  11,  1861;  promoted  Adjutant 
May  10,  1862  ;  wounded  at  Cold  Harbor  Jime  27,  1862 ;  pro- 
moted Assistant  Quartermaster  in  1863.  T.  J.  Crocker,  Sec- 
ond Lieutenant,  of  Granville  County ;  commissioned  May  10, 
1862 ;  promoted.  William  F.  Gill,  Second  Lieutenant,  of 
Franklin  County;  commissioned  May  10,  1862;  promoted 
from  Sergeant-Major ;  killed  at  Malvern  Hill.  W.  F.  Over- 
ton, Second  Lieutenant,  of  Granville  County;  commissioned 
August  15,  1862 ;  promoted  and  killed.  J.  A.  Breedlove, 
Second  Lieutenant,  of  Granville  Cotinty;  commissioned  Au- 
gust 15,  1862 ;  promoted  and  wounded.  C.  W.  Champion, 
Second  Lieutenant,  of  Granville  County;  commissioned  No- 
vember 1,  1862;  killed  at  Gettysburg. 

Company  H — Gaston  Guards — E.  M.  Faires,  Captain,  of 
Gaston  County;  commissioned  June  12,  1861;  resigned  De- 
cember 1,  1861.  W.  P.  Hill,  Captain,  of  Gaston  County; 
commissioned  December  1,  1861 ;  promoted  from  Sergeant. 
H.  G.  Turner,  Captain,  of  Granville  County;  commissioned 
August  18,  1862  ;  promoted  from  ranks  of  Savannah  Guards ; 
desperately  wounded  and  captured  July  1,  1862,  at  Gettys- 
burg. R.  M.  Ratchf ord.  First  Lieutenant,  of  Gaston  County ; 
commissioned  June  12,  1861;  resigned  December,  1861.  Jos. 
J.  Wilson,  First  Lieutenant,  of  Gaston  County ;  commissioned 
December,  1861 ;  promoted  from  Sergeant.  Joseph  B.  F. 
Riddle,  First  Lieutenant,  of  Gaston  County;  commissioned 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  187 

May  10,  1862;  wounded  September  30,  1864;  promoted 
from  Sergeant.  J.  E.  Hill,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Gaston 
County ;  commissioned  May  10,  1861 ;  promoted  from  ranks. 
T.  N.  Craig,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Gaston  County ;  commis- 
sioned June  12,  1861.  J.  M.  Kendrick,  Second  Lieutenant, 
of  Gaston  County;  commissioned  June  12,  1861;  captured 
July  1,  1863,  at  Gettysburg.  W.  S.  Floyd,  Second  Lieuten- 
ant, of  Gaston  County ;  commissioned . 

Company  I — Granville  Stars — Rufus  Amis,  Captain,  of 
Granville  County;  commissioned  June  17,  1861.  G.  T.  Bas- 
kerville.  Captain,  of  Granville  County;  commissioned  1863; 
killed  at  Gettysburg.  G.  B.  Bullock,  Captain,  of  Granville 
County ;  promoted  from  Second  Lieutenant.  E".  A.  Gregory, 
First  Lieutenant,  of  Granville  County;  commissioned  June 
17,  1861 ;  wounded  and  disabled  at  Chancellor sville.  G. 
B.  Bullock,  First  Lieutenant,  of  Granville  County.  J.  D. 
Knott,  First  Lieutenant,  of  Granville  County ;  commissioned 
May  8,  1862;  killed  at  Seven  Pines.  A.  M..  Luria,  Second 
Lieutenant,  of  Georgia;  commissioned  June  17,  1861;  killed 
at  Seven  Pines.  T.  K.  Carrington,  Second  Lieutenant,  of 
Granville  County;  commissioned  June  17,  1861.  G.  B. 
Bullock,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Granville  County;  promoted 
from  ranks  of  Twelfth  Regiment.  J.  D.  Knott,  Second  Lieij- 
tenant,  of  Granville  County;  commissioned  November  16, 
1861 ;  promoted  and  killed.  G.  T.  Sanford,  Second  Lieuten- 
ant, of  Granville  County;  commissioned  May' 20,  1862.  W. 
B.  Sims,  Second  Lieiitenant,  of  Granville  County;  commis- 
sioned May  20,  1862  ;  promoted  from  ranks. 

Company  K — Beattie's  Ford  Riflemen,  Lincoln  County — 
Robert  D.  Johnston,  Captain,  of  Lincoln  County;  commis- 
sioned June  22,  1861 ;  promoted  Lieutenant-Colonel  May  10, 

1862,  and  Brigadier-General  in  1863.  William  H.  John- 
ston, Captain,  of  Lincoln  County;  commissioned  May  10, 
1862;  promoted  from  First  Lieutenant;  captured  July  1, 

1863,  at  Gettysburg.  W.  H.  Johnston,  First  Lieutenant,  of 
Lincoln  County;  commissioned  June  22,  1861;  promoted 
and  captured.  Daniel  Reinhardt,  First  Lieutenant,  of  Lin- 
coln County;  commissioned  September,  1862.  John  F. 
Goodson,  Second  Jjieutenant,  of  Lincoln  County;  commis- 

188  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

sioned  June  22,  1861.  G.  W*  Hunter,  Second  Lieutenant, 
of  Lincoln  County;  commissioned  June  22,  1861.  Daniel 
Eeinhardt,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Lincoln  County;  commis- 
sioned May  10,  1862.  J.  A.  Caldwell,  Second  Lieutenant, 
of  Lincoln  County;  commissioned  September  6,  1862.  Wil- 
liam M.  Munday,  Second  Lieutenant,  of  Lincoln  County; 
commissioned  September,  1862;  promoted  from  ranks; 
wounded  at  Malvern  Hill.  H.  W.  FuUenwider,  Second 
Lieutenant,  of  Lincoln  County ;  commissioned  in  May,  1863 ; 
promoted  from  ranks;  killed. 

Nine  of  these  companies  were  assembled  in  camp  near  Wel- 
don,  N.  C,  and  between  that  place  and  Garysburg,  two  miles 
distant,  in  June,  1861.  Here  the  boys  underwent  a  little 
more  drilling  than  they  liked.  But  they  were  patriots,  one 
and  all,  and  as  some  drilling  might  possibly  be  necessary  even 
to  whip  Yankees,  they  submitted  cheerfully.  The  other  com- 
pany, the  Anson  Ellis  Klifles,  remained  in  camp  at  Raleigh  till 
ordered  to  join  the  regiment  as  it  left  for  Virginia.  Garys- 
burg  was  the  point  of  rendezvous.  Here,  in  obedience  to 
orders,  the  Line  Officers  of  the  ten  companies  met  10  July 
and  elected  Field  Officers  for  the  regiment  as  follows.  The 
date,  10  July,  1861,  shows  the  officers  then  elected.  Other 
dates  show  the  result  of  subsequent  elections  and  promotions : 


John  F.  Hoke^  Colonel,  of  Lincoln  County ;  commissioned 
July  10,  1861. 

Daniel  H.  Cheistie^  Colonel,  of  Granville  County;  com- 
missioned May  10,  1862  ;  wounded  at  Seven  Pines;  wounded 
at  Cold  Habor;  mortally  wounded  July  1,  1863,  at  Gettys- 
burg; died  in  Winchester  August,  1863. 

Chakles  C.  Blacknall,  Colonel,  of  Granville  County; 
commissioned  August  15,  1863;  wounded  at  Seven  Pines; 
captured  at  Ch  ancellorsville ;  wounded  and  captured  at  Get- 
tysburg ;  mortally  wounded  and  captured-at  Winchester  Sep- 
tember 19,  1864;  died  November  6,  1864. 

Wm.  S.  Davis,  Colonel,  of  Warren  County ;  commissioned 
October  1864 ;  transferred  from  Twelfth  Regiment ;  wounded. 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  189 

John  W.  Leak,  Lieutenant-Colonel,  of  Richmond  County ; 
commissioned  July  10,  1861. 

RoBT.  D.  JoHNSTONj  Lieutcnant-Colonel,  of  Lincoln 
County;  commissioned  May  10,  1862;  wounded  at  Seven 
Pines;  wounded  at  Gettysburg;  promoted  Brigadier-General 
July,  1863 ;  wounded  at  Spottsylvania. 

Daniel  H.  Cheistie,  Major,  of  Granville  County;  com- 
missioned July  10,  1861 ;  promoted. 

E.  J.  Christian,  Major,  of  Montgomery  County;  com- 
missioned May  10,  1862;  killed  May  31,  1862,  at  Seven 

Charles  C.  Blacknall,  Major,  of  Granville  County; 
commissioned  May  10,  1862 ;  promoted  from  Captain  of 
Company  G. 

Isaac  Jones  Young,  Adjutant,  of  Granville  County ;  com- 
tnissioned  July  10,  1861 ;  wounded  July  1,  1862 ;  promoted 
Captain  of  Company  G  and  resigned  in  1862. 

Vines  E.  Turner,  Adjutant,  of  Granville  County;  com- 
missioned May  10,  1862 ;  wounded  at  Cold  Harbor  June  27, 
1862 ;  promoted  to  Captain  and  Assistant  Quartermaster 
June,  1863. 

Junius  French,  Adjutant,  of  Yadkin  County;  commis- 
sioned June,  1863;  killed  July  1,  1863,  at  Gettysburg. 

Charles  P.  Powell,  Adjutant,  of  Richmond  County ;  com- 
missioned July,  1863 ;  killed  May  9,  1864  at  Spottsylvania 
Court  House. 

Lawrence  Everett,  Adjutant,  of  Richmond  County; 
commissioned  May  12,  1864. 

Edwin  G.  Cheatham,  Assistant  Quartermaster,  of  Gran- 
ville County;  commissioned  July  10,  1861,  resigned  Febru- 
ary, 1862. 

W.  I.  Everett,  Assistant  Quartermaster,  of  Richmond 
County ;  commissioned  in  1862 ;  resigned. 

Vines  E.  Turner,  Assistant  Quartermaster,  of  Granville 
County ;  commissioned  June,  1863. 

James  F.  Johnston,  Assistant  Commissary,  of  Lincobi 

Theophilus  Moore,  Chaplain,  of  Person  County;  later 
Rev.  Mr.  Berry. 

190  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

EoBEET  I.  Hicks,  Surgeon,  of  Granville  County;  T.  0. 
Caldwell,  of  Mecklenburg  County,  Assistant  Surgeon;  later 
Dr.  Jordan,  of  Caswell  County,  killed  at  South  Mountain. 

William  E.  Gill,  Sergeant-Major,  of  Granville  County; 
killed  July  1,  1862  at  Malvern  Hill. 

Ci-iAELES  P.  Powell,  of  Richmond  County;  appointed 
May  10,  1862;  promoted  to  Adjutant  May  9,  1864. 

On  20  May,  the  day  on  which  North  Carolina  seceded 
from  the  Union,  the  Confederate  Capital  had  been 
removed  from  Montgomery  to  Richmond.  It  was  now  plain 
that  the  Old  Dominion  would  be  the  theatre  of  the  war. 
Thither  the  regiment  was  soon  ordered,  to  return  as  an  or- 
ganized body  no  more,  with  one  brief  exception,  till  the  great 
drama  of  blood  and  ruin  had  to  the  last  scene  been  acted. 

On  Wednesday,  17  July,  Colonel  Hoke,  with  seven 
companies  of  the  regiment,  left  the  "Camp  of  Instruction"  at 
Garysburg,  N.  C,  in  freight  cars  for  Richmond,  Va.  Com- 
panies C,  D  and  H,  were  for  the  time  being  necessarily  left  be- 
hind on  account  of  the  prevalence  of  measles  among  the  men. 
Of  this  malady  and  in  the  person  of  John  H.  Harmer,  Com- 
pany D,  the  regiment  lost  its  second  man,  the  first  man  being 
Wm.  LoAvman,  of  Company  A,  who  died  while  in  camp  at 

Four  nights  were  spent  in  camp  at  "Rocketts"  in  the 
suburbs  of  Richmond.  It  was  either  here,  or  just  before 
leaving  Garysburg,  that  arms  and  ammunition  were  first 
issued  to  us.  The  arms  consisted  of  smooth  bore  percussion 
muskets,  with  bayonets ;  the  ammunition  of  paper  cartridges, 
containing  ball  and  powder.  A  little  later  in  the  war  we 
were  armed  with  rifles  captured  from  the  enemy. 


Early  on  21  July,  a  bright,  hot  Sunday,  our  seven 
companies  entrained  hurriedly  in  "box"  cars  for  Manassas 
Junction.  Enthusiasm  was  at  flood  tide  in  that  period  of 
boundless  hope.  Cheers  greeted  us  on  every  side  as  we 
steamed  forward  and  at  the  stations  we  were  fed  and  feted. 
All  knew  that  a  battle  was  impending  and  later,  by  means  of 
the  telegraph  line  along  the  railroad,  that  it  was  being  fought. 

Twenty-Third  RKGijrENT.  191 

We  were  eager  to  go  forward ;  more  eager,  perhaps,  than 
we  were  to  reach  later  fields  when  experience  had  unmasked 
the  true,  grim  visage  of  war.  But  many  delays  occurred. 
The  running  of  the  train  was  so  erratic  that  the  engineer  was 
suspected  of  treason,  though  apparently  without  evident 
cause.  The  soldiers  who  crowded  the  tops  of  the  cars  in  their 
eagerness  to  assist,  put  on  brakes  too  hard.  This  caused  one 
of  the  car  trucks  to  take  fire  from  friction,  or  come  very  near 
it.  As  some  of  the  cars  carried,  or  were  believed  to  carry 
powder,  the  men  stopped  the  train  by  means  of  the  brakes  and 
cut  the  endangered  car  loose  till  it  cooled. 

But  these  delays  were  inconsiderable,  compared  with  the 
long  stop  near  the  Rappahannock  bridge,  above  Gordonsville. 
We  had  started  full  early  and  could  have  reached  Manassas 
by  noon,  or  soon  after.  The  presence  of  TOO  men,  fresh  on 
tlae  field,  might  have  had  great  weight  at  more  than  one  junc- 
ture of  that  dubious  battle.  But  we  were  sidetracked  to  meet 
many  trains  of  wounded,  which  began  to  pass  us  at  Louisa 
Court  House.  During  Sunday  night  we  pulled  into  Man- 
assas Junction.  Monday  was  a  rainy,  chilly,  dismal  day. 
The  men  had  stopped  their  cheering  and  horse  play  when  the 
cars  of  bloody-bandaged  wounded  passed  them  the  day  before 
at  Louisa  Court  House.  The  night  spent  on  the  hard  car 
flooi's  seemed  a  real  hardship.  The  twenty-four  hours  fast — 
we  had  left  Richmond  too  suddenly  to  prepare  rations — 
seemed  then  to  border  on  the  heroic.  The  Manassas  water 
reddened  by  contact  with  the  mud,  then  knee  deep  around  the 
station,  drank  like  blood.  The  rows  of  untended  wounded 
who  had  lain  all  night  on  the  field  in  the  rain,  some  of  them 
horribly  mutilated,  grew  longer  and  longer  as  the  ambulances 
came  and  wont.  The  pile  of  amputated  limbs,  naked  and 
whitened  by  tlie  chilling  rains,  grew  higher  and  higher  out- 
side an  amputating  tent  hard-by  the  roadside.  It  was  prob- 
ably the  most  miserable  and  trying  day  that  the  regiment 
spent  diiring  tlae  war.  The  time  when  the  Confederate  sol- 
dier was  to  become  the  marching,  fighting,  fasting  machine 
that  he  did,  insensible  almost  to  hunger,  cold  and  mental  de- 
pression, was  yet  some  distance  ahead. 

We  went  into  camp  at  Camp  Wigf all,  one  and  a  quarter 

192  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

miles  from  the  Junction.  The  three  companies  left  at 
Garysburg  under  Major  Christie,  broke  camp  there  on  5 
August,  and  after  a  few  days  delay  in  Kichmond  wait- 
ing for  transportation,  rejoined  us  here.  For  several  weeks 
encamped  at  this  place,  the  regiment  suffered  exceedingly 
from  the  diseases  which  then,  and  even  now,  seem  unescapa- 
ble  by  the  u.nseason6d  soldier.  By  the  surgeon's  statement, 
the  sick  call  at  one  time  numbered  240,  57  of  the  cases  being 
typhoid  fever.     The  mortality  was  large. 

After  spending  several  weeks  here  our  first  march  was 
made  to  Camp  Ellis,  five  miles  distant,  where  we  remained  six 
weeks.  Near  here,  at  Sangster's  Cross  Eoads,  our  first  picket 
duty  was  performed.  A  little  later  at  Mason's  Hill  the 
whole  regiment  went  on  its  first  picket.  17  September 
we  pitched  camp  and  began  a  long  stay  at  Union  Mills.  ISTear 
here,  on  Bull  Run,  we  built  log  huts  and  went  into  winter 
quarters  in  December,  where  we  remained  with  only  such 
changes  in  position  as  the  exigencies  of  the  situation  in  out- 
post and  picket  duty  required.  This  gave  us  an  opportunity 
to  enjoy  the  boundless  hospitality  of  the  people  of  this  part 
of  Virginia,  upon  whom  the  iron  hand  of  the  war  was  soon 
to  fall  with  such  crushing  weight. 

Meantime  the  regiment  had  been  brigaded  with  the  Fifth 
North  Carolina  "State  Troops,"  Colonel  Duncan  K.  McRae ; 
the  Twentieth  Georgia,  Colonel  Smith;  the  Twenty-fourth 
Virginia,  Colonel  Jubal  A.  Early;  and  the  Thirty-eighth 
Virginia,  Colonel  Jubal  Earles.  Colonel  Early  being  the 
ranking  officer,  he  was  placed  in  command,  and  subsequently 
commissioned  Brigadier-General.  General  Earl  Van  Dorn 
commanded  the  division.  General  Beauregard  the  corps.  Gen- 
eral Joseph  E.  Johnston  the  army.  The  army  was  then  known 
as  the  Army  of  the  Potomac — ^later  upon  the  abandonment 
of  that  line  of  defense,  as  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia. 
In  the  fall  and  winter  of  1861,  many  changes  took  place  in 
the  Line  Officers  of  the  regiment. 

The  winter  was  a  severe  and  trying  one.  After  January 
1,  1862,  snow,  hail,  sleet  or  rain  fell  almost  every  day.  Fre- 
quently all  fell  the  same  day.  War  doffed  her  holiday  mask 
worn  during  the  tramping  from  camp  to  camp,  and  from 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  193 

picket  to  picket  post  in  the  splendid  weather  of  the  past  Au- 
tumn. Such  duties  now  imposed  hardships  of  a  serious  and 
often  dangerous  nature.  JSTot  yet  hardened  to  endure  all 
things,  as  in  time  they  were,  the  men  suffered  intensely  from 
exposure.  Great  was  the  mortality  from  pneumonia,  typhoid 
fever  and  other  diseases. 


The  early  spring  of  1862  found  the  Confederate  army 
along  Bull  Run  and  north  of  that  stream,  less  than  50,000 
strong.  The  Federal  hosts  under  McClellan,  confronted  it 
over  100,000  strong.  Before  the  opening  of  Spring  rendered 
military  operations  feasible  on  a  large  scale,  General  John- 
ston decided  to  withdraw  from  his  exposed  position  to  a 
stronger  line  south  of  the  Rappahannock.  There  he  would 
also  be  in  better  position  to  meet  and  check  any  advance  of 
the  enemy  whether  direct  or  circuitous,  as  subsequently 

The  beginning  of  the  retrograde  movement  found  the  regi- 
ment on  picket  duty  at  Burke's  Station,  on  the  Orange  and 
Alexandria  Railroad,  and  in  close  proximity  to  the  enemy 
who  were  encamped  in  the  neighborhood  of  Alexandria  and 
Springfield.  The  old  camp  on  Bull  Run  was  abandoned 
8  March.  We  moved  out  at  daylight,  throwing  away 
tents  and  camp  equipage;  sum  total  of  the  first  day's 
march  one  and  a  half  miles,  progress  being  checked  by  eon- 
fusion  of  orders.  Early  was  now  acting  as  Major-General, 
in  command  of  the  Fourth  division. 

ISTot  until  sunset  of  the  9th,  did  the  grand  column  move 
again,  reaching  Manassas  Junction  that  night.  The  last  we 
saw  of  the  famous  stone  bridge  across  Bull  Run,  it  was  in 
flames.  Strictly  speaking,  stone  bridge  was  a  misnomer,  all 
but  the  abutments  being  of  wood.  An  immense  amount  of 
property  was  destroyed  as  the  iiecessity  of  change  of  base 
to  the  Peninsula  was  now  anticipated.  A  very  carnival,  re- 
strained to  some  extent  by  the  military  discipline,  reigned 
that  night  at  the  junction.  The  soldiers  got  rich  with  plun- 
der. Depots  of  supplies  and  the  express  office  were  fired. 

194  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Barrels  of  whiskey  were  opened  at  the  head  and  their  con- 
tents poured  in  streams  on  the  ground.  A  rough  soldier  was 
observed  with  six  canteens  of  whiskey  around  his  neck,  as  if 
"he  wept  such  waste  to  see,"  actually  wading  in  a  puddle  of 
the  joyful,  while  in  a  ditty,  tuneless,  but  gay,  he  whistled  his 
regrets  over  "departed  spirits." 

The  next  position  was  south  of  the  Kappahannock.  Large 
numbers  of  refugees  accompanied  the .  army  in  the  retreat. 
Details  of  our  regiment,  as  from  others,  were  made  to  guard 
and  as  far  as  possible,  aid  them  in  their  wild  flight.  As  the 
command  waded  the  Rappahannock  it  witnessed  a  distressing 
accident  to  one.  of  the  unfortunates — a  widowed  lady,  half 
frantic  lest  she  be  left  behind  and  taken  by  the  Yankees, 
missed  the  ford  in  driving  across  the  river  and  was  swept 
down  to  death  by  the  rapid  waters. 

For  several  weeks  the  army  remained  in  position  south  of 
the  Rappahannock  awaiting  a  further  development  of  the 
Federal  plans.  Then  came  a  long,  slow,  impeded  march 
along  the  Orange  and  Alexandria  Railroad.  How  like  a 
sealed  book  to  the  private  soldier  are  the  plans  of  his  leaders. 
How  futile  our  conjectures  as  to  the  purpose  of  our  move  and 
the  objects  to  be  gained  by  it.  Many  yearning  hearts — in 
which  the  wish  was  father  to  the  thought — saw  in  this  south- 
ern trend  only  a  return  to  ISTorth  Carolina. 

7  April,  we  took  the  cars  at  Orange  Court  House  and 
that  night,  a  dark  and  rainy  one,  found  us  in  Richmond.  Af- 
ter a  hastily  eaten  midnight  supper,  prepared  for  us  in  the 
market  house  by  the  exlaaustless  hospitality  of  the  good  people 
of  Richmond,  we  were  marched  to  the  Yorktown  depot.  This 
was  the  first  intimation  of  our  destination.  Going  by  rail 
sixty  miles  to  West  Point,  Ave  here  took  schooners  for  York- 
town,  thirty  miles  below. 


8  April,  one  month  after  the  beginning  of  the'  with- 
drawal from  iianassas  the  regiment,  with  other  commands, 
reached  Yorktown.  Here  we  got  our  first  experience  of  the 
trying  duties  of  life  in  the  trenches,  including  much  toil  with 
pick  and  shovel.     On  the  lYth,  after  nine  days  behind  the 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  195 

breastworks,  tlie  boys  had  their  first  experience  with  earinon 
balls  and  bomb-shells.  The  opposing  batteries  were  about 
three-fourths  of  a  mile  apart.  The  pickets  were  in  rifle  pits 
several  hundred  yards  in  advance,  and  on  that  day  more  than 
one  shell  exploded  in  uncomfortable  proximity  to  them. 
When  the  first  shot  was  fired  direct  at  the  position  occupied 
by  the  Twenty-third  (then  the  Thirteenth),  the  writer  (H. 
0.  Wall)  was  on  duty  in  the  rifle  pits  as  Sergeant  in  com- 
mand. Well  is  remembered  the  "sensation"  produced  by  the 
first  shell  that  fanned  the  cheeks'  of  ye  innocent  braves  who 
occupied  those  rifle  pits,  and  particularly  the  moving  effect 
wrought  upon  a  certain  tongue-tied  individual,  whose  deport- 
ment now,  as  contrasted  with  previous  pretensions,  presented 
a  striking  consistency  with  the  spirit  of  the  ancient  ballad : 

"ISTought  to  him  possesses  greater  charms 

Upon  a  Sunday  or  a  holiday. 
Than  a  snug  chat  of  war  and  war's  alarms. 

While  people  fight  in  Turkey,  far  away." 

For,  with  a  precipitate  bound,  the  tongue-tied  warrior 
made  tracks  for  the  bi'eastworks  exclaiming,  in  answer  to  re- 
monstrances and  threats  of  court-martial:  "Dam  'fi  come  here 
to  be  hulled  out  this  way  when  I  can't  see  who's  a  shootin'  at 
me" — using  the  terms  hulled  instead  of  shelled  as  synony- 
mous, though  he  hardly  thought  of  it  at  the  time.  At  a  period 
a  little  later  in  the  service,  such  conduct  would  have  been  most 
severely  punished.  But  it  is  not  remembered  that  "Dam 
'fi"  got  more  than  a  sharp  reprimand  and  orders  for  an  in- 
stant return  to  his  post.  If  he  ever  afterwards  flinched,  we 
were  not  informed  of  it.     He  was  killed  at  Gettysburg. 

As  the  sharpshooting  grew  hotter  the  pickets  could  be 
posted  and  relieved  only  at  night.  The  opposing  pickets 
fired  at  everything  in  sight.  For  a  space  the  boys  on  such 
duty  embraced  mother  earth  more  intimately  than  they  had 
before  deemed  possible.  But  they  gradually  learned  that 
shooting  and  hitting  were  by  no  means  synonymous  terms. 
At  length  before  the  evacuation  some  of  them,  at  least,  pre- 
ferr«^d  a  prone  position  out  on  the  open  to  the  pits  half  filled 

196  North  Carolina  Tkoops,  1861 -'65. 

with  water  by  the  almost  incessant  rains.  The  trenckea 
themselves  filled  with  water  and  could  not  be  drained.  Yet 
the  artillery  and  rifle  fire  of  the  enemy  held  the  men  close 
down  in  them.  ISTo  fire  could  be  kindled  day  or  night  with- 
out  its  becoming  the  focus  of  heavy  shell  fire  and  it  was  there- 
fore strictly  forbidden.  The  only  food  was  flour  and  salt 
meat  and  these  in  diminishing  quantities.  Food  was  cooked 
by  details  in  the  rear  and  brought  forward  to  us.  Men  sick- 
ened by  thousands.  Soldiers  actually  died  in  the  naud  and 
water  of  the  trenches  before  they  could  be  taken  to  the  hos- 
pital. And  as  many  of  the  cases  of  illness  were  measles,  this 
exposure  meant  death.  Thus  unavoidably  died  a  dog's  death 
many  a  gallant  fellow,  who,  if  spared,  would  have  upheld  with 
his  life  the  Confederate  standard,  through  thick  and  thin, 
and  to  the  bitter  end.  It  is  not  death  amid  the  rapture  of 
the  fray  that  makes  war  most  horrible,  but  the  passing  within 
the  dark  door  of  such  men  under  such  circum- 
stances. Yet  the  term  of  service  at  Yorktown  was  not  all 
irksome,  nor  was  it  unmarked  by  occasional  diversions  from 
the  tread-mill  routine  of  duty.  About  the  quaint  old  town 
were  many  points  of  interest  that  awakened  patriotic  contem- 
plation. The  marble  slab  half  a^  mile  from  town,  'marking 
the  spot  where  eighty  years  before  Cornwallis  had  surren- 
dered to  Washington,  was  a  favorite  place  of  visitation. 

Standing  there  on  consecrated  ground  many  a  fond  prayer 
was  breathed  that  this  self-same  spot  which  witnessed  the 
achievement  of  American  Independence  might  also  see  the  ac- 
complishment of  Southern  Independence. 

The  comparatively  insignificant  Confederate  force  at 
YorktoviTi  had  now  held  McClellan's  vast  army  at  bay  for 
weeks,  while  troops  were  being  concentrated  higher  up  for 
the  defense  of  the  Southern  Capital.  The  Confederate  posi- 
tion exposed  as  it  was  to  turning  movements  by  the  Federal 
fleet  on  both  flanks  was  clearly  untenable.  The  sole  object  of 
Southern  strategy,  after  General  Johnston  made  personal  in- 
spection of  the  surroundings,  was  simply  to  check  the  invasion 
till  the  above  concentration  was  completed. 

This  having  been  accomplished  and  holding  the  enemy  in 
check  longer,  being  possible  only  by  a  pitched  battle,  which  it" 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  197 

was  not  desired  to  fight,  the  Southern  forces  were  quietly 
withdrawn  4  May.  A  deed  which,  in  the  heroic  days  to 
come,  would  have  passed  unnoticed,  impressed  the  unseasoned 
soldiers,  and  is  yet  remembered  by  many.  On  the  day  of  the 
evacuation,  part  of  the  Twenty-third  were  in  the  rifle  pits, 
which  were  that  day  subjected  to  a  fire  of  unusual  keenness. 
When  the  officers  in  the  trenches  knew  that  the  retreat  would 
begin  that  night,  there  was  some  apprehension  that  the  men 
in  the  rifle  pits  should  be  captured  unless  given  exact  orders 
what  to  do.  For  this  purpose  Captain  C.  0.  Blacknall,  Com- 
pany G,  left  the  shelter  of  the  trenches  under  a  ceaseless  fire 
at  400  yards,  made  the  circle  of  the  pits,  gave  the  men  their 
orders  and  returned  unharmed.  The  detail  for  picket  duty 
from  our  regiment  was  the  last  to  leave  the  works,  being  re- 
lieved by  the  cavalry  at  midnight.  We  marched  all  night. 
At  dawn  when  six  miles  out  we  heard  the  furious  cannonad- 
ing of  McClellan's  assault  on  our  empty  intrenchments. 


The  retreat,  which  was  much  impeded  by  the  slow  move- 
ment of  the  wagon  trains  over  the  miry  roads,  was  tardy  and 
tedious  in  the  extreme.  The  ancient  town  of  Williamsburg, 
in  Colonial  days  the  Capital  of  the  Old  Dominion,  stands  only 
twelve  miles  from  Yorktown.  The  afternoon  of  5  May,  a 
rainy  day  in  the  midst  of  the  proverbial  cold,  wet  spell  in 
May,  found  us  only  a  mile  or  so  above  Williamsburg,  wait- 
ing to  see  if  our  aid  would  be  necessary  in  the  expected  bat- 

From  this  point  Early's  Brigade — now  composed  of  the 
Fifth  and  Twenty-third  (then  Thirteenth)  North  Carolina, 
the  Twenty-fourth  Virginia  and  the  Second  Florida  Bat- 
talion— were  ordered  back  to  aid  Longstreet  in  resisting  the 
inconveniently  eager  pursuit  of  the  enemy,  for  part  of  the 
trains  were  stalled  in  the  deep  mud  where  they  stopped  the 
night  before,  and  must  be  protected  or  abandoned.  The  bat- 
tle was  fought  on  almost  the  same  ground  on  which  the  Amer- 
icans and  British  contended  in  1781.  We  passed  at  double 
quick  through  the  muddy  streets  of  the  historic  town,  pained 

198  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

at  the  shrieks  of  women  and  children  who  were  terrified  at 
the  bloody  drama  then  going  on  in  their  full  view.  A  short 
pause  to  deposit  in  the  campus  of  classic  William  and  Mary 
College  all  knapsacks,  extra  plunder,  etc.,  none  of  which  we 
ever  saw  again — and  we  are  out  upon  our  first  battle  field. 

The  design  was  a  charge  by  Early's  Brigade  against  a 
strong  position  manned  by  Hancock's  Brigade  on  the  enemy's 
right.  When  drawn  up  in  line  for  the  forward  movement, 
General  Early  rode  the  length  of  the  brigade  using,  in  that 
fine- toned  voice  of  his,  something  like  the  words:  "Boys, 
you  must  do  your  duty."  The  line  advanced  a  hundred  yards 
or  more  through  a  wheat  field  wet  with  the  cold  rain  which 
had  fallen  that  day,  but  which  had  now  ceased.  Then  our 
regiment  was  confronted  by  a  forest  of  trees  and  thick  under- 
growth. The  line  at  once  became  irregular  and  more  or  less 
jumbled  by  the  reason  of  the  natural  obstacle  to  its  progress. 
These  woods  also  shut  out  the  view  and  caused  the  line  of  the 
regiment's  advance  to  be  slightly  deflected  to  the  left,  by 
which  it  lost  touch  with  the  Fifth,  on  our  right.  At  this 
moment  General  D.  H.  Hill  appeared,  mounted,  in  our  front, 
and  said  sharply  to  the  men,  now  endeavoring  to  regain  their 
alignment,  and  each  one  commanding  his  fellow,  "hush  your 
infernal  noise." 

In  one  instant  imore  the  right  wing  of  the  brigade,  having 
greatly  the  advantage  of  the  ground  in  marching,  came  first  in 
view  of  the  enemy's  battery,  and  charging  forward  in  the 
open,  outstripped  the  movement  of  the  Twenty-third,  impeded 
by  the  woods,  received  a  withering  fire  and  was  hurled  back 
by  a  fury  of  shot  and  shell  irresistible  by  mortal  force.  The 
Fifth  North  Carolina  made  a  gallant,  but  fruitless  charge, 
losing  many  gallant  lives,  and  our  regiment  was  not  on  hand 
to  support  it  at  the  critical  moment.  That  moment  was  of  the 
briefest  possible  span — like  a  sea  wave  against  the  sea  wall, 
the  charge  bounded  back  almost  instantly. 

Colonel  D.  K.  McEae,  of  the  Fifth  North  Carolina,  alleged 
that  the  Twenty-third  (then  the  Thirteenth)  was  inexcusably 
derelict  in  duty  and  that  Colonel  Hoke  halted  the  regiment 
without  orders.  Colonel  Hoke,  on  the  contrary,  maintained 
that  General  Early  gave  the  order  to  halt,  which  assertion 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  199 

was  never  denied  by  General  Early.  Whether  the  order  to 
"halt"  was  given  us  before  or  after  the  batteries  opened  on 
the  assaulting  line,  would  be  hard  to  tell,  for  this  halt  of  the 
regiment  appeared  to  be  about  the  same  moment  that  a  por- 
tion of  the  assaulting  forces  were  rushing  pell-mell  back  from 
the  attack.  It  was  all  the  work  of  a  few  minutes  and  the 
brigade,  chagrined  by  defeat,  and  mourning  the  loss  of  many 
gallant  spirits,  fell  back  in  good  order.  The  enemy  seemed 
content  to  hold  his  own,  without  much  further  effort  to  ad- 
vance his  line  as  night  came  on.  Only  four  or  five  men  in 
our  regiment  were  wounded,  and  all  but  one  of  them  by  ran- 
dom bullets.  Captain  C.  C.  Blacknall,  Company  G,  in 
eagerly  leading  his  company  forward  through  the  woods,  got 
some  distance  in  advance,  where  he  came  suddenly  upon  two 
Federals  lying  down  in  the  brush.  Receiving  untouched  the 
fire  of  one  at  three  paces,  he  sprang  forward  with  his  sword 
and  made  them  prisoners.  The  ball  that  missed  the  Cap- 
tain struck  James  A.  Gill,  of  Company  G.  This  was  the 
first  wound  of  the  war  received  by  a  member  of  the  Twenty- 
third.  Mr.  Gill  recovered  from  his  wound  and  still,  at  the 
end  of  thirty-eight  years,  survives. 

Genera]  Joseph  E.  Johnston,  in  conversation  with  me  (H. 
C.  Wall)  several  years  after  the  war,  placed  the  responsibility 
of  the  charge  upon  General  D.  H.  Irlill.  lie  said  that  he  did 
not  order  it  to  be  made  and  permitted  it  only  after  repeated 
requests  from  General  Hill.  Much  was  said  at  the  time, 
and  afterwards,  of  the  part  our  regiment  took  in  the  battle  of 
Williamsburg.  Blunders  there  may  have  been,  blunders  una- 
voidable by  a  command  manoevering  under  such  circum- 
stances and  amid  the  exigencies  of  real  warfare  for  the  first 
time;  but  the  writer  of  these  lines  (V.  E.  Turner)  was  pres- 
ent as  one  of  its  Line  Officers,  and  had  every  opportunity  to 
be  fully  conversant  with  the  spirit  that  animated  the  regi- 
ment. He  was  conversant  with  it,  and  he  knows  that  ofiicers 
and  men  were  as  willing,  and  even  as  eager  to  do  their  duty  as 
any  command  in  the  Southern  army.  The  well  known  ten- 
dency of  a  man  or  body  of  men,  endeavoring  to  go  straight 
forward,  but  unguided  by  any  distinct  objective  ahead,  as  we 
were  in  these  woods,  to  bear  unconsciously  to  the  left,  had  pos- 

200  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

sibly  had  its  effect  on  the  deflection  in  our  advance  and  our 
separation  from  the  regiment  on  our  right. 

Wet  as  rain  can  make  us,  with  knapsacks  and  every  shred 
of  extra  clothing  gone,  we  marched  back  to  the  brow  of  the 
hill,  where  we  first  formed  in  line  of  battle.  Here  amid  mud 
and  rain  we  were  held  in  line  of  battle  till  3  a.  m.  As  there 
was  momentary  expectation  of  attack,  not  a  spark  of  fire  was 
allowed.  Then  twelve  miles  were  tramped,  or  rather  stumbled, 
through  darkness,  mud  and  slush,  before  halt  was  made  for 
rest  or  sleep.  The  tenacious  mire  was  often  knee  deep.  Shoes 
were  pulled  from  our  feet  by  it  and  lost.  Pantaloons  became 
so  caked  and  weighted  with  mud  that  many,  in  sheer  despe- 
ration and  utter  inability  in  their  exhaustion,  to  carry  an 
extra  ounce,  cut  off  and  threw  away  all  below  the  knees.  All 
that  night  we  had  no  food,  nor  the  next  day,  though  lunging 
desperately  forward  over  virtually  impassable  roads.  The 
following  day,  the  7th,  found  us  still  marching  and  fasting, 
or  rather,  famishing.  Blessed  indeed  were  the  squad  or  two 
that  found  and  shot  a  razor-back  hog.  But  we  were  the  rear 
guard  and  even  razor  backs  had  become  scarce  and  wary  after 
being  hunted  by  the  30,000  hungry  mouths  that  had  preceded 
us.  One  of  our  Captains  who  was  lucky  enough  to  get  an  ear 
of  corn  a  day,  always  spoke  of  it  as  the  parched  corn  march. 

Many  of  the  troops  "caved"  in  from  sheer  exhaustion  and 
starvation.  The  case  of  Sergeant  Malcolm  ISTicholson,  Com- 
pany D.,  which  occurred  a  little  later  in  the  retreat,  will 
illustrate  our  sufferings  as  well  as  the  grim  resolve  of  the 
men  to  keep  up  with  the  colors  up  to  the  point  of  absolute 
physical  collapse.  This  stripling  refused  to  succumb  or  fall 
out  till  at  a  halt  one  night  he  toppled  over.  His  comrades 
tucked  him  away  in  an  old  wagon  body  lying  near.  When 
the  order  to  "fall  in"  came,  and  they  went  to  arouse  him, 
they  found  that  death  had  given  him  his  discharge  and  that 
the  weary  marching  of  the  boy  sergeant  was  over  forever. 

On  the  evening  of  9  May,  the  Chickahominy  was 
reached,  the  wagons  overtaken  and  the  worst  hardship  of  the 
march,  whose  sufferings  remained  ever  vivid  to  the  men  vt}io 
clung  to  the  fortunes  of  the  Confederacy  to  the  bitter  end, 
was  over. 


1.    J.  H.  Horner,  Captain,  Co.  E.  4.    V.  E.  Turner.Captain,  Quart.  Master. 

8.    Frank  Bennett,  Captain,  Co.  A.  5.    Abner  D  Peace,  Captain.  Co  E 

8.    H.  G.  Turner,  Captain,  Co.  H.  6.    Geo  T.  Baskerville,  Captain,  Co.  I 

7.    Jas.  A.  Breedlove.  Captain,  Co.  G. 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  201 

the  eeoeganization. 

While  camped  on  the  banks  of  the  Chickahominy  at  Bar- 
rett's Ferry,  the  regiment  was  re-organized.  This  was  hast- 
ened in  order  to  take  advantage  of  a  provision  in  the  Confed- 
erate Conscript  Act,  passed  16  April,  1862.  This  provision 
allowed  .troops  whose  term  of  enlistment  had  not  expired,  to 
re-organize  with  all  the  privileges,  as  to  election  of  ofRcer^^, 
which  they  had  before  the  act  was  passed,  provided  the  re- 
organization was  effected  within  forty  days  from  the  passing 
of  the  act.  With  that  period  lapsed  the  Confederate  soldier's 
right  to  choose  his  own  officers,  all  commissioned  officers  being 
thereafter  appointed  by  the  President  of  the  Confederacy. 

Thus  a  re-organization  of  most  of  the  Volunteer  North 
Carolina  regiments  in  that  army,  a  perilous  thing  in  face  of 
a  vastly  superior  enemy,  took  place  about  this  time,  an  event 
unparalleled  in  the  annals  of  history.  A  large  proportion  of 
officers  failing  of  re-election,  their  places  were  filled  with 
men  raised  from  the  ranks,  or  from  subordinate  positions. 
Nearly,  or  quite  all  the  commands,  had  in  their  ranlvs  plenty 
of  men  competent  to  serve  as  commissioned  officers.  But 
many  thus  elevated  were  not  qualified  by  sufficient  experience 
for  command,  and  the  presence  of  so  many  inexperienced  of- 
ficers told  against  the  South  a  month  later  in  the  prolonged 
death  grapple  with  the  enemy  in  the  Chickahominy  swamps, 
known  as  the  Seven  Days'  Fighting.  That  under  such  circum- 
stances victory  should  have  crowned  Southern  effort,  attest  the 
dauntless  valor  of  Southern  troops. 

Our  boys,  prompted  more  perhaps  by  the  desire  for  change, 
a  strong  factor  in  all  lives  and  strongest  of  all  in  the  monot- 
onous life  of  a  soldier,  elected  as  a  rule,  new  Line  Officers. 

The  following  change  was  made  in  Field  Officers :  Daniel 
H.  Christie  was  elected  Colonel  in  place  of  John  F.  Hoke; 
Robert  D.  Johnston,  lormerly  Captain  of  Company  K,  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel ;  Ed.  J.  Christian,  former  First  Lieutenant  of 
Company  C,  Major ;  Vines  E.  Turner,  former  Second  Lieu- 
tenant in  Company  G,  Adjutant.  That  night  the  officers 
who  had  failed  of  re-election  bade  us  farewell,  took  leave  for 
Richmond  and  later  sought,  most  of  them,  other  positions  in 

202  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

which  to  serve  their  struggling  country.  Our  regiment  for- 
'merly  the  Thirteenth  North  Carolina  Volunteers,  was  there- 
after known  as  the  Twenty-third  North  Carolina  Troops. 

In  pursuance  of  our  plan  to  briefly  outline  the  careers  of 
the  Field  Officers  of  the  regiment,  we  give  the  following 
sketch  of  John  F.  Hoke,  the  retiring  Colonel. 


Colonel  Hoke  was  born  in  Lincoln  County,  IsT.  C,  8  May, 
1820.  He  was  a  graduate  of  the  University  of  ISTorth  Caro- 
lina, and  a  lawyer  by  profession.  He  served  with  credit  as 
First  Lieutenant  in  Captain  W.  J.  Clarke's  company  in  the 
Mexican  war,  taking  part  in  the  campaign  which  resulted  in 
the  capture  of  the  City  of  Mexico.  Subsequently  he  served 
several  terms  in  the  Legislature.  At  the  outbreak  of  the 
War  for  Southern  Independence,  he  was  appointed  Adjutant- 
General  of  North  Carolina,  serving  till  the  ten  regiments  of 
"State  Troops"  and  thirteen  regiments  of  "Volunteers"  were 
organized  and  equipped.  In  July,  1861,  he  was  elected  Colonel 
of  the  Thirteenth  (later  Twenty-third)  North  Carolina  Vol- 
unteers, and  commanded  the  regiment  until  its  reorganiza- 
tion, 10  May,  1862.  Failing  of  re-election,  he  returned  to 
North  Carolina  and  in  1864  became  Colonel  of  the  Seventy- 
fourth  Regiment,  Second  Senior  Reserves).  The  close  of 
the  war  found  him  guarding  prisoners  at  Salisbury.  He  died 
in  November,  1888.  Colonel  Hoke  was  an  upright,  honora- 
ble and  cultivated  gentleman.  Great  kindness  and  consider- 
ation characterized  his  bearing  towards  the  subordinate  of- 
ficers of  his  regiment. 


John  W.  Leak  was  born  in  Richmond  County,  N.  C,  16 
March,  1816.  His  grandfather,  Walter  Leak,  Sr.,  served 
throughout  the  Revolutionary  War  as  a  private  in  the  Amer- 
ican army,  and  died  in  the  town  of  Rockingham,  in  1844,  at 
an  advanced  age. 

He  graduated  at  Randolph-Macon  College  about  1837. 

In  July,  1861,  he  was  elected  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  our 
regiment.  This  office  he  filled  till  the  re-organization  of  the 
regiment  in  May,  1862,  when,  as  was  the  case  with  many  of 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  203 

the  officers,  he  failed  of  re-election.  Being  then  well  ad- 
vanced into  middle  age,  he  retired  to  private  life  and  became 
prominent  in  the  cotton  mill  interests  at  Rockingham.  He 
died  in  May,  18Y4. 


The  retreat  from  the  peninsula  and  up  the  south  banks  of 
the  Chickahominj,  brought  us  within  sight  of  Richmond  on 
Sunday,  18  May.  We  pitched  camp  in  a  dense  undergrowth 
of  woods,  one  and  a  half  miles  from  the  city,  on  the 
eastern  side.  Soon  the  invading  Federal  hosts  drew  nearer. 
Day  by  day  portents  of  a  desperate  strife  to  come,  accumu- 
late. Picket  firing  grows  heavier  and  more  persistent,  and 
the  shriek  and  roar  of  bursting  shells  seemed  to  have  become 
part  of  the  natural  order  of  things. 

The  strategy  of  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines,  or  Fair  Oaks,  as 
it  is  sometimes  called,  was  exceedingly  simple. 

McClellan  had  thrown  Keyes'"  Corps,  composed  of  Casey's 
and  Couch's  divisions,  and  TIeintzelman's  composed  of  Hook- 
er's and  Kearney's  divisions,  to  the  southern  bank  of  the 
Chickahominy,  and  Casey  had  advanced  to  Seven  Pines  and 
fortified.  Couch's  line  was  about  a  mile  and  a  quarter  in  the 
rear  of  Casey's.  Hooker  and  Kearney  were  in  rear  of  Couch. 
On  Friday  night,  30  May,  a  violent  thunder  and  rain 
storm  had  greatly  swollen  the  streams,  and  Johnston  seized 
upon  this  opportunity  to  deal  with  his  vastly  superior  foe  in 
detail.  He  hoped  to  crush  these  isolated  divisions  before 
more  troops  could  be  thrown  across  the  swollen  Chickahominy 
to  reinforce  them.  D.  H.  Hill's  division,  supported  by  Long- 
street's,  was  to  attack  in  front;  Huger's  division  was  to  at- 
tack the  enemy's  left  flank,  and  Smith's  his  right. 

The  Twenty-third  took  an  important  and  most  gallant  part, 
both  in  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines  and  in  the  reconnoissance 
on  the  Williamsburg  road  the  day  before,  which  disclosed  the 
situation  of  the  enemy  and  led  to  the  Confederate  attack.  In 
this  sortie  doAvn  the  Williamsburg  road  30  May,  several 
men  were  wounded  and  Captain  Ambrose  Scarborough,  of 
Company  C,  in  command  of  the  four  companies  reconnoiter- 
ing,  was  killed.     In  the  person  of  this  gallant  officer  the  reg- 

204  North  Cakolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

iment  lost  its  first  man  from  a  hostile  bullet.  Captain  Frank 
Bennett  commanded  the  advance  line  of  sharpshooters,  who 
really  developed  the  enemy's  strength,  was  severely  wounded, 
being  disabled  for  months. 

In  the  attack  at  Seven  Pines,  made  in  the  afternoon  of 
Saturday,  31  May,  1862,  the  Twenty-third  belonged  to  Gar- 
land's Brigade.  This  with  three  other  brigades,  Kodes',  G. 
B.  Anderson's  and  Raines',  formed  Ilill's  division,  which  as- 
saulted the  strongly  fortified  Federal  front.  Few  attacks  in 
war  were  ever  made  under  circumstances  more  unfavorable  to 
the  assaulting  force.  A  swamp,  in  some  places  waist  deep  in 
water  and  thick  with  undergrowth  and  tangled  vine,  had  to  be 
crossed,  and  a  skillfully  made  abatis  confronted  and  strug- 
gled through  before  the  heavily  manned  hostile  works  beyond 
could  be  reached.  Through  them  all  swept  the  regiment  in 
line,  with  its  comrade  commands,  under  a  fire  of  musketry 
and  artillery  as  hot  as  mortal  men  ever  breasted  with  success. 
Many  a  gallant  fellow  was  stricken  down  dead  or  wounded. 
Some  rendered  helpless  by  wound-s,  not  necessarily  fatal,  sank 
and  were  drowned  in  the  deep  waters  of  the  swamp. 

Finer*  tribute  to  fighting  men  was  never  paid  than,  that 
by  a  Northern  writer  who  saw  the  battle  from  the  point  of 
view  which  we  assailed — there  being  no  hotter  section  of  that 
fire-swept  line  than  which  fate  assigned  to  the  Twenty-third. 
This  writer  says:  "Our  shot  tore  their  ranks  wide  open, 
and  shattered  them  in  a  manner  frightful  to  behold,  but  they 
closed  up  and  came  on  as  steadily  as  English  Veterans.  When 
they  got  within  four  hundred  yards  we  closed  our  case  shot 
and  opened  on  them  with  canister.  Such  destruction  I  never 
witnessed.  At  each  discharge  great  gaps  were  made  in  their 
ranks.  *  *  But  they  at  once  closed  and  came  steadily  on, 
never  halting,  never  wavering,  right  through  the  woods 
(swamp),  over  the  fence,  through  the  field,  right  up  to  our 
guns,  and  sweeping  everything  before  them,  captured  our  ar- 
tillery and  cut  our  whole  division  to  pieces." 

Huger's  turning  movement  far  to  our  right  had  been 
stopped  by  impassable  streams.  Smith's  attack  far  to  our 
left,  where  General  Johnston  commanded  in  person,  had  been 
beaten  off,  and  the  Oommander-in-Ohief  severely  wounded. 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  205 

But  in  our  front  the  victory  was  complete.  After  two  hours, 
ending  in  the  brilliant  charge  described  above,  Casey's  works 
were  carried  and  his  routed  line  driven  back  on  Couch's. 
Then  the  division  reinforced  by  only  one,  R.  H.  Anderson's, 
smashed  Couch,  though  reinforced  by  Kearney,  and  drove  all 
back  on  their  third  line  two  miles  in  rear  of  the  first  line. 
Twelve  pieces  of  artillery  and  6,000  stands  of  small  arms, 
were  taken.     Darkness  put  an  end  to  the  battle. 

Biit  a  heavy  blood  equivalent  was  paid  for  the  victory. 
Owing  to  much  sickness  the  regiment,  according  to  the  state- 
ment of  Captain  A.  T.  Cole,  was  able  to  go  into  this  action 
only  about  225  strong.  Moore's  Roster,  which  in  countless 
instances,  and  pr6bably  in  this,  is  incomplete,  shows  that 
twenty-four  privates  and  non-commissioned  officers  were 
killed,  and  ninety-five  wounded,  sixteen  of  them  mortally. 
As  will  be  seen,  this  was  an  exceeding  large  proportion  of  the 
number  engaged. 

There  were  also  many  casualties  among  the  commissioned 
officers.  None  of  the  Field  Officers  escaped  injury.  Colo- 
nel Christie  was  wounded.  Lieutenant-Colonel  R.  D.  John- 
ston was  wounded  in  the  arm,  face  and  neck,  had  his  horse 
killed  xmder  him  and  was  shot  down  within  fifty  feet  of  the 
hostile  works.  Captain  C.  C.  Blacknall,  Company  G,  who, 
unable  to  walk,  owing  to  a  sprained  ankle,  had  gone  into 
action  mounted,  was  grazed  by  seven  balls,  and  received 
a  painful  bruise  near  the  spine  from  a  fragment  of  shell.  He 
also  received  painful  injuries  from  his  horse,  which  was  killed 
and  fell  on  him.  Captain  William  Johnston,  Company  K, 
and  Lieutenant  E.  A.  McDonald,  Company  D,  were  also 
wounded.  Lieutenants  J.  D.  Knott  and  A.  M.  Luria,  of 
Company  I,  were  killed.  Luria  was  a  gallant  young  fellow. 
It  was  at  Seawell's  Point  that  he  did  a  heroic  act,  which,  had 
he  been  a  British  soldier,  would  have  brought  him  the  Victo- 
ria Cross  and  caused  the  world  to  ring  with  his  name.  While 
there  early  in  1861,  either  as  a  visitor  or  as  a  member  of  Col- 
quitt's command,  before  he  joined  the  Twenty-third,  a  shell 
from  the  Federal  gunboats  dropped  among  the  Confederates. 
With  rare  presence  of  mind  and  devotion,  he  seized  the  shell 
and  threw  it  over  the  works  before  it  could  explode.     At  our 

206  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

reorganization  he  refused  promotion,  saying  that  he  wished 
nothing  unless  won  on  the  battle  field.  Major  E.  J.  Chris- 
tian was  mortally  wounded,  dying  a  few  days  later. 


Major  Edmund  J.  Christian  was  born  in  Montgomery 
County,  ISr.  C,  in  1834.  His  uncle,  Samuel  H.  Christian, 
was  elected  to  the  Confederate  Congress,  but  died 
before  taking  his  seat.  While  a  boy,  his  father  died,  leaving 
his  mother  and  her  other  children  largely  dependent  on  him, 
which  duty  he  successfully  performed.  Major  Christian  was 
a  farmer  by  vocation.  He  was  a  man  of  magnificent  physique 
and  had  no  bad  habits.  On  the  outbreak  of  war  he  enlisted 
as  a  private,,  but  was  elected  Lieutenant,  in  the  Montgomery 
Vounteers  ISTo.  1,  which  became  Company  C  on  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  regiment.  Upon  the  reorganization,  10  May, 
1862,  he  was  elected  Major,  to  fall  in  battle  just  three  weeks 
later.  At  Seven  Pines  he  had  received  two  wounds,  either  of 
which  would  have  justified  his  retirement  from  the  field.  But 
he  pluckily  went  forward  at  the  head  of  his  men  till  stricken 
down  with  the  third  and  mortal  wound.  He  was  conveyed  to 
a  private  house  in  Richmond,  tenderly  nursed  for  the  two  or 
three  days  he  had  to  live,  and  was  laid  to  rest  in  the  Confed- 
erate Capital  which  he  had  died  to  defend.  Lieutenant  W. 
P.  Gill,  of  Company  G,  was  also  wounded. 

Captain  C.  C.  Blacknall,  Company  G,  was  promoted  to 
Major  on  the  death  of  Major  Christian. 

The  courage  and  dash  of  the  men  and  officers  in  this 
bloody  onslaiight,  has  never  been  surpassed.  When  in  the 
impetuosity  of  the  onset  through  the  vine-tangled  swamp,  the 
three  right  companies  became  temporarily  separated  from 
the  regiment.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Johnston  led  them  gal- 
lantly forward  with  the  Fourth  Regiment.  Splendidly  did 
the  whole  command  show  its  alacrity  to  meet  and  close  with 
the  foe,  no  matter  what  the  obstacles,  so  that  they  knew 
where  he  was  and  there  was  no  confusion  of  orders 
as  in  the  woods  at  Williamsburg.  The  conduct  of  private 
Wm.  C.  Cole,  brother  of  Captain  A.  T.  Cole,  at  Seven  Pines, 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  207 

is  a  good  illustration  of  the  high  resolve  of  the  men  to  do  their 
full  duty.  This  youth,  a  mere  stripling  and  in  poor  health 
from  the  hardships  of  the  campaign,  found  in  the  thick  of 
the  fight,  that  the  channel  of  the  tube  was  obstructed,  and 
that  his  musket  would  not  fire,  sat  down  imder  a  hot  fire,  re- 
moved the  tube  with  his  wrench,  screwed  home  a  new  one, 
caught  up  with  the  line  at  a  few  bounds  and  continued  to 
load  and  fire  as  long  as  a  Yankee  was  in. sight. 

After  Seven  Pines,  the  regiment  went  into  camp  near 
Richmond  and  passed  several  weeks  in  drilling.  Here  on 
Tuesday,  17  June,  it  was  re-brigaded,  being  now  placed 
in  brigade  with  the  Fifth,  Twelfth,  Thirteenth  and  Twenti- 
eth, all  ISTorth  Carolina  regiments.  Samuel  Garland,  Jr.,  of 
Lynchburg,  Va.,  remained  in  command  as  Brigadier.  Soon 
after  the  wounding  of  General  Joseph  E.  Johnston  at  Seven 
Pines,  General  R.  E.  Lee  became  Commander-in-Chief  of  the 


As  the  month  of  June,  1862,  wore  away,  McClellan's  plans 
developed.  The  Confederate  Capital  was  to  be  taken  by  reg- 
ular approaches.  The  26  June  found  his  splendidly 
organized  and  equipped  army  of  at  least  105,000  ef- 
fectives, strongly  intrenched  on  a  line  straddling  the  Chick- 
ahominy  and  extending  from  White  Oak  Swamp,  twelve 
miles  soiitheast  of  Richmond,  to  Mechanicsville,  six  miles 
northeast.  The  line,  especially  that  part  north  of  the  Chick- 
ahominy,  ran  along  positions  of  great  natural  strength,  rugged 
bluffs  protected  largely  by  streams  or  swamps  on  the  side  next 
to  the  Confederates. 

The  soutliern  strategy  of  this  protracted  death  grapple,  so 
well  described  by  its  name,  the  Seven  Days  Fighting,  was 
masterly — as  brilliant  as  history  records.  The  valor  and 
staying  powers  evinced  by  the  Southern  soldiers  in  that  pro- 
longed combat  is  scarcely  matched  in  the  annals  of  time.  But 
for  an  apparently  inherent  defect  in  the  Southern  mind — its 
inability  to  master,  or  its  universal  contempt  for,  the  practi- 
cal details  of  things,  the  invading  hosts  would  in  all  likeli- 

208  North  GAROLI^:A  Troops,   18t)l-'65. 

hood  have  met  its  doom  in  the  Chickahominy  swamps.  Had 
Southern  practicalness  been  at  all  commensurate  with  South- 
ern generalship  and  Southern  courage,  it  is  hard  to  see  how 
McClellan's  army  could  have  escaped  ruin,  if  not  total  de- 
struction. This  unpracticalness  manifested  itself  here  in 
the  failure  to  prepare  accurate  topographical  maps  of  a  region 
which  the  trend  of  events  had,  for  months,  pointed  out  as  the 
most  probable  scene  of  conflict. 

The  position  of  the  Federal  army  was,  on  the  whole,  nat- 
urally very  strong  and  made  as  much  stronger  as  engineering 
skill  could  make  it.  But  owing  to  the  isolating  effect  of  the 
many  streams  and  swamps,  difficult  of  passage,  it  gave  the 
opportunity  of  the  war  to  the  qualities  in  which  the  Southern 
army  excelled — prowess  and  military  genius.  In  this  in- 
stance these  qualities  were  largely  negatived  by  the  fact  that 
the  Confederate  leaders  fought  and  maneuvered  over  a  region 
of  whose  exact  topography  they  knew  scarcely  more  than  of 
the  craters  in  the  moon.  The  result  of  this  ignorance  of  nat- 
ural obstacles,  and  of  the  roads  that  turn  them,  was  that 
thousands  of  gallant  men,  the  very  flower  of  the  Southern 
army,  were  needlessly  and  heedlessly  sacrificed,  and  that  a 
half  victory  cost  double  the  price  for  what  a  whole  victory 
could  have  been  obtained. 

Lee's  plans  were  that  Jackson,  then  in  the  Shenandoah 
Valley,  by  a  rapid  and  secret  march,  should  strike  the  right 
flank  of  this  twenty-mile  line,  while  he  smote  its  right  front. 
Then  beginning  at  the  end,  55,000  of  his  80,000  men,  were  to 
be  thrown  impetuously  against  the  Federal  line,  flanking  it 
as  far  as  practicable,  and  rolling  it  back  upon  itself,  compass 
its  destruction  if  possible. 

After  Seven  Pines  the  Twenty-third  was  assigned  a  posi- 
tion near  the  left  wing  of  the  army.  Our  tents  were  pitched 
on  the  banks  of  a  small  stream  about  600  yards  in  the  rear  of 
the  works.  As  an  advance  of  the  enemy  was  hourly  expected, 
the  orders  were  that  upon  the  sound  of  a  bugle  at  brigade 
headqxiarters,  the  regiment  must  be  formed  in  'five  minutes 
with  three  days'  rations,  canteens  filled  and  forty  rounds  of 
ammunition  per  man,  ready  to  march  rapidly  to  it§  place  in 
line.     This  rendered  it  necessary  for  the  men  to  sleep  with 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  209 

their  cartridge  belts  on  and  haversacks  and  canteens  by  their 
sides.  Mounted  officers  had  to  keep  their  horses  saddled. 
No  one  was  allowed  to  be  absent  from  the  command  for  a 
moment.  Many  such  alarms  were  given  by  day  and  by 
night.  Two  weeks  of  this  rigid  discipline  made  the  order  to 
advance  a  genuine  relief. 

The  fighting  began  in  earnest  on  Thursday,  26  June,  a 
fine  cloudless  day.  On  the  afternoon  of  that  day  A.  P.  Hill 
moved  to  the  east  and  without  waiting  for  Jackson's  appear- 
ance on  the  Federal  flank,  as  had  been  agreed,  assaulted  in 
front  the  impregnable  lines  on  Beaver  Dam  Creek,  a  small 
stream  running  north  and  south,  and  emptying  into  the 
Chickahominy.  The  result  was  that  he  M'as  beaten  off  with 
the  loss  of  over  3,000  men,  a  loss  nearly  ten  times  as  great  as 
he  inflicted  on  the  enemy.  This  is  often  called  the  battle  of 
Mechaniesville  from  a  very  small  village  at  the  cross  roads  a 
mile  west  of  the  stream.  [This  premature  assault  and  conse- 
quent disastrous  and  useless  loss  of  life  General  A.  P.  Hill 
afterward  repeated  at  Gettysburg  and  at  Bristoe  Sta- 
tion.— Ed.  J 

The  Twenty-third,  which  belonged  to  D.  H.  Hill's  divis- 
ion, was  not  actively  engaged  on  the  26th.  About  11  a.  m. 
of  that  day,  we  left  our  position  in  line  and  marched  to  the 
left,  striking  the  Mechaniesville  road  as  we  filed  down  the 
hill  towards  a  little  stream.  To  the  left  of  our  line  of  march 
could  be  seen  a  group  of  high  Confederate  oflicers,  including 
President  Davis,  Generals  Lee,  Longstreet,  D.  H.  Hill,  Gar- 
land and  others.  Their  earnest  consultation  and  the  distant 
firing  made  us  feel  that  a  momentous  period  in  the  struggle 
was  now  at  hand.  We  were  marched  up  and  took  position  op- 
posite the  hills  beyond  the  stream,  and  were  for  a  while  under 
a  spirited  cannonade.  Adjutant  Turner's  horse  was  killed, 
falling  on  him,  but  not  inflicting  injury  enough  to  keep  him 
out  of  the  battle  of  the  next  day.  Several  other  casualties 
were  also  sustained  by  the  regiment 

We  slept  that  night  on  our  arms.  Early  the  next  morning 
while  Captain  I.  J.  Young  was  getting  his  company  in  line 
for  the  work  before  us,  one  of  his  men  complained  that  he 

210  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861 -'65. 

was  not  well,  and  wanted  to  report  on  the  sick  list.  Captain 
Young  was  heard  to  say:  "Yes,  damn  it;  I  know  you  are 
sick.  But  it's  only  the  battle  field  colic.  I'll  not  excuse 
you."  The  diagnosis  proved  correct,  the  "colic"  soon  passed 
and  the  patient,  we  believe,  did  his  duty  faithfully  that  day. 

Upon  the  approach  of  Jackson  from  the  north  on  their 
right  flank,  the  enemy  withdrew  from  their  strong  line  on 
Beaver  Dam  Creek,  to  one  scarcely  less  strong  on  Powhite 
Creek,  another  small  stream  running  parallel  with  Beaver 
Dam  and  about  fou.r  or  five  miles  to  the  east  of  it.  A.  P. 
Hill,  Longstreet  and  D.  H.  Hill  followed  closely. 

A  little  to  the  east  of  Powhite  Creek  was  fought  the  battle 
called  Gaines'  Mill,  and  less  commonly  the  battle  of  Cold 
Harbor.  But  for  the  fact  that  it  would  be  confounded  with 
the  battle  fought  there  on  May,  1864,  the  latter  term  is  more 
accurate,  for  the  enemy  were  brushed  back  from  the  line  at 
Powhite  Creek  on  which  stands  Gaines'  Mill  with  compara- 
tively little  fighting.  Their  stand  to  the  death  was  made 
behind  a  great  semi-circle  of  swamps  a  mile  or  more  to  the 
east  of  Powhite  Creek,  and  much  nearer  JSTew  Cold  Plarbor 
than  Gaines'  Mill.  On  the  morning  of  the  27^1,  D.  H.  Hill's 
division  was  thrown  forward,  well  to  the  left  along  the  road 
running  by  Bethesda  Church,  so  as  to  reach  Porter's  right 
rear.  When,  after  much  delay  and  perplexity,  at  2  :30  p.  m., 
we  came  into  collision  with  the  enemy  near  old  Cold  Harbor 
and  three  miles  northwest  of  jSTew  Cold  Harbor,  our  brigade, 
Garland's,  was  on  the  extreme  left  of  the  enemy. 

It  was  nearly  sun  doAvn  when  the  two  brigades  of  Anderson 
and  Garland  got  permission  from  D.  II.  Hill,  their  division 
commander,  to  adva,nce  to  the  charge.  The  assault  was  deliv- 
ered under  conditions  not  unlike  those  at  Seven  Pines  nearly 
a  month  earlier.  A  swamp  densely  covered  with  undergrowth 
had  to  be  passed  under  fire  before  the  Federals  could  be 
reached.  These  consisted  of  United  States  regulars  under 
Sykes,  a  hard  and  persistent  fighter. 

But  nothing  could  withstand  the  impetuosity  of  our  on- 
ward sweep.  Alignment  was  soon  lost  in  the  contraction  of 
the  lines  necessary  in  attacking  a  shorter  front  than  our  ovsoi. 
But  the  Twenty-third,  along  with  the  other  regiments,  pressed 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  211 

forward,  tearing  their  way  through  brush  and  briar  and  vine. 

After  clearing  these  bewildering  obstructions  we  emerged 
into  a  thin  piece  of  woods  with  no  undergrowth.  This  brought 
us  in  full  view  of  a  battery  on  our  left,  which  opened  upon  us, 
as  we  went  forward  at  the  double  quick  down  a  little  slope. 
The  men  became  excited  and  began  to  fire;  but  Colonel 
Christie  sent  his  Adjutant,  the  writer  of  this,  to  stop  the  fir- 
ing till  they  got  closer.  So  down  we  swept  and  then  up  the 
hill  to  the  enemy's  position.  Just  at  this  juncture  came  the 
critical  moment  of  the  day,  and  possibly  of  the  campaign. 
Their  line  began  to  waver.  Officers  and  men  seemed  by  one 
accord  to  grasp  the  situation.  We  pressed  forward  in  the 
charge  as  a  part  of  an  Alabama  regiment  rushed  back  upon 
our  line.  Its  Colonel  shouted  that  he  was  going  back  to  reform. 
Captain  Young,  then  in  command  of  the  regiment.  Colonel 
Christie  having  just  fallen  severely  wounded,  exclaimed: 
"Don't  go  back  to  reform.  We  are  all  needed  to  carry  this 
line."     So  the  regiment  turned  and  charged  with  us. 

Up  the  hill  we  pressed.  The  enemy  now  broke  and  fied  in 
great  disorder  through  a  dense  swamp  in  their  rear,  leaving 
large  numbers  of  knapsacks  behind  them.  We  took  sixty  or 
seventy  prisoners.  It  was  now  dark.  We  were  hungry, 
worn  out  and  entirely  separated  from  the  other  regiments  of 
the  brigade  which  had  gone  in  and  broken  the  line  to  the  right 
and  left  of  us. 

We  bivouaced  in  a  body  of  pines,  too  worn  out  to  stand 
guard  over  prisoners,  who  seemed  as  tired  and  worn  out  as 
ourselves.  The  Adjutant  counted  them  and  cautioned  them 
not  to  move  during  the  night.  Then  lying  down  around 
them,  we  slept  soundly.  They  seemed  well  contented  and 
showed  no  disposition  to  escape  while  with  us. 

There  has  been  much  dispute  as  to  what  troops  first  broke 
the  enemy's  line  at  Cold  Harbor,  and  thus  began  the  long 
chain  of  McClellan's  reverses.  But  l^orthern  writers  state 
that  the  right  wing  gave  way  first.  This  is  where  D.  H. 
Hill's  assault  was  delivered.  General  Hill  himself  says  that 
Garland's  charge  made  the  first  break  in  the  hostile  line. 
General  Lee  officially  paid  high  compliment  to  the  division 
for  its  part  in  this  battle. 

212  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Our  regiment  was  not  actually  engaged  at  Savage  Station, 
Eraser's  Farm,  or  any  of  the  subsequent  battles,  till  Malvern 
Hill,  fought  on  Wednesday,  1  July.  McClellan  beaten  and 
harried  on  every  hand,  saw  that  escape  would  be  difficult, 
probably  impossible,  unless  Lee's  pursuit  could  be  checked. 
For  this  purpose  on  Tuesday  night,  30  June,  and  early  the 
next  morning,  he  hurried  to  Malvern  Hill  his  shattered  com- 
mands. If  the  hand  of  Omnipotence,  molding  plastic  nature 
at  will,  had  contrived  a  fastness  in  which  a  beaten  and  dis- 
pirited army  might  take  refuge  and  grow  strong  in  a  sense 
of  security,  it  need  do  no  more  than  fashion  another  Malvern 
Hill.  Here  with  the  James  river  to  his  back,  and  his  fleet  of 
gunboats  on  his  left  flank,  he  felt  that  he  might  meet  even 
Lee's  dauntless,  though  shattered  divisions.  Here,  frowning 
tier^  above  frowning  tier,  in  implacements  made  by  nature's 
own  hand,  his  300  pieces  of  splendid  artillery  were  concen- 
trated. Hither  his  still  formidable  army,  now  as  at  the  be- 
ginning, far  outnumbering  the  Confederates,  was  drawn  back 
and  skilfully  massed  in  time  to  strengthen,  with  partial  en- 
trenchments, the  points  that  were  least  strong.  A  clearing 
of  500  to  900  yards  between  the  Federal  position  and  the 
woods  and  Swamp  in  their  front,  gave  a  full  view  of  their  as- 

Against  this  inland  Gibraltar,  the  Southern  troops  were 
hurled.  A  simultaneous  attack  along  the  whole  line  would 
have  been  desperate.  Attacks  at  intervals,  at  the  different 
points  by  different  commands  without  concert  of  action,  were 
hopeless.  Yet  such,  by  an  unfortunate  concatenation  of 
errors,  was  the  mode  of  attack.  Late  on  that  sultry  summer 
afternoon  our  division  (D.  H.  Hill's)  struggled  through  an 
almost  impassable  swamp  and  opened  the  battle  with  the  first 
direct  assault.  Our  brigade  (Garland's)  was  in  the  first 
line,  and  advanced  through  the  broadest  part  of  the  belt  of 
cleared  ground,  which  had  been  broken  by  the  plow  on  the 
side  next  to  the  enemy.  Though  only  Whiting's  small  divis- 
ion was  to  the  left  of  us,  our  attack  was  directed  against  the 
Federal  centre.  Here  we  fought  Couch's  men  which  we  had 
routed  at  Seven  Pines  and  when  here,  as  there,  hard  pressed,. 
Kearney  came  to  their  aid. 

Twenty-Thikd  Regiment.  213 

But  the  task  now  assigned  us  was  beyond  the  power  of 
mortal  men.  From  the  first  step  in  the  open,  the  fire  of  that 
huge  volcanic  amphitheatre  and  of  the  gun  boats  on  the  river 
was  focused  on  us,  much  as  the  ribs  of  a  fan  meet  at  the  han- 
dle. Yet  onward  we  swept;  the  line,  when  shattered  and 
hurled  back  in  places,  reforming  and  pushing  with  grim  de- 
tertoiination,  doggedly  forward,  breaking  in  part  the  first 
line  of  the  enemy.  No  field  ever  more  fully  tested  the  fibre 
of  Anglo-Saxon  manhood,  and  on  no  field  has  it  ever  acquitted 
itself  better.  ISTot  till  they  had  striven,  unaided  for  more 
than  an  hour  against  McClellan's  whole  army  and  2,000  had 
fallen,  did  they  yield  to  the  inevitable  and  were  swept  back- 
ward by  the  moving  wall  of  lead  and  iron. 

As  at  Seven  Pines,  we  will  let  foeman  pay  tribute  to  their 
matchless  ardor.  A  French  officer,  the  Oomte  de  Paris,  who 
was  on  McClellan's  staff,  saw  it  all  and  said  the  following : 

"Hill  advanced  alone  against  the  Federal  position.  *  * 
He  had  therefore  before  him  Morell's  right.  Couch's  division, 
reinforced  by  Caldwell's  Brigade  *  *  and  fronting  the 
left  of  Kearney.  As  soon  as  they  (Hill's  troops)  passed  be- 
yond the  edge  of  the  forest,  they  were  received  by  a  fire  from 
all  the  batteries  at  once,  some  posted  on  the  hills,  others 
ranged  midway  close  to  the  Federal  infantry.  The  latter 
joined  its  musketry  fire  to  the  cannonade  when  Hill's  first 
line  had  come  within  range,  and  threw  it  back  in  disorder  on 
its  reserves. 

While  it  was  reforming,  new  battalions  marched  up  to  the 
assault  in  their  turn.  The  remembrance  of  Cold  Harbor 
doubles  the  energies  of  Hill's  soldiers.  They  try  to  pierce 
the  line,  sometimes  at  one  point,  sometimes  at  another,  charg- 
ing Kearney's  left  first  and  Couch's  right  *  *  and  af- 
terAvards  throwing  themselves  upon  the  left  of  Couch's  divis- 
ion. But  here  also  after  nearly  reaching  the  Federal  posi- 
tion, they  are  repulsed.  The  conflict  is  carried  on  with  great 
fierceness  on  both  sides,  and  for  a  moment  it  seems  that  the 
Confederates  are  at  last  to  penetrate  the  very  centre  of  their 
adversaries  and  of  the  formidable  artillery  which  was  now 
dealing  destruction  in  their  ranks.  But  Sumner,  who  com- 
mands on  the  right,  detaches  Sickles'  and  Meagher's  brigades 

214  NoKTH  Carolina  Tkoops,   1861-'65. 

to  Couch's  assistance.  During  this  time,  Whiting  on  the 
left  and  Huger  on  the  right,  suffer  Hill's  soldiers  to  become 
exhausted  without  supporting  them.  *  *  At  7  o'clock, 
Hill  reorganized  the  debris  of  his  troops  in  the  woods  *  * 
his  tenacity  and  the  courage  of  his  soldiers  had  only  had  the 
effect  of  causing  him  to  sustain  heavy  loss." 

Not  till  far  in  the  night  did  the  terrific  volcano  of  Malvern 
Hill  become  extinct.  Fearful  had  been  its  execution  not  only 
on  the  fighting  line,  but  numbers  of  the  supports  far  back  in 
the  woods  to  the  rear  had  been  struck  down.  It  was  one  of 
the  few  battles  in  history  in  which  the  casualties  from  artil- 
lery fire  were  as  large,  probably  larger,  than  those  from  small 

Battered  and  shattered,  but  undismayed,  the  Twenty-third 
slept  that  night  upon  its  arms  ready  for  the  eventualities  of 
the  morrow.  But  the  stir  and  rumble  within  the  hostile  line 
had  been  significant.  Jackson's  drowsy  response,  when 
awakened  from  the  slumbers  which  from  sheer  exhaustion 
had  mastered  him,  and  asked  what  must  be  done  should  Mc- 
Clellan  attack  tomorrow.  "He  won't  be  there,"  had  been 
indeed  prophetic  words.  The  morrow  broke  over  Malvern  Hill 
tenanted  only  by  Federal  dead  and  wounded,  all  of  which  the 
enemy  had  left  in  their  flight.  It  broke  over  the  "Little  Na- 
poleon"— ^very  little  he  then  appeared  at  Washington,  if  not 
to  himself — safe  under  shelter  of  his  gunboats  at  Harrison's 
Landing,  clamoring  for  50,000  fresh  troops.  McC51ellan  had 
lost  15,849  men  in  killed,  wounded  and  captured,  besides  52 
pieces  of  artillery,  27,000  stands  of  small  arms  and  millions 
of  dollars  worth  of  stores.  But  the  Confederates  being  every- 
where the  assailants,  sustained  a  still  heavier  loss,  their  casu- 
alties reaching  the  enormous  aggregate  of  19,749. 

It  is  impossible  to  give  with  accuracy  our  regiment's  loss 
during  the  Seven  Days  fighting.  Moore's  Roster,  often  inac- 
curate and  incomplete,  is  here  unusually  so.  According  to 
statement  of  Captain  A.  T.  Cole,  Company  D,  who  esti- 
mates the  casualties  of  the  regiment  in  proportion  to  those 
known  to  have  been  sustained  by  his  own  company,  the 
Twenty-third  began  the  Seven  Days  fighting  with  about  175 
men.     It  sustained  the  heaviest  loss  at  Malvern  Hill.     Here 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  215 

about  30  were  killed  and  75  wounded.  These  figures,  while 
only  approximate,  are  believed  to  be  near  the  mark.  These 
losses  left  the  command  a  mere  skeleton,  till  strengthened  by 
recruits  and  the  return  of  wounded  men  who  had  recovered. 
Colonel  D.  H.  Christie  and  Adjutant  V.  E.  Turner  were 
wounded  at  Cold  Harbor.  Captain  I.  J.  Young,  who  com- 
manded the  Twenty-third  at  Malvern  Hill  was,  in  that  bat- 
tle, wounded  in  the  face,  and  Private  C.  C.  Courtney,  Com- 
pany A,  killed  in  taking  him  from  the  field.  Here  also  Cap- 
tain A.  T.  Cole,  Company  D,  and  Lieutenant  Munday,  Com- 
pany K,  were  wounded,  and  Lieutenant  Wm.  F.  Gill,  of 
Granville  County,  killed.  The  list,  though  incomplete, 
covers  so  far  as  can  now  be  ascertained,  the  casualties  of  the 
commissioned  officers. 


Wm.  p.  Gill  was  born  in  Franklin  County,  JST.  C,  October 
1842.  While  yet  a  lad  fresh  from  college,  he  enlisted  as  a 
private  in  the  Granville  Eifles,  afterwards  Company  G,  was 
appointed  Sergeant  Major  and  at  the  reorganization,  elected 
Second  Lieutenant  in  the  company.  His  diities  as  Sergeant 
Major  had  brought  him  in  frequent  contact  with  the  officers 
of  his  regiment,  and  most  of  the  men.  His  death  caused 
genuine  sorrow  and  regret  to  every  member  of  the  command. 
He  was  handsome  in  person,  and  his  bearing  that  of  a  gentle- 
man. His  bravery,  manliness,  his  frank,  open  face  alight 
with  the  quenchless  enthusiasm  of  a  youth,  won  and  held  the 
love  and  respect  of  all.  For  though  gentle  and  polite,  he  was 
firm  in  the  discharge  of  his  duties.  His  abilities  were  so  gen- 
erally recognized  that  his  promotion  must  have  been  rapid 
had  he  been  spared  to  his  country  and  the  army.  He  said 
the  morning  of  Malvern  Hill,  that  he  would  not  survive  the 
battle.  So  strong  was  this  premonition  that  when  Captain 
I.  J.  Young  was  borne  to  the  rear,  wounded,  he  asked  the 
Captain  to  take  charge  of  a  watch  which  had  just  been  en- 
trusted to  him  (Lieutenant  Gill)  by  a  dying  Federal,  for 
transmission  to  his  mother.  And  I  will  add  that  after  the 
war  Captain  Young  found  the  mother  and  delivered  the 
watch.     Lieutenant  Gill,  now  in  command  of  the  regiment, 

216  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

was  instantly  killed,  being  almost  cut  asunder  by  a  shell,  after 
the  attack  was  over.  He  was  then  only  nineteen.  With  his 
fall  perished  one  of  the  noblest  spirits  of  the  command. 

It  was  at  Malvern  Hill  that  private  Charles  P.  Powell,  of 
Company  D,  emulated  the  fearless  deed  of  Luria  at  Seawell's 
Point.  While  lying  in  line  under  heavy  artillery  fire,  wait- 
ing for  the  order  to  charge,  a  shell  dropped  among  us.  The 
men  could  not  leave  their  places  in  the  line  of  battle,  so  they 
flattened  to  earth  while  their  unwelcome  visitor  sputtered 
away.  An  instant  later  the  heroic  Powell  sprung  forward, 
lifted  the  shell  and  deliberately  sousing  the  head  in  one  of 
the  small  water  pools  of  the  swamp,  put  out  the  fuse.  The 
fuse  must  by  some  error  have  been  cut  a  trifle  long,  or  after  so 
much  delay  it  must  have  exploded  in  his  hands  before  it 
reached  the  water.  This  gallant  fellow  was  wounded  a  little 
later  in  this  battle  and  also  at  Gettysburg,  promoted  Adju- 
tant and  was  killed  in  the  "Bloody  Angle"  12  May,  1864 — an 
immortal  record,  surely.  The  wounding  of  Captain  Young 
left  Second  Lieutenant  Gill  in  command  of  the  regiment  till 
he  was  killed.  After  his  fall  the  Twenty-third  seems  to  have 
had  no  commissioned  officer  left  on  the  field. 

After  the  battle  we  spent  several  weeks  of  grateful  and 
well  needed  rest  near  Richmond.  When  Jackson,  followed 
later  by  the  bulk  of  the  army,  marched  against  Pope  at  Man- 
assas, our  division  was,  with  McLaws'  left  behind  to  observe 
the  enemy  and  guard  Richmond.  In  fact,  D.  H.  Hill's  divis- 
ion oftener  than  any  other,  was  detached  on  independent  ser- 
vice of  that  kind. 

When  McClellan's  army  was  withdrawn  to  reinforce  Pope 
and  safeguard  the  Federal  Capital,  we  were  thrown  forward 
by  forced  marches  northward.  We  rejoined  the  Confederate 
army  at  Chantilly  2  September,  three  days  after  the 
battle  of  Second  Manassas  was  over.  The  eaTth  was  yet 
encumbered  with  unburied  dead.  The  most  gruesome  of  our 
whole  war  experience  were  the  many  swollen  corpses  crushed 
and  mangled  by  the  cannon  wheels,  which  in  the  urgency  of 
that  fierce  and  prolonged  combat  had  passed  over  them.  Ar- 
tillery must  manoeuvre  somewhere ;  the  dead  lay  thick  nearly 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  217 

everywhere,  and  men  had  been  too  engrossed  wielding  the 
sickle  of  death  to  gather  in  the  harvest. 


At  Chantilly  we  were  within  a  few  miles  of  the  scene  of 
our  picket  duty  the  previous  Fall,  Winter  and  Spring.  But 
our  pause  there  was  of  the  briefest.  Our  brigade  formed 
Lee's  vanguard  in  the  invasion  of  Maryland.  Moving  rap- 
idly northward  Friday,  5  September,  we  waded  the  Poto- 
mac near  Leesburg,  at  Poland's  Ford,  lower  down,  we  be- 
lieve, than  the  Southern  army  crossed  it  before  or  after  in  its 
many  passages.  With  what  bounding  hearts  did  we  climb 
the  opposite  banks  of  the  Potomac,  looking  eagerly  for  the 
support  of  "Maryland,  My  Maryland."  Cherishing  hopes 
which,  alas,  like  so  many  other  Confederate  Hopes,  withered 
on  the  stem. 

Strong  indeed  must  have  been  the  Southern  proclivities  of 
Maryland  men  to  see  aught  of  attraction  in  a  service  like  ours. 
We  were  a  hungry,  jaded,  weather-beaten,  battle-worn  set. 
In  the  forced  marches  to  the  northward  wagon  trains  had 
been  outstripped,  green  corn  and  apples  forming  for  days  al- 
most our  only  food.  The  fields  of  "roasting  ears,"  most  of 
them  now  too  hard  to  be  really  edible,  were  bought  from  the 
farmers  and  the  men  turned  in  to  help  themselves.  One  of 
General  Hill's  first  acts  after  crossing  the  Potomac  into 
Maryland,  was  to  buy  a  large  field  of  com  and  turn  in  his 
division.  All  supplies  obtained  during  this  campaign  were 
paid  for  in  Federal  currency. 

A  cartoon  in  Harper's  Weekly  represented  a  Maryland 
Quaker  woman  placing  a  wash  stand  at  her  door  and  implor- 
ing the  rebels  that  if  they  must  possess  her  house,  please  to  use 
that  first;  while  the  rebels  mistaking  this — to  them — strange 
apparatus  for  some  infernal  machine  contrived  for  their  de- 
struction, skedaddled  forthwith.  But  the  lion,  though  un- 
kempt and  half  starved,  was  a  lion  still,  as  the  foe  discov- 
ered when  he  threw  his  90,000  against  our  ranks  thinned  by 
battle,  disease  and  the  giving  out  of  foot-sore  men,  to  less 
than  30,000. 

218  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

From  the  6tli  to  the  10th  of  September,  we  remained  in 
camp  near  Frederick,  Maryland.  Here  rest,  full  rations  and 
delightful  weather  recuperated  us  fast.  It  was  while  in 
camp  at  this  place  that  the  famous  "Lost  Order"  was  dropped 
by  some  one  at  the  headquarters  of  our  division  commander, 
General  D.  H.  Hill.  General  HiU  subsequently  established 
the  fact  that  he  never  saw  this  duplicate  order.  The  sol- 
dier who  lost  it  was  never  guilty  of  a  more  culpable  act, 
nor  one  fraught  with  more  moment.  This  order,  which  was 
picked  up  on  the  13th  by  a  Federal  soldier,  wrapped  around 
some  Confederate  cigars,  and  at  once  transmitted  to  McClel- 
Ian,  revealed  not  only  the  dangerous  secret  that  Lee's  army 
was  divided,  but  told  in  minute  detail  the  present  position 
and  future  movements  of  infantry,  artillery,  cavalry  and 
trains.  In  the  hands  of  an  able  and  active  foe — one  alive  to 
the  tremendous  advantage  thus  given  him  and  quick  and  res- 
olute in  availing  himself  of  it — this  paper  must  in  all  proba- 
bility, have  been  the  death  warrant  of  the  Southern  Confed- 
eracy. For  by  a  strange  fatality  it  revealed  the  faults  of 
Sotithern  strategy  at  its  faultiest  moment,  and  told  where 
and  when  to  meet  and  overcome  the  Confederate  commands 
when  their  strength  was  at  the  lowest  ebb. 

Fortunately  McClellan  had  few  of  the  qualities  of  a  Jack- 
son, a  Forest  or  even  a  Hood.  He  acted  upon  the  informa- 
tion thus  obtained,  but  not  with  the  promptitude  and  energy 
that  Fate  demands  when  at  long  intervals  she  places  such  op- 
portunity in  mortal  hands.  McClellan's  report  of  the  find 
to  Lincoln  was  not  only  characteristic,  but  a  fine  tribute  to  the 
valor  of  his  weakened,  scattered  and  now  betrayed  antago- 
nists. "I  have  all  the  plans  of  the  rebels,"  he  wires,  "and 
will  catch  them  in  their  own  trap,  if  my  men  are  equal  to  the 
emergency."  Lee's  strokes  had  been  so  hard  and  his  strat- 
egy, based  upon  the  prowess  of  his  army,  so  bold,  that  Mc- 
Clellan informed  Halleck  that  he  had  "120,000  men  to  fight." 

McClellan  thus  apprized  of  the  situation,  moved  forward 
on  the  morning  of  13   September,  to  take  advantage  of  it. 

One  column  vmder  Franklin  was  thrown  forward  south- 
westerly towards  Crampton  Gap  of  South  Mountain.  Its 
objective  was  to  crush  Jackson's  force,  then  hammering  the 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  219 

Federal  garrison  at  Harper's  Ferry.  The  bulk  of  the  Fed- 
eral army  was  moved  westerly  against  us  through  Turner's 
and  Fox's  Gap,  its  object  being  Hagerstown,  which  the  "Lost 
Order"  had  disclosed  as  Lee's  point  of  rendezvous. 

We  had  withdrawn  from  Frederick  10  September,  moving 
slowly   through    Turner's     Gap    of     South    Mountain    to- 
wards Boonsboro,  on  the  direct  road  to  Hagerstown.     Our 
division  was  the  rear  guard  of  the  army  and  was  encumbered  - 
with  all  the  wagon  and  artillery  trains. 


By  the  afternoon  13  September,  we  had  marched  to 
the  west  of  Boonsboro,  and  gone  into  camp  near  Funks- 
town.  From  here  we  were  hurried  back  east  to  South  Moun- 
tain; meeting  General  Stuart  coming  down  as  we  marched 
up.  That  night  we  spent  on  the  western  slope  of  the  ridge ;  a 
chilly  bivouac  without  blankets  or  any  manner  of  covering 
from  the  keen  mountain  air. 

Early  in  the  morning  of  Sunday,  14  September,  General 
D.  H.  Hill  came  in  person  and  posted  Colquitt's  brigade  in 
Turner's  Gap  and  our  brigade  (Garland's)  in  Fox's  Gap,  a 
mile  to  the  south  of  Turner's.  These  two  Gaps,  which  are 
virtually  one,  are  traversed  by  many  roads.  If  McClellan's 
advance  was  to  be  checked  till  Jackson  could  take  Harper's 
Ferry  and  join  Lee,  all  these  roads  must  be  held  by  this  hand- 
ful of  men  against  McClellan  to  the  last  extremity.  This 
necessitated  the  scattering  of  the  regiments  of  the  brigade 
and  resulted  almost  in  the  destruction  of  some  of  them,  but 
the  pass  was  held  and  the  precious  time  necessary  for  Lee 
to  concentrate,  gained. 

Garland's  brigade  of  five  regiments  numbered  less  than 
1,000  men.  Our  regiment  had  been  severely  cut  to  pieces 
at  Seven  Pines  and  Malvern  Hill,  and  not  yet  having  been  re- 
cruited by  conscripts  to  the  same  extent  as  some  of  the  others, 
was  much  smaller  in  proportion  than  the  brigade.  Our  posi- 
tion was  in  the  centre  of  the  brigade  and  along  the  crest  of 
the  ridge  behind  an  old  stone  fence,  so  common  in  that  region. 

220  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

The  fence  had  been  more  or  less  dismantled  by  time  and  was 
in  places  very  low. 

To  our  right  was  the  Fifth  and  then  the  Twelfth ;  to  our 
left  the  Thirteenth  and  then  the  Twentieth.  An  interval  of 
fully  250  yards  separated  the  Thirteenth  from  the  Twenty- 
third,  and  one  probably  as  great  severed  it  from  the  Twen- 

Against  Garland's  1,000  Cox  led  3,000  of  Eeno's  Corps. 
The  action  begun  at  9  a.  m.  From  oiir  elevated  position  we 
had  a  full  view  of  the  movement  in  our  front.  Below  us 
in  plain  view,  went  forward  through  the  woods  the  skirmish 
line  of  the  brigade.  Near  them  and  slowly  drawing  nearer 
and  nearer,  came  a  dark-blue  line.  Yet  they  apparently  did 
not  see  each  other.  Not  till  the  lines  seemed  within  a  few 
yards  of  each  other  was  the  calm,  radiant  Sabbath  morning 
broken  by  the  crack  of  rifles.     The  battle  was  on. 

Our  skirmish  line  was  soon  forced  backward  by  weight  of 
numbers.  General  Garland  seeing  this,  ordered  Colonel  Mc- 
Kae  to  take  his  regiment,  the  Fifth,  and  the  Twelfth  regiment 
and  support  the  skirmish  line.  This  he  attempted  to  do, 
but  the  main  line  of  the  enemy  coming  up  at  this  juncture, 
forced  our  skirmish  line  back  in  disorder  and  developed  so 
much  strength  that  McRae  not  being  able  to  prevent  the  ad- 
vance, fell  back  to  his  position  on  our  right. 

The  Federals  now  pressed  forward,  striking  first  the  Thir- 
teenth and  Twentieth  on  our  left.  Here  General  Garland 
fell.  But  as  General  Hill  says,  the  main  attack  was  against 
the  Twenty-third  behind  the  stone  wall  (tumbled  down  stone 
fence).  A  little  later,  but  while  still  fiercely  contending  on 
the  left,  assault  after  assault  was  made  against  our  front. 
These  we  beat  off,  inflicting  heavy  loss  on  the  assailants.  At 
length  Colonel  Christie  seeing  that  a  still  stronger  force  which 
was  advancing  against  him  could,  while  engaging  his  front, 
envelop  his  left,  sent  his  Adjutant,  V.  E.  Turner  (the  writer 
of  this)  to  apprize  General  Garland  of  the  situation.  Finding 
that  Garland  had  fallen,  the  Adjutant,  making  his  way  to- 
wards the  rear  of  the  Thirteenth  and  Twentieth,  delivered 
the  message  to  Colonel  McEae,  then  in  command  of  the  bri- 
gade.    Colonel  McEae  having  no  horse  or  Staff   (General 

j'-M  ^>^^.;iXW/(^^5^%c)]r?^^e@^^^9^*^^5A3 


1.  Geo.  Burns  Bullock,  Captain,  Co.  I.  5.    William  H.  Harris,  Private,  Co.  I. 

2.  N.  A.  Gregory,  1st  Lieut..  Co.  I.  6.    John  T,  Santord,  Private,  Co.  I. 

S.    Richard  V.  Minor,  1st  Lieut.,  Co.  E.         7.    Nicholas  T.  Green,  Private,  Co.  E. 
4.    W.  P.  Gill,  2d  Lieut.,  Co.  Q.  8.    John  H.  Breedlove,  Private,  Co.  G. 

9.    James  E.  Hart,  Sergeant,  Co.  I. 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  221 

Garland's  Staff  having  gone  off  with  his  body)  had  no  means 
of  immediate  communication  with  General  HiU,  and  was 
unable  to  fill  the  gap  and  to  avert  the  disaster  apprehended 
by  Colonel  Christie. 

The  returning  Adjutant  after  almost  running  into  the  hos- 
tile lines,  reached  the  position  of  the  Twenty-third  just  as  it 
was  abandoned.  Colonel  Christie,  with  his  short,  weak  line, 
hopelessly  enveloped  and  enfiladed,  and  seeing  capture  sure  if 
he  remained  longer,  had  ordered  the  regiment  to  withdraw. 
This  withdrawal,  as  it  had  to  be  precipitate  in  the  extreme, 
was  effected  in  great  disorder  down  the  steep  and  bewilder- 
ing mountain  side.  Company  E  and  a  few  other  men  on  the 
left,  the  side  on  which  the  flank  attack  came,  either  did  not 
hear  the  order  to  withdraw,  or  being  already  enveloped,  were 
mostly  captured.  It  was  here  and  by  this  gallant  Company 
that  bayonets  and  clubbed  muskets  were  so  freely  used  in  the 
vain  struggle  to  repel  outnumbering  foes.  The  regiment 
had  been  too  roughly  handled  to  be  taken  into  action  again 
that  day. 

The  whole  brigade  was  likewise  driven  back,  though  the 
Thirteenth  on  the  left,  managed  by  a  change  of  front,  to 
maintain  itself  till  reinforced  by  Anderson's  brigade.  The 
exact  loss  of  the  Twenty-third  cannot  now  be  ascertained,  but 
it  was  heavy  in  killed  and  wounded  and  of  the  200  prisoners 
captured  from  the  brigade  it  lost  its  share.  It  also  inflicted 
heavy  loss  upon  the  enetmy  before  the  stone  fence,  its  post  of 
vantage,  was  enfiladed  and  rendered  useless.  General  Jesse 
L.  Reno,  commanding  the  corps  assailing  us,  and  who  had 
been  prominent  in  the  capture  of  Roanoke  Island,  Kinston, 
and  other  places  in  ISTorth  Carolina,  was  killed  at  long  range 
by  Charles  W.  Bennett,  of  Granville  County,  Orderly  Ser- 
geant of  Company  E.  Sergeant  Bennett  was  severely 
wounded  at  Sharpsburg.  Among  our  wounded  was  also  Cap- 
tain G.  T.  Baskerville,  of  Company  I.  General  Garland  was 
killed  early  in  the  action.  In  making  his  way  to  the  firing 
line,  he  passed  through  an  open  space  to  the  rear  of  the  gap, 
between  the  Twenty-third  and  the  Thirteenth.  He  had  been 
told  that  the  Federal  sharpshooters  commanded  this  space, 
but  could  not  believe  that  they  had  yet  advanced  far  enough 

222  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

to  reach  the  crest  and  dominate  the  place.  Venturing  through 
the  opening,  he  at  once  became  their  target  and  was  shot 

The  arrival  of  reinforcements  late  in  the  day  enabled  Hill, 
by  desperate  fighting,  to  hold  Tox's  and  Turner's  Gap  till 
dark,  as  Crampton  Gap,  to  the  south,  had  been  held.  Under 
cover  of  night  all  three  gaps  were  evacuated  and  the  Conf  ed- 
ate  forces  concentrated  on  Sharpsburg,  whither  Jackson  hast- 
ened on  the  fall  of  Harper's  Ferry. 


When  the  enemy  at  last  succeeded  in  getting  in  on  our  left 
flank  and  cutting  us  off  from  the  other  regiments  of  the  bri- 
gade. Dr.  Jourdan  was  so  near  the  firing  line  that  he  was  not 
recognized  as  a  "non-combatant,"  and  was  deliberately  shot 
down.  He  was  a  native  of  Eoxboro,  Caswell  County,  N.  C. ; 
was  most  highly  esteemed  as  a  gentleman  and  an  efiicient  of- 
ficer, always  kindly  and  considerate  of  the  sick  and  wounded. 

On  the  march,  when  the  ambulance  was  filled  with  the 
sick,  he  often  gave  up  his  horse  to  disabled  men  and  marched 
on  foot  himself.  The  whole  regiment  were  greatly  devoted 
to  him. 


Jackson  captured  Harper's  Ferry  15  September,  and 
by  forced  marches  joined  Lee,  with  most  of  his  forces,  at 
Sharpsburg  on  the  16th.  McClellan  advanced  and  threw 
part  of  his  command  over  the  Antietam  Creek  that  night. 
The  battle,  joined  at  daylight  of  the  17th.  And  in  that 
bloody  Wednesday  was  crowded  more  desperate  fighting  and 
more  carnage  than  theJSTew  World  had  ever  seen  in  one  day. 
Ketreating  along'  the  Boonsboro  road,  we  reached  the  field 
early  on  the  morning  of  the  15th,  with  the  enemy  close  behind 
us  as  we  crossed  the  bridge  over  Antietam  Creek.  We  at 
once  took  position  along  the  ridge  and  in  an  open  field. 

The  Twenty-third  regiment  was  here  able  to  muster  but  few 
men,  many  being  barefoot  and  absolutely  unable  to  keep  up  in 
the  forced  marches  over  rough  and  stony  roads.     The  brigade 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  223 

■which  since  Garland's  fall,  had  been  under  the  command  of 
Colonel  McRae,  of  the  Fifth,  went  into  action  with  Colquitt's 
brigade  in  the  Confederate  center,  and  were  advancing  in 
perfect  steadiness  under  a  heavy  artillery  fire  from  the  oppo- 
site hills,  till  the  unaccountable  "run  back"  occurred.  This 
happened  as  follows:  The  Federals  advanced  against  us  in 
dense  lines  through  a  corn  field,  which  concealed  the 
uniforms,  though  their  flags  and  mounted  ofiicers  could 
be  seen  plainly  above  the  corn  tassels.  As  the  blue 
line  became  more  distinct,  approaching  the  edge  of 
the  corn  field,  which  brought  it  in  our  range,  we 
commenced  to  fire  and  effectively  held  it  in  check. 
But  some  of  Early's  men,  who  had  come  from  the  corn  field, 
begged  iis  not  to  fire,  saying  that  their  men  were  in  our  front. 
Some  one  in  a  regitaent  tO'  the  right  of  us  also  shouted: 
"Cease  firing.  You  are  shooting  your  own  men."  Hands 
were  also  seen  waving  the  line  back.  This  confused  the  men. 
The  artillery  fire  grew  constantly  hotter.  Several  of  the 
regiments,  nearly  exterminated  at  Williamsburg,  Seven  Pines 
and  Malvern  Hill,  had  been  recruited  with  raw  men,  largely 
ignorant  of  discipline  and  of  the  machine-like  duties  of  a  sol- 

At  this  the  regiments  on  our  right  began  to  fall  back,  strag- 
gling through  the  woods  in  our  rear.  But  we  could  plainly 
see  that  we  were  not  firing  on  our  friends,  and  in  our  front  the 
enemy  was  firmly  held  in  check,  till  we  found  that  they  were 
moving  on  our  flank  unopposed.  This  compelled  us  to  re- 
tire, which  was  done  in  good  order,  considering  the  circum- 
stances. The  greater  part  of  our  regiment  stopped  in  a 
sunken  road  (the  famous  Bloody  Lane)  and  joining  the  main 
line  there,  fought  the  remainder  of  the  day.  General  Hill 
says  distinctly  that  the  Twenty-third  was  kept  intact  and 
moved  to  the  sunken  road. 

The  brigade  was  gotten  together  that  night  and  early  the 
next  morning.  The  18th  was  spent  in  line  of  battle 
ready  for  the  attack  which  did  not  come.  Lieutenant-Colonel 
R.  D.  Johnston  was  now  in  command  of  the  Twenty-third, 
Colonel  Christie  having  been  placed  in  command  of  Gen- 
eral Anderson's  brigade. 

224  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

There  is  a  great  gap  in  the  Southern  part  of  the  War  Rec- 
ords covering  the  first  Maryland  campaign.  The  Confeder- 
ate reports  were  either  lost  or  destroyed  in  that  fortnight  of 
strenuous  marching  and  fighting.  The  casualties  of  the  reg- 
iment at  Sharpsburg,  as  at  South  Mountain,  will  never  be  ac- 
curately known.  Captain  Wall's  estimate  of  about  45 
wounded  and  20  killed  is  believed  to  be  right.  Captain  A.  T. 
Cole,  Company  D,  and  Captain  Wesley  Hedspeth,  Company 
E,  are  the  only  two  ofiicers  given  in  Moore's  Roster  as  having 
been  wounded,  though  there  were  almost  certain  twice  or 
three  times  that  many.  Few  soldiers  in  any  war  have  ever 
been  killed  under  the  same  circumstances  as  W.  C.  Watkins, 
of  Company  A.  This  man  had  been  discharged  as  not  physi- 
cally able  to  serve.  But  wishing  to  take  part  in  one  more  bat- 
tle, he  remained  and  fought  at  Sharpsburg,  and  fell  and  was 
found  dead  with  the  discharge  in  his  pocket. 


McClellan's  desperate  and  repeated  attempts  to  pierce  and 
shatter  the 'Confederate  lines,  had  been  substantially  foiled. 
But  Sharpsburg  proved  to  us  but  a  pyrrhic  victory  at  best. 
Lee  with  less  than  30,000,  could  not  afford  victories  bought  at 
the  expense  of  10,000  men,  even  if  it  inflicted  a  loss  of  15,000 
on  the  enemy.  Holding  his  lines  undisturbed  through  the 
18th,  he  withdrew  that  night  across  the  Potomac,  near  Shep- 
herdstown.  Just  as  the  last  of  our  own  army  crossed  the 
enemy  appeared  and  a  brush  occurred,  but  they  did  not  press 
us  closely  till  the  next  day,  when  we  turned  and  drove  them 
back  with  fearful  loss. 

After  returning  to  Virginia,  our  command  lay  encamped 
till  late  in  October  along  the  Opequon,  not  far  from  its  battle 
ground  of  19  September,  1864.  The  region  was  one  of  great 
thrift  and  plenty.  The  long  rest  was  exceedingly  grateful  to 
our  weary  and  foot-sore  men.  During  this  campaign  an  in- 
trepid deed  was  performed  near  Bunker  Hill  by  Frank  Bow- 
ers, of  Company  A.  He  was  then  driving  an  ammunition 
wagon  drawn  by  six  mules.  The  jolting  over  the  rough  road 
exploded  one  of  the  shells  in  his  wagon  and  others  rapidly 
followed.     Few  men  would  have  hesitated  at  instant  flight. 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  225 

ISTo  man  could  have  been  expected  to  do  otherwise.  But  Bow- 
ers was  one  of  that  heroic  mold  which  never  abandons  a  trust 
or  a  duty.  With  marvellous  presence  of  mind  and  courage, 
he  sprang  to  the  ground,  unhitched  the  team,  and  escaped 
with  them  all  unhurt  from  the  verge  of  the  volcano  of  bursting 
shells.  Yet  history  vouchsafes  this  gallant  fellow  but  the 
stint  of  two  words,  one  of  them  abbreviated  to  a  single  letter, 
"k,  Gettysburg."   (Killed  at  Gettysburg.) 

Here  the  army  was  recruited  and  reorganized.  The  Twen- 
ty-third received  its  share  of  recruits.  What  was  more  im- 
portant, it  was  strengthened  by  the  return  of  many  of  its  mem- 
bers who  had  recovered  from  wounds  and  diseases.  Colonel 
Alfred  Iverson,  of  the  Twentieth  JSTorth  Carolina,  was,  after 
Sharpsburg,  commissioned  Brigadier-General  and  assumed 
command  of  the  brigade.  The  Thirteenth  Regiment  was 
about  this  time  transferred  to  Scales'  Brigade,  leaving  bri- 
gaded with  us  the  Fifth,  Twelfth  and  Twentieth 

In  November  came  the  march  southeast  to  Fredericksburg. 
The  following  incident — a  trifling  flotsam  of  memory — oc- 
curring in  this  month,  will  illustrate  the  humorous  side  of  a 
soldier's  life.  One  of  the  Staff  officers  of  the  regiment,  for 
slightly  overstaying  a  leave  to  visit  some  ladies  was,  as  was 
the  usage,  placed  under  arrest  by  Colonel  Christie.  ISTow  an 
officer  under  arrest  must  march  in  the  rear  of  the  regiment, 
and  cannot  address  his  superior  officer  except  in  writing.  This 
incompetency  to  address  the  Colonel  would  have  been  without 
complications  except  for  the  fact  tliat  the  weather  was  cold 
and  the  above  officer  and  the  Colonel  were  bed-fellows  and 
slept  on  a  very  narrow  bunk.  J^ow  not  even  a  Confederate 
soldier  was  willing  that  all  the  freezing  that  fell  to  his  lot 
should  be  endured  by  one  half  of  his  body.  So  an  occasional 
turning  of  the  frozen  side  in  was  a  sine  qua  non.  But  a  lux- 
ury of  this  kind  could  be  safely  obtained  only  by  co-opera- 
tion— there  must  be  a  simultaneous  action  of  both  occupants 
of  the  bunk  or  dire  consequence  might  follow.  For  co-opera- 
tion communication  is  essential.  Written  communication  in 
the  dark  was  impossible.  Finally  after  long  consultation 
with  two  other  officers  in  the  same  tent — the  Colonel  remain- 

226  North  Caeolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

ing  a  silent,  but  doubtless  highly  amused  auditor — it  was  de- 
cided that  an  officer  under  arrest  might  in  extremity,  address 
his  superior  by  proxy.  Thi-s  was  forthwith  done,  a  change 
of  base  effected  and  Confederate  comfort  assured. 


The  Twenty-third  took  no  active  part  in  repelling  the 
Federal  army — now  under  Burnside — at  Fredericksburg. 

We  were  held  in  reserve  near  Hamilton's  Crossing  behind 
Early  on  the  right.  Here,  though  exposed  to  the  artillery  fire 
from  Stafford  Heights,  only  one  man  was  killed  and  a  few 
hit.  But  Sunday  morning,  14  December,  our  division  was 
carried  around  and  placed  in  the  front  line  on  the  extreme 
right.  During  the  day  we  affiliated  for  a  while  with  the 
Federal  officers  in  our  front,  truce  being  granted  by  Lee  to 
Burnside  to  bury  his  dead. 

That  evening  preparations  were  made  for  a  night  attack. 
A  white  band  on  the  arm  was  to  be  the  distinguishing  badge 
of  our  troops  in  the  night  assault.  These  were  provided  and, 
we  believe,  in  a  few  instances,  actually  put  on.  JSTo  attack 
was  ordered,  the  crushing  blow  that  we  had  so  easily  dealt  the 
enemy  not  being  yet  realized  by  our  commanders. 

On  Monday  night,  15  December,  a  picket  line  from  our 
regiment  was  thrown  well  to  the  front.  Captain  H.  G.  Tur- 
ner, of  Company  H,  in  command  of  the  pickets,  seems  to 
have  been  the  first  man  in  the  afmy  to  discover  signs  of  the 
Federal  retreat  across  the  Rappahannock.  The  night  was 
boisterous,  a  strong  northwesterly  wind  had,  as  is  so  often 
the  case,  followed  the  snow  fall  of  some  days  ago.  This  wind 
muifled  any  sounds  in  the  enemy's  lines,  which  were  to  the 
east  of  us.  But  Captain  Turner  observed  a  scarcely  precepti- 
ble,  though  incessant  fiickering  of  the  lights  on  the  distant 
hills  across  the  river.  This  he  could  account  for  only  on  the 
theory  that  long  columns  of  troops  were  there  moving  under 
cover  of  night.  This  movement  he  at  once  construed  to  be  a 
retreat.  What  he  had  seen  and  the  inferences  he  drew  there- 
from, were  at  once  reported  to  his  superiors.  Nothing  came 
of  his  report.     Soon  after  Fredericksburg,  General  Eodes 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  227 

was  placed  in  command  of  our  division,  General  Hill  being 
assigned  to  another  position. 

The  battle  over,  we  went  into  winter  quarters  near  Freder- 
icksburg, out  towards  Guinea  Station.  Here,  in  January  or 
February,  1863,  we  took  part  in  a  great  snow  battle.  The  long 
roll  was  beaten  and  the  brigade  ignorant  of  what  it  was  to  do, 
fell  into  line,  officers  at  their  posts  as  if  for  real  battle.  Or- 
ders were  given  and  we  marched  rapidly  out  towards  Dole's 
Georgia  brigade,  which  we  were  to  attack.  The  Georgians 
had  thrown  up  breastworks  of  snow,  prepared  a  supply  of 
snow  balls  and  were  ready  for  us.  It  was  a  grateful  relief 
from  the  tedium  of  camp  life  and  the  men  entered  with  zest 
into  the  sport.  After  preparing  as  much  ammunition  as  we 
could  conveniently  carry,  our  line  m.oved  forward  to  the  as- 
sault. The  battle,  though  brief,  was  sharp,  many  of  us  were 
knocked  down  and  several  quite  seriously  hurt,  but  the  snow 
fort  was  stormed,  our  opponents  routed  and  chased  back 
through  their  camp.  Many  prisoners  Were  taken.  The  horse 
play  was  ended  by  rolling  in  the  snow  a  supercilious  general 
officer  participating  in  the  fun.  The  irate  General  sought  a 
court-martial,  but  was  told  that  an  officer  waived  his  rank 
when  he  took  part  in  frolics  of  that  kind. 

The  enemy  was  still  in  full  force  across  the  river  opposite 
us.  This  kept  Lee's  army  constantly  on  the  qui  vive.  Our 
regiment  did  a  great  deal  of  shivering  picket  duty  on  the 
Rappahannock  below  Fredericksburg.  The  winter  was  one 
of  great  rigor.  The  men,  though  pretty  well  hardened,  suf- 
fered severely  from  want  of  proper  clothing  and  food  and 
from  exposure.  Some  time  in  January  or  February  the 
command  was  marched  to  Mine  Run,  and  though  they  did 
only  a  little  desultory  fighting,  they  suffered  much  hardship 
from  cold,  being  held  in  line  in  the  snow  for  several  days  and 
nights.  The  enemy  being  in  sight,  no  fires  could  be  allowed 
and  our  suffering  was  intense. 


If  the  consensus  of  the  intelligent  opinion  of  the  world 
was  taken  as  to  what  battle  gave  most  lustre  to  Southern 
generalship,  it  would  almost  surely  designate  Chancellors- 

228  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

ville.  Lee  holding  strong  positions  along  the  Rappahannock 
and  higher  up  upon  its  tributary,  the  Eapidan,  had  deemed 
it  expedient  to  detach  Longstreet  to  spend  part  of  the  winter 
near  Suilolk,  Va.,  gathering  supplies  from  that  region  and 
from  Eastern  North  Carolina.  Thus  less  than  55,000  men 
were  left  to  confront  Hooker,  who  had  superceded  Burnside 
as  commander  of  the  Federal  army. 

Hooker  took  advanage  of  this  separation  of  the  Confeder- 
ate forces  by  strategic  stroke  that  may,  in  its  inception,  be 
called  brilliant.  Making  a  feint  against  Lee's  front  at  Fred- 
ericksburg and  his  right  below  that  place,  he  suddenly  29 
and  30  April,  1863,  threw  120,000  men  across  the  Rapidan 
on  the  Confederate  left  flank.  Had  Hooker  possessed  the  har- 
dihood and  moral  courage  of  Grant  and  have  advanced  from 
the  Wilderness  into  the  open  country  where  his  vastly  supe- 
rior force  could  have  told,  things  must  have  gone  hard  with 
Lee.  But  as  has  been  well  said,  while  Hooker  hesitated,  Lee 
acted.  Jackson,  with  22,000  men,  by  a  rapid  march  whose 
very  boldness  bewildered  the  enemy,  swept  from  Hooker's 
left  flank  across  his  front  and  fell  upon  the  unsuspecting  right 
flank  like  a  bolt  from  the  skies. 

The  Twenty-third  took  a  highly  important  part  in  this  bril- 
liant movement.  It  led  the  van  in  Jackson's  immortal 
march.  Friday  evening  and  Saturday  morning,  2  May, 
its  skirmish  line  was  in  contact  with  the  enemy  not  far  from 
the  Chancellor  House.  At  daybreak,  it  was  so  hastily  with- 
drawn that  two  of  its  companies,  then  on  the  skirmish  line, 
were  left  behind  and  did  not  rejoin  the  regiment  till  late  in 
the  evening. 

Our  regiment  on  being  withdrawn  from  contact  with  the 
Federals,  went  swiftly  forward  through  the  Wilderness, 
striking  now  and  then  a  dim  path  or  road.  Strict  silence 
was  enforced,  the  men  being  allowed  to  speak  only  in  whis- 
pers. Occasionally  a  courier  would  spxir  his  tired  horse  past 
us  as  we  twisted  through  the  brush.  For  hours  at  the  time 
we  neither  saw  or  heard  anything.  Great  was  the  curiosity 
to  know  where  we  were  going  and  what  "Old  Jack"  was 
about.  But  we  agreed  tliat  he  did  know  and  that  the  novel 
march  meant  much.     Our  brigade  led  tlie  division,  our  regi- 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  229 

ment  the  brigade.  While  swinging  onward  a  turn  in  the 
dim  road  brought  us  suddenly  face  to  face  with  a  piece  of 
Federal  artillery,  which  firing  point  blank,  double-shotted 
with  canister,  struck  down  the  head  of  the  column,  discon- 
certing for  a  moment  many  of  the  bravest.  Major  C.  C. 
Blacknall,  with  rare  presence  of  mind,  instantly  rallied  a 
company  and  springing  forward  with  the  bayonets,  captured 
the  piece  before  it  could  be  reloaded. 

During  the  afternoon  we  reached  the  position  assigned  to 
us.  The  Twenty-third  was  the  very  last  regiment  on  the  left 
wing  of  the  army.  Tired,  breathless,  but  bouyant,  we  lay 
down  in  the  woods  near  the  unwary  foe  and  waited  till  or- 
dered to  attack.  As  the  afternoon  passed  we  were  swung 
around  still  farther  to  the  left  and  to  the  rear  of  the  right 
flank  of  the  Federal  Eleventh  Corps.  The  attack  was  begun 
back  to  our  right.  As  the  sun  was  round  and  red  and  low, 
the  regiment  moved  directly  towards  it  on  the  foe.  At  the 
first  sight  of  the  Federals,  we  were  ordered  to  yell  our  loudest 
and  to  move  forward  up  the  hill  at  the  double  quick.  We 
struck  their  very  rear,  charging  in  over  their  beef  slaughter- 
ing and  cooking  detail.  The  enemy  began  jumping  up  before 
us  and  holding  up  their  hands  to  surrender.  But  little  re- 
sistance was  met  with,  the  surprised  enemy  surrendering  or 
breaking  before  us  in  the  wildest  rout  and  disorder.  Chas- 
ing them  like  hares,  our  boys  surged  forward.  Prisoners, 
pieces  of  artillery,  a  regimental  flag  and  countless  stands  of 
small  arms  were  taken  by  the  Twenty-third.  Albutress 
Gabriel,  a  private  in  Company  K,  captured  a  brigade  com- 
mander. The  frenzied  flight  of  the  foe  is  well  illustrated  by 
a  cannon  which  was  seen  hanging  up  a  tree.  In  the  panic 
it' had  been  driven  over  a  small  tree  which  bent  under  its 
weight,  but  finally  broke  it  loose  from  the  caisson  in  front. 
Then  the  upspring  of  the  tree  raised  the  entangled  gun  from 
the  ground.  There  it  hung  as  eloquent  an  attest  of  mad 
flight  as  perchance  war  has  ever  seen.  We  soon  emerged  into 
a  large  field  occupied  by  a  large  part  of  Hooker's  army. 
Their  line  of  battle  was  snugly  intrenched,  but  the  works 
faced  the  wrong  way.  We  came  up  obliquely  behind  their 
works.     Their  line,  in  hurriedly  trying  to  face  about  and 

230  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

meet  us,  was  soon  tangled  and  scattered  pell-mell  all  over  tlie 
big  field.  Over  this  field  rushed  helter-skelter  cannon, 
wagons,  loose  horses,  dogs,  men,  everything.  A  spectacled 
Adjutant  was  here  shot  dead  with  a  congratulatory  order  in 
his  hand,  telling  that  Lee  was  surrounded  and  would  be  cap- 
tured the  next  day.  It  was  well  into  the  night  before  our  onset 
spent  itself  and  we  must  have  been  then  not  very  far  from  the 
point  from  which  we  set  out  in  the  early  morning.  Then 
were  heard  all  through  the  woods  the  Yankee  officers 
calling  out  and  offering  to  surrender.  We  heard  distinctly 
without  knowing  its  fateful  meaning,  the  sudden  outburst  of 
musketry  which  struck  down  the  right  arm  "of  Lee  and  of  the 
Confederacy — Stonewall  Jackson. 

Our  loss  that  night  was  small,  as  it  had  been  with  us  rather 
a  chase  than  a  fight.  Our  turn  to  fight  came  the  next  morn- 

On  Saturday  night  both  Lee  and  Hooker  made  different 
dispositions  for  the  stem  Sabbath  work  to  come.  Major 
Eowe,  of  the  Twelfth,  having  been  wounded  the  evening  be- 
fore, Lieutenant-Colonel  R.  D.  Johnston,  of  the  Twenty- 
third,  commanded  the  Twelfth  in  this  battle.  Iverson's 
brigade  went  into  action  on  the  left  of  the  Confederate  line 
and  to  the  left  of  the  plank  road.  Having  been  in  the  first 
line  the  day  before,  it  was  now  placed  in  the  second  line  as 
a  support.  Our  brigade  reached  the  first  line  as  it  was  falling 
back  from  its  assault  on  the  third  line  of  Federal  intrench- 
ments.  General  Eodes  says  of  this  attack:  "The  enemy 
was  compelled  to  fall  back  and  pressing  on  Colonel  Hall's  two 
regiments  (Fifth  and  Twenty-sixth  Alabama)  together  with 
the  Twenty-third  Worth  Carolina,  Colonel  Christie,  carried 
the  heights  in  magnificent  style,  planting  their  flags  inside  the 

The  rest  of  Eodes',  Iverson's  and  Pender's  troops  were  re- 
pulsed. This  exposed  the  three  above  regiments,  and  an 
overwhelming  flanking  attack  by  the  Federal  Generals, 
French  and  later  Humphreys,  being  made,  they  were  forced 
to  retire  with  heavy  loss  in  killed,  wounded  and  prisoners.  But 
the  troops  which  had  been  repulsed  soon  rallied  and  on  being 

Twenty-Third  Eegiment.  231 

reinforced,  drove  back  the  attacking  forces  and  the  general 
Confederate  advance  followed. 

Major  N.  A.  Gregory  (then  Lieutenant  Company  I)  gives 
a  graphic  account  of  several  incidents  in  the  battle.  He  says 
substantially  as  follows:  "They  (Pender's  men)  had  cap- 
tured two  lines  of  works  from  the  enemy  and  were  standing 
behind  the  second  line  when  we  came  up.  They  told  us  that 
they  were  out  of  ammunition  and  could  go  no  further.  Gen- 
eral Pender  went  forward  with  iis.  After  crossing  a  little 
branch  and  fighting  for  some  time  in  a  hot  place,  Pender  told 
us  to  charge.  We  rushed  ahead.  My  company  was  on  the 
right.  I  bore  to  the  right  of  the  road  and  got  into  a  little 
fort,  which  stood  in  the  open  field  near  the  road.  Here  I 
seized  a  rifle  from  a  man  who  went  into  the  fort  with  me  and 
blamed  away  at  the  colors  of  the  Federal  artillery  company 
that  was  then  moving  off  the  field.  Just  then  this  man  called 
my  attention  to  the  shots  coming  in  on  our  left.  As  we  two 
were  alone,  we  got  out  of  there.  I  suppose  that  we  went 
closer  to  the  Chancellor  Plouse  than  any  other  command  that 
day.  These  shots  were  from  French's  flanking  force  about 
to  strike  the  Confederate  left." 

The  loss  of  the  Twenty-third  at  Chancellorsville,  which  is 
said  to  have  been  50  per  cent,  larger  than  any  other  regiment 
in  the  brigade,  was  ofiicially  reported  by  General  Kodes  at 
173  killed,  wounded  and  missing.  Moore's  Eoster  gives  the 
casualties  as  follows:  Wounded  48,  killed  17,  mortally 
wounded  6.  Captain  Wesley  Hedspeth,  Company  B,  was 
killed.  Lieutenant  James  S.  Knight,  Company  B,  was  mor- 
tally wounded,  dying  that  night.  Lieutenant  Washington  F. 
Overton,  Company  G,  was  wounded  and  burned  with  many  of 
our  dead,  and  probably  some  other  wounded,  in  the  fire  that 
raged  that  morning  in  the  woods  to  the  left  of  the  plank  road 
und  east  of  the -little  aldertangled  branch.  Captain  A.  T. 
Cole  was  wounded  and  captured  while  being  carried  to  the 
rear.  Major  C.  C.  Blacknall  and  Lieutenant  George  B.  Bul- 
lock were,  with  the  men  they  led  forward,  surroimded  and 
captured  in  a  redoubt  of  the  work  which  they  had  just  car- 
ried.    These  two  ofiicers  after  being  fellow  prisoners  in  the 

232  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

Old  Capitol  Prison  at  Washington  with  Miss  Belle  Boyd, 
the  famous  Confederate  spy,  were  exchanged  in  two  weeks 
and  took  part  in  the  Gettysburg  campaign. 


In  no  period  of  the  war  was  the  Southern  heart  more  buoy- 
ant or  did  hope  gleam  brighter  or  larger  than  when  it  was 
known  that  Lee's  victorious  army  had  invaded  the  ISTorth. 
All  things  now  seemed  possible.  But  at  no  period  of  the 
struggle  was  hope  really  more  fallacious  and  deceptive. 
Southern  Independence  had  already  been  lost.  Chancellors- 
ville  was  its  grave.  With  Gettysburg  won  and  Vicksburg 
lost,  Southern  Independence  could  not  have  been  attained. 
But  Chancellorsville  won — decisively  and  overwhelmingly 
won — Lee  could  easily  have  detached  a  force  to  relieve  Vicks- 
burg. ■  Chancellorsville  must  have  been  a  decisive  and  over- 
whelming victory  but  for  the  fatal  blunder  of  one  man — a 
man  brave  and  otherwise  competent.  At  5  :30  p.  m.  Satur- 
aay  evening,  2  May,  1863,  Jackson  held  the  fate  of  Hooker's 
army  in  the  hollow  of  his  hand.  His  subordinates  had  but 
to  move  forward  when  and  where  he  had  distinctly  ordered, 
and  within  an  hour  a  blow  would  have  been  struck  the  enemy, 
which,  followed  up  with  a  tithe  of  Jackson's  energy,  could 
have  ended  only  in  Hooker's  undoing.  This  unfortunate  of- 
ficer was  General  Colquitt,  commanding  a  Georgia  brigade, 
to  whom  had  been  assigned  an  exceedingly  important  posi- 
tion on  Jackson's  right.  The  duty  assigned  this  wing  was  to 
strike  the  routed  Eleventh  Corps  on  the  flank  and  rear  and 
not  only  destroy  or  capture  it,  but  what  was  even  more  im- 
portant, assail  the  other  commands  then  open  to  attack.  But 
this  duty  was  never  performed.  Colquitt  saw  some  horsemen 
in  Federal  uniform  on  his  right  front.  The  apprehension 
of  an  attack  on  this  flank — an  impossible  thing — sud- 
denly overcame  him.  He  halted  his  regiments  and  changed 
front  and  also  forced  Ramsevir's  brigade  to  do  likewise. 
Having  the  right  of  way  over  the  "Stonewall"  brigade  and 
four  regiments  of  Stuart's  cavalry  his  halt  halted  them.  This 
change  of  front  and  the  purposeless  marching  it  entailed, 
kept  inactive  seventeen  regiments  of  excellent  troops  for  an 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  233 

hour — an  hour  as  big  with  fate  as  battle  field  ever  saw. 
For  in  that  hour  the  torrent  of  Federal  rout  passed  by  to  a 
place  of  safety,  flooker,  or  his  subordinates,  made  new  dis- 
positions and  brought  up  their  powerful  artillery.  When  at 
length  the  seventeen  regiments  came  up  and  the  Confederates 
moved  forward  the  golden  opportunity  had  passed ;  rout  and 
disorder  had  with  the  foe  given  place  to  order  and  determi- 
nation. Jackson,  realizing  the  exigency  of  the  new  turn  in 
the  battle,  went  forward  to  inform  himself  and  fell. 

But  to  return  to  the  Gettysburg  campaign.  Leaving  the 
vicinity  of  Fredericksburg  4  June,  1863,  we  marched,  via 
Culpepper  Court  House  and  Front  Royal,  to  Berryville,  Va. 
Here  the  army  captured  the  camp  equipage  of  1,500  men 
who  fled  without  a  battle.  Thence  to  Winchester,  where 
3,000  of  Milroy's  men  were  taken  and  marched  past  ouv  com- 
mand. At  Martinsburg  we  cut  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Rail- 
road and  pressing  forward,  waded  the  Potomac  at  Williams- 
port  on  Monday,  15  June.  Passing  through  Chambers- 
burg  we  reached  Carlisle,  the  northern  limit  of  our  invasion, 
about  2Y  June.  The  Twenty-third  acted  as  provost  guard 
at  several  places  on  this  march.  At  Carlisle  we  rested  for 
several  days  in  the  Federal  barracks.  Here  many  of  our 
jaded,  weary  boys,  drank  too  much  United  States  Government 
whiskey  and  a  battle  with  a  Georgia  regiment,  for  the  time 
likewise  drowning  their  weariness,  was  narrowly  averted. 
Many  of  the  Carlisle  people  knew  General  Iverson,  he  having 
been  quartered  in  the  barracks  there  when  a  Lieutenant  in 
the  Federal  army. 

As  Lee  threw  our  corps  (Ewell's)  north  to  Carlisle,  threat- 
ening Harrisburg,  the  capital  of  Pennsylvania,  he  concen- 
trated his  other  two  corps,  A.  P.  Hill's  and  Longstreet's,  at 
Chambersburg  on  his  line  of  communications.  Stuart  having 
taken  his  cavalry  on  his  famous,  but  fatal,  raid  around  the 
Federal  army,  Lee  was  long  in  complete  ignorance  of  the  ene- 
mies whereabouts. 

Orders  had  already  been  given  for  the  march  on  Harris- 
burg, when  on  the  night  of  the  29th  Lee,  then  at  Chambers- 
burg, learned  from  a  scout  that  the  enemy  were  on  his  right 

234  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

flank,  the  head  of  their  column  being  then  near  Frederick, 
our  resting  place  of  the  fall  before. 

Our  corps  was  at  once  put  in  rapid  motion  southward.  The 
intelligence  received  had  changed  Lee's  whole  plan.  His 
plan  now  was  to  concentrate  at  Oashtown  with  the  mountains 
at  his  back  and  beyond  them  the  rich  Cumberland  Valley, 
for  a  granary.  Here  Meade,  who  had  now  superceded  Hook- 
er, would  have  had  to  attack  us  with  everything  in  our  favor. 
A.  P.  Hill,  contrary  to  orders,  precipitated  battle  at  Gettys- 
burg with  the  enemy  on  the  defensive  and  everything  in  their 
favor.  However,  it  is  but  fair  to  General  Hill  to  add,  that 
owing  to  the  absence  of  cavalry,  he  had  no  means  of  knowing 
that  the  forces  unexpectedly  interposed  between  him  and  Get- 
tysburg, whither  part  of  his  command  was  marching  to  pro- 
cure a  supply  of  shoes,  were  other  than  militia  or  at  most  a 
small  detachment  of  Meade's  army. 

Leaving  Carlisle  on  Tuesday,  the  last  day  of  June,  we 
marched  swiftly  southward.  Cherries  were  ripe  along  the 
rock-walled  lanes.  Bringing  camp  hatchets  out,  fruit  ladened 
limbs  were  severed  and  we  regaled  ourselves  as  we  swung 
onward.  The  spirit  and  morale  of  the  army  were  then  superb. 
Many  German-descended  members  of  our  regiment  belong- 
ing to  the  companies  raised  in  Lincoln,  Catawba,  Gaston  and 
Montgomery  Counties,  were  in  this  region  amid,  or  not  far 
from,  their  kin.  From  here  their  ancestors  had  emigrated 
to  North  Carolina  about  one  h\mdred  years  before.  But  I 
doubt  if  many  of  them  thought  of  it  at  that  time.  Little  did 
the  families  at  the  separation  imagine  that  the  descendants 
of  the  emigrants  should  in  a  generation  or  two  return  as  in- 
vaders to  the  old  home.  To  this  day  (1900)  there  are  Ger- 
man families  around  Gettysburg  which  recognize  their  dis- 
tant kinship  to  and  occasionally  visit  their  people  who  came  to 
this  State  about  1750. 

But  to  return  to  the  subject  in  hand.  Sounds  of  strenuous 
battle  reached  us  early  on  the  morning  of  Wednesday,  1  July, 
as  we  pressed  forward  towards  Gettysburg,  the  obscure 
Dutch  town  so  soon  to  be  made  famous.  Our  brigade  (Tver- 
son's)  led  Ewell's  corps  and  was  the  first  to  become  engaged 
as  he  hurried   forward  to   succor   A.    P.    Hill,   tlien  hard 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  235 

pressed.  At  Willoughby  Run  our  Field  Officers  dis- 
mounted. Approaching  from  the  north  by  the  Heidelburg 
road  till  within  about  a  mile  of  the  field  of  battle,  we  were 
filed  off  by  the  right  flank  to  the  Mummersburg  road.  As 
we  emerged  from  the  woods  and  moved  down  the  slope  to  the 
latter  road  twenty  pieces  of  artillery  opened  on  us  with  grape, 
from  the  left,  inflicting  some  loss. 

The  Mummersburg  road  here  runs  east  and  west.  Very 
close  to  the  road  on  the  south  side  stands  the  Forney  house. 
This  house  stands  in  the  northwest  corner  of  the  Forney  field, 
which  extends  about  half  a  mile  from  the  house  along  the 
Mummersburg  road,  and  is  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  broad. 
Across  this  road  near  the  Forney  house  the  brigade  was  form- 
ed facing  east.  Along  the  path  or  eastern  side  of  the  field  and 
on  a  ridge  ran  a  stone  fence,  which  formed  part  of  the  enemy's 
line.  Behind  this  fence,  alone,  lay  hidden  from  view,  more 
men  than  our  assaulting  column  contained.  A  body  of  woods 
extended  from  the  southeastern  corner  of  the  field  for  about 
two  hundred  yards  along  its  southern  side. 

The  brigade,  about  1,450  strong,  advanced  under  artillery 
fire  through  the  open  grass  field  in  gallant  style,  as  evenly  as 
if  on  parade.  But  our  brigade  commander  (Iverson)  after  or- 
dering us  foTAvard,  did  not  follow  us  in  that  advance,  and  our 
alignment  soon  became  false.  There  seems  to  have  been  utter 
ignorance  of  the  force  crouching  behind  the  stone  wall.  For 
our  brigade  to  have  assailed  such  a  stronghold  thus  held, 
would  have  been  a  desperate  undertaking.  To  advance 
southeast  against  the  enemy,  visible  in  the  woods  at  that  cor- 
ner of  the  field,  exposing  our  left  flank  to  an  enfilading  fire 
from  the  stronghold  was  fatal.  Yet  this  is  just  what  we  did. 
And  unwarned,  unled  as  a  brigade,  went  forward  Iverson's 
deserted  band  to  its  doom.  Deep  and  long  must  the  desolate 
homes  and  orphan  children  of  North  Carolina  rue  the  rash- 
ness of  that  hour. 

When  we  were  in  point  blank  range  the  dense  line  of  the 
enemy  rose  from  its  protected  lair  and  poured  into  us  a  with- 
ering fire  from  the  front  and  both  flanks.  For  Battle's  bri- 
gade, ordered  to  protect  our  left  flank,  had  been  thrown  into 
confusion  by  the  twenty  pieces  of  artillery  and  repulsed  by 

236  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

tlie  right  wing  of  the  Federal  line  just  as  we  came  up.  This 
effected,  the  enemy  moving  under  cover  of  the  ridge  and 
woods,  disposed  his  forces  to  enfilade  our  right  from  the  woods 
just  as  our  left  was  enfiladed  from  the  stone  fence. 

Pressing  forward  with  heavy  loss  under  deadly  fire  our 
regiment,  which  was  the  second  frojn  the  right,  reached  a 
hollow  or  low  place,  running  irregularly  north,  east  and  south- 
west through  the  field.  We  were  then  about  eighty  yards 
from  the  stone  fence  to  the  left  and  somewhat  further  from 
the  woods  to  the  right,  from  both  of  which,  as  well  as  from 
the  more  distant  corner  of  the  field  in  our  front,  poured  down 
upon  us  a  pitiless  rifle  fire. 

Unable  to  advance,  unwilling  to  retreat,  the  brigade  lay 
down  in  this  hollow  or  depression  in  the  field  and  fought  as 
best  it  could.  Terrible  was  the  loss  sustained,  our  regiment 
losing  the  heaviest  of  all  in  killed,  as  from  its  position  in 
line  the  cross  enfilading  fire  seems  to  have  been  the  hottest  just 
where  it  lay.  Major  C.  C.  Blacknall  was  shot  through  the 
mouth  and  neck  before  the  advance  was  checked.  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel R.  D.  Johnson  was  desperately,  and  Colonel  D. 
H.  Christie  mortally  wounded,  as  the  line  lay  in  the  bloody 
hollow.  There,  too,  fell  every  commissioned  officer  save  one ; 
the  recorded  death-roll  footing  up  54  killed  and  82  wounded. 
The  real  loss  was  far  greater,  almost  surely  50  per  cent, 
greater.  Captain  Gr.  T.  Baskerville,  Company  I;  Lieutenant 
C.  W.  Champion,  Company  Gr,  and  Adjutant  Junius  B. 
French,  were  killed.  Captain  A.  D.  Peace,  Company  E, 
and  Lieutenant  Wm.  M.  Mundy  were  wounded.  Captain  H. 
<jr.  Turner,  Company  H,  was  wounded  and  captured.  Cap- 
tain Wm.  H.  Johnston,  Company  K,  was  captured. 

The  carnage  was  great  along  our  whole  line  which,  except 
the  Twelfth  Regiment  on  the  right,  was  at  the  mercy  of  the 
enemy.  The  Twelfth,  under  Colonel  Davis,  protected  some- 
what by  the  lay  of  the  field  and  being  further  from  the  stone 
wall,  refused  both  wings  and  fighting  to  right,  left  and 
front,  gallantly  beat  off  its  assailants  till  help  came. 

Kamseiir  was  now  hastening  to  otir  relief.  The  wary  foe 
aware  of  this,  swarmed  over  the  wall  and  rushed  down  upon 
our  weakened  line.     Leaving  the  wounded  they  drove  off 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  237 

with  bayonets  and  clubbed  muskets  49  prisoners  and  carried 
our  flag  with  thefm.  The  One  Hundred  and  First  New  York 
regiment  has  marked  with  a  stone  the  point  reached  in  this 
charge.  It  stands  about  where  the  Twenty-third  lay.  This 
rush  was  all  over  in  a  moment,  for  Ramseur  was  coming  up. 
This  gallant  officer,  had  he  continued  to  advance  as  he  started, 
straight  against  the  stone  fence,  must  have  met  with  disaster 
just  as  we  did.  It  is  said  that  Lieutenant  Crowder,  of  Com- 
pany A,  and  Lieutenant  Dugger,  of  another  regiment,  ran 
back  and  advised  him  to  file  oj0f  to  the  left  and  strike  the 
Federal  right.  At  any  rate  he  effected  this  movement  with 
brilliant  and  decisive  success.  The  enemy  saw  it  and  ap- 
prehending its  meaning,  strove  to  change  front  to  meet  him. 
They  were  too  late.  Ramseur  caught  them  in  the  act,  and  his 
rifles  silent  till  then,  enfiladed  their  line  along  the  stone  fence 
with  terrible  and  crushing  effect.  This  fire  also  killed  Rial 
Stewart,  and  perhaps  others  of  our  regiment,  who  had  just 
been  captured  and  were  being  taken  to  the  Federal  rear. 

Ramseur's  onset  began  the  enemy's  reverses  which  ended 
in  their  being  driven  back  through  the  town  of  Gettysburg 
with  the  loss  of  5,000  prisoners,  besides  many  killed  and 
wounded.  What  was  left  of  our  regiment  and  brigade  went 
forward  in  the  attack  and  pursuit.  Fire  was  opened  on  us 
from  the  houses  as  we  rushed  into  the  place,  but  we  shouted 
that  we  would  burn  the  town  unless  it  stopped.  The  firing 

General  Rodes  said  that  Iverson's  men  fought  and  died 
like  heroes.  When  the  brigade  went  from  its  position  in  the 
hollow  its  dead  and  wounded  lay  in  distinctly  marked  line 
of  battle  from  one  end  to  the  other.  The  imperfect  returns 
show  512  killed  and  wounded.  The  most  careful  estimate 
makes  it  over  750.  A  member  of  the  Twenty-third  lying 
stone  dead,  his  musket  clinched  in  his  hand  and  five  bullets 
through  his  head  attests  the  close  and  deadly  fire  under  which 
they  lay.  Thirty-five  years  after  the  battle  the  writer  found 
in  the  clay  of  the  pits  from  which  Iverson's  dead  had  been  re- 
moved to  Richmond,  flattened  bullets  which  had  evidently 
fallen  from  the  disinterred  skeletons.  The  field  was  even  then 
a  veritable  mine  of  war  relics — bullets,  grape  shot  and  pieces 

238  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861 -'65. 

of  shrapnel.  Lieutenant  George  B.  Bullock,  Company  I,  said 
that  it  was  the  only  battle — and  he  was  in  all  in  which  his 
command  was  engaged  from  Williamsburg  to  Appomattox — 
where  the  blood  ran  like  a  branch.  And  that  too,  on  the  hot, 

The  handful  left  of  our  regiment  were  not  taken  into  ac- 
tion on  the  second  or  third  day  at  Gettysburg.  While  being 
conveyed,  wounded,  on  the  retreat  through  South  Mountain 
Sunday  night.  Colonel  Christie,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Johnston 
and  Major  Blacknall  were  captured  by  Kilpatrick's  cavalry 
near  Monterey  Springs.  Christie  and  Johnston  were  rescued 
by  the  Confederate  cavalry  and  carried  to  Williamsport. 
Blacknall  escaped  on  Kilpatrick's  own  horse,  but  being  too 
badly  wounded  for  rapid  flight,  was  recaptured. 

Colonel  Christie  died  at  Winchester,  Va.,  and  in  his  native 
county,  soon  after  the  army  reached  that  place.  His  wife, 
whom  he  so  longed  to  see,  and  who  had  hastened  to  him,  ar- 
rived a  few  hours  after  he  was  buried. 


Daniel  Harvey  Christie  was  born  in  Frederick  County, 
Virginia,  28  March,  1833,  and  was  educated  at  a  military 
school.  He  became  a  citizen  of  Henderson,  N.  C,  in  1857. 
The  breaking  out  of  the  war  found  him  in  charge  of  the  Hen- 
derson Military  Institute  which  he  had  established.  His  gallant 
conduct  and  wounds  at  Seven  Pines  and  Cold  Harbor  have  al- 
ready been  mentioned. 

Although  the  latter  wound  was  very  severe,  within  sixty 
days  he  returned  to  his  command  and  devoted  himself  dili- 
gently to  the  work  of  recruiting  and  disciplining  his  regi- 
ment. At  South  Mountain  his  management  of  his  regiment 
was  such  as  to  elicit  from  General  Garland  words  of  the 
highest  praise  for  himself  and  his  regiment,  a  few  minutes 
before  Garland  fell.  After  Sharpsburg  he  commanded  An- 
derson's brigade  till  Colonel  Bryan  Grimes  reported  for  duty. 
At  Gettysburg,  his  last  battle,  Christie's  conduct  was  espe- 
cially gallant.  Here  he  held  his  men  in  position  under  a 
most  terrific  fire  for  an  hour  till  the  whole    regiment    was 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  239 

killed,  wounded  or  captured,  except  a  Lieutenant  and  sixteen 
men.  He  was  in  the  act  of  leading  a  charge  against  the 
stone  fence  when  he  fell,  with  his  men  and  officers  thick 
around  him.  Colonel  Christie  was  buried  at  Winchester, 
another  Colonel  of  the  Twenty-third  being  laid  by  his  side  a 
year  later. 


George  Thomas  Baskerville  was  born  in  Mecklenburg 
County,  Virginia,  16  October,  1827.  He  graduated  with  high 
honors  at  the  University  of  North  Carolina  at  the  age  of  17, 
being  the  valedictorian  of  his  class — delivering  his  address  in 
Latin.  About  1849,  he  became  a  citizen  of  Granville 

Captain  Baskerville  was  without  military  ambition.  But, 
impelled  by  a  strong  sense  of  duty,  he  joined  the  army  and 
was  elected  Captain  of  Company  I,  Twenty-third  North  Car- 
olina, in  1862.  Refusing  promotion  he  remained  with  his 
company,  serving  with  courage  and  ability.  Falling,  wounded 
to  death,  at  Gettysburg,  he  died  the  next  day.  His  devoted 
wife  crushed  at  the  tidings  of  his  death,  took  to  her  bed  and 
never  rose  again.  Captain  Baskerville  was  of  the  highest 
type  of  Southern  gentlemen.  He  was  a  devout  Christian,  a 
good  neighbor  and  a  devoted  husband.  His  domestic  life 
was  a  most  beautiful  one.  Plighting  their  troth  when  chil- 
dren, marrying  very  early  in  life,  their  devotion  to  each  other 
was  complete.  And  when  the  sturdy  oak  was  stricken  down, 
the  clinging  vine  fell  with  it. 

The  virtual  destruction  of  Iverson's  brigade  at  Gettysburg 
was  largely,  if  not  wholly,  owing  to  the  fact  that  it  had  no  bri- 
gade commander  on  the  field  to  govern  its  movements,  as  a 
whole,  in  accordance  with  the  exigencies  of  the  battle  and  to 
halt  it  before  it  entered,  unsuspecting,  the  deathtrap  laid  for 
it.  Iverson's  part  in  the  heroic  struggle  of  his  brigade  seems 
to  have  begun  and  ended  with  the  order  to  move  forward  and 
"Give  them  hell."  The  brigade  refusing  to  serve  under  him 
longer,  he  was  transferred  to  the  cavalry  and  Lieutenant-Col- 
onel R.  D.  Johnston  was  commissioned  brigadier  and  assumed 
command  on  8  September,  1863.     General  lyerson's  conduct 

240  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

at  Chancellorsville  had  also  been  severely  criticised.  Where 
he  was  when  Pender  led  forward  his  (Iverson's)  brigade,  has 
never  been  explained.  The  Confederate  newspapers  of  that 
period  spoke  of  strained  relations  between  Lee  and  Davis  be- 
cause Davis  refused  to  let  Lee  court-martial  the  "delinquent 
brigadiers"  for  their  action,  or  rather  non-action,  at  Gettys- 
burg.  However,  the  fact  of  any  coldness  between  them  was 


On  the  retreat  we  crossed  the  Potomac  at  Falling  Waters 
near  Williamsport,  10  July.  After  operating  in  the 
valley  for  a  short  while,  our  corps  moved  towards  Madison 
Court  House.  Here  we  rested  till  Lee's  move  9  October 
to  strike  Meade's  flank,  who  was  then  at  Culpepper  Court 
House.  On  that  march  the  Twenty-third,  Fifth  and  part  of 
the  Twelfth,  all  under  command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Davis, 
of  the  Twelfth,  crossed  the  Eapidan  at  Raccoon  Ford.  This 
detachment  was  highly  commended  for  a  gallant  charge  on  a 
battery  and  its  support.  The  regiment  sustained  loss  both  at 
Vidiersville  and  near  Brandy  Station  during  the  same  move- 

We  went  into  winter  quarters  near  Orange  Co^irt  House. 
But,  in  February,  or  March,  our  brigade  was  detached  to 
guard  bridges  over  the  JSTorth  and  South  Anna  rivers,  near 
Hanover  Court  House.  Here  we  were  recruited,  equipped, 
and  put  in  good  trim. 

In  barracks  at  Taylorsville,  near  Hanover,  with  no  enemy 
near,  the  command  had  the  only  really  good  time  during  the 
war.  The  only  thing  like  work  was  the  attempt  to  overtake 
the  raiding  force  imder  Dahlgren.  Neat  uniforms  and  even 
pleated-bosom  shirts,  long  unknown,  were  here  to  be  seen,  and 
some  of  the  boys  bent  on  luxury  in  the  extreme — thorough- 
going sybarites— actually  boarded  out.  Eating  regularly 
three  times  a  day,  keeping  dry  and  sleeping  warm  of  nights 
seem.ed  a  preposterous  thing  to  a  Confederate  soldier.  We 
even  went  into  politics.  11  March,  1864,  the  brigade  held  a 
convention  at  Taylorsville,  endorsing  Vance  as  against  Hol- 
den  and  his  treasonable  influences.     But  there  never  was  a 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  241 

dream  so  bright,  or  paradise  so  sweet  that  some  one  did  not 
come  to  spoil  it.     Grant  spoiled  ours. 

Beginning  at  midnight  of  3  May,  1864,  Grant,  now  Com- 
mander-in-Chief of  the  Federal  armies,  suddenly  threw 
nearly  120,000  men  under  Meade,  across  the  Eapidan. 
Grant's  plan  was  to  flank  Lee  out  of  his  entrenched  position 
on  Mine  Run  and  fight  him  somewhere  between  the  river  and 
Eiichmond  if  he  would  >  stand.  That  Lee  did  stand  is  at- 
tested by  the  fall  during  this  movement  of  more  Federals  than 
Lee  had  men.  Our  brigade  left  Taylorsville  at  11  a.  m., 
4  May  and  by  the  (Quickest  forced  march  on  record 
covered  sixty-six  miles  in  twenty-three  hours.  Ar'my  mules 
fell  dead  in  their  traces  under  the  severe  strain,  but  without 
stopping  for  bivouac,  or  hardly  for  rest,  we  held  out  and 
reached  the  plank  road  near  the  Wilderness  Tavern,  on 
the  5th. 

Dead  tired  as  we  were,  we  were  ordered  forward  about  sun- 
set, with  J.  B.  Gordon's  brigade.  The  movement  was  under 
Gordon's  command  and  was  directed  against  the  Federal 
right.  Driving  the  enemy  back  a  mile  or  more  with  slight 
loss  to  ourselves,  we  halted  on  the  turnpike  and  slept  as  even 
tired  soldiers  hardly  ever  slept  before.  During  the  night  of 
7  May,  Grant  began  his  flanking  movement  around  Lee's 
right.  Lee  swung  Anderson's  division  aroimd  and  headed 
him  off  at  Spottsylvania  Court  House.  It  was  while  on  the 
march  to  Spottsylvania  that  Johnston's  brigade  was,  much 
to  their  regret,  transferred  from  Rodes'  division  to  Early's, 
Early  being  assigned  temporarily  to  the  command  of  Hill's 
corps,  Gordon  commanded  the  division. 

On  the  9th,  at  Spottsylvania,  our  brigade,  with  300  or 
400  men,  made  a  reconnoissance  on  the  Confederate  right 
and  drove  back  a  division  of  Burnside's  corps,  but  seeing 
himself  nearly  enveloped  by  the  enemy  in  overwhelming 
force,  Johnston  withdrew  his  brigade  in  time  to  escape  cap- 
ture. The  Twenty-third  lost  .20  to  30  men  in  this  move. 
Sergeant  Thomas  Powell  was  wounded,  captured  and  died  a 
few  days  later  in  Washington.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Davis,  of 
the  Twelfth,  was  now  in  conimand  of  the  Twenty-third. 

242  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

About  this  time  the  brigade  now  but  a  handful,  fought  and 
ran  off  a  heavy  cavalry  force  endeavoring  to  hold  the  high  and 
open  ground  around  the  old  court  house .  at  Spottsylvania. 
The  cavalry  vs^as  a  splendid  body  and  fought  desperately,  but 
no  incident  of  the  war  was  more  relished  by  the  boys  than 
trouncing  and  chasing  that  prim  set  of  blue-coated  horsemen. 

We  took  no  part  in  the  battle  of  10  May  till  nearly  sun- 
set. The  enemy  had  broken  over  the  works  by  Dole's  bri- 
gade and  were  advancing  direct  against  General  Lee's  head- 
quarters. While  other  troops  assaulted  his  flanks,  our  bri- 
gade took  the  most  important  part  in  repelling  this  assault  of 
the  enemy.  The  men  refused  to  go  forward  till  General  Lee, 
then  on  the  field,  went  to  the  rear.  The  following  account 
of  the  battle  is  from  notes  of  Captain  A.  T.  Cole,  ,made  not 
long  after  the  war :  "About  sunset  the  enemy  broke  through 
our  line  at  an  angle  in  the  works  and  were  advancing  rapidly 
towards  General  Lee's  headquarters  then  in  sight,  and  directly 
before  them.  Our  brigade  was  doubled-quicked  by  the  right 
flank  in  column  from  behind  a  pine  thicket  where  it  had  been 
resting  and  concealed.  Emerging  suddenly  in  their  front, 
then  going  by  the  left  flank  in  line  of  battle,  we  met  and 
drove  the  enemy  back  across  the  breastworks  and  regained  sev- 
eral pieces  of  artillery  which  were  still  in  position.  Some  of 
the  Confederate  gunners  who,  concealed  in  the  cannon  pits, 
had  escaped  capture,  now  sprung  out  and  used  the  guns  very 
effectively  on  the  retreating  Federals.  Just  as  the  brigade 
faced  by  the  left  flank  and  advanced  towards  the  enemy,  T 
saw  facing  the  head  of  the  column  General  Lee  on  horseback, 
hat  in  hand,  cheering  on  the  men,  within  not  more  than  100 
yards  of  the  enemy.  The  flghting  lasted  till  probably  9 
o'clock  that  night.  Killed  and  wounded  in  our  regiment 
numbered  20  to  25." 

In  making  the  charge  Major  Brooks,  of  the  Twentieth 
JSTorth  Carolina,  and  Captain  Jos.  F.  Johnston,  Aid-de-Camp 
to  General  E,.  D.  Johnston,  were  competitors  in  a  race  for  a 
Federal  flag  which  had  been  planted  on  the  captured  Confed- 
erate works  now  held  by  three  lines  of  battle.  Brooks  reached 
out  his  hand  just  in  front  of  Johnston  and  seized  the  flag, 
carried  it  back  to  the  rear  and  presented  it  to  General  Lee 

Twenty-Thtrd  Regiment.  243 

with  the  request  that  it  be  sent  back  to  North  Carolina  as  one 
of  the  trophies  of  the  brigade.  It  was  sent  to  this  State  with 
a  letter  from  General  Lee  very  complimentary  to  North  Caro- 
lina troops. 

After  repulsing  the  attack  of  the  10th,  the  brigade  was 
again  withdrawn,  occupying  its  place  on  reserve  till  the  12th. 
Daybreak  12  May,  a  foggy,  dismal  dawn  as  May  ever 
saw,  found  us  at  the  Harris  House  half  a  mile  to  the  rear  of 
the  apex  of  Lee's  salient,  thence  forward  to  be  known  as  the 
"Bloody  Angle."  The  Confederate  line  of  fortification  swept 
around  Spottsylvania  Court  House  in  an  irregular  semi-circle 
seven  miles  long.  A  mile  due  north  of  the  Court  House  a 
spur  in  the  hills  made  it  necessary,  in  order  to  prevent  the  en- 
emy from  occupying  a  commanding  position,  to  construct  a 
great  angle  or  salient  in  the  works.  This  salient,  not  unlike 
a  huge  horse  shoe  in  shape,  was  about  three-fourths  of  a  mile 
long  and  half  a  mile  broad  at  its  base.  This  position,  with 
artilleiy,  was  strong ;  but  without,  it  was  weak.  Lee  believ- 
ing that  Grant  had  resumed  his  movement  by  the  left  flank, 
had  ordered  the  withdrawal  of  all  artillery  on  this  part  of  the 
line  not  easy  of  access.  On  the  night  of  the  11th  General  Ed. 
Johnson,  who  with  his  division  of  2,000  men,  held  the  toe  of 
the  horse  shoe,  apprehending  an  attack  from  the  movements 
in  his  front,  asked  that  the  artillery  be  returned.  The  guns 
were  just  going  back  into  position  when  at  daylight  Grant 
threw  a  solid  imass  of  20,000  men  against  Johnston's  2,000, 
taking  the  guns  before  they  could  open  fire.  The  victorious 
enemy  then  pressed  onwards  to  seize  the  whole  salient  and 
pierce  Lee's  centre.  Our  weak  brigade  in  bivouac  at  the 
Harris  House,  half  a  mile  to  the  rear,  were  the  only  troops 
immediately  available  to  stem  the  onset.  General  Gordon  at 
the  sudden  outbreak  of  battle,  threw  us  forward.  Going  for- 
ward at  the  double  quick  in  the  woods  below  the  McCool 
House  and  far  down  in  the  salient,  we  ran  upon  the  Federals 
coming  forward  in  three  dense  lines  of  battle.  Our  numbers 
were  so  few  and  the  enemy  so  strong,  the  intervening  distance 
so  short,  that  twice  Federal  Line  Officers  came  within  ten 
steps  of  us  and  demanded  the  surrender  of  the  brigade.  Our 
reply  in  both  instances  was  a  volley  that  struck  down  the  ven- 

244  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

turesome  officer  and  for  a  moment  staggered  the  oncoming 

But  what  availed  a  few  hundred  against  20,000.  The  bri- 
gade after  one  of  the  bloodiest  combats  of  the  war  and  with 
heavy  loss,  was  forced  backward  fighting  desperately  as  it 
went.  Other  troops  soon  came  up,  striking  the  invaders  on 
both  flanks.  The  brigade  reformed  and  renewed  the  battle. 
General  K.  D.  Johnston  seized  the  flag  of  the  Twenty-third 
and  ordered  a  charge.  The  brigade  rushed  forward  carrying 
the  position  in  their  front,  Johnston  falling  wounded  as  he 
planted  the  flag  on  their  works.  The  struggle  continued  with 
the  utmost  fury  till  night.  On  the  14th  Lee  withdrew  to  a 
line  of  works  constructed  across  the  base  of  the  salient.  Our 
regiment,  though  small,  contained  many  a  gallant  spirit  and 
many  heroic  deeds  were  done  on  that  dark  and  dismal  mom. 
E.  S.  (Scip.)  Hart,  the  flag  bearer  of  the  Twenty-third,  was 
especially  brave ;  again  and  again  rushing  forward  with  the 
colors,  which  were  never  for  a  moment  lowered  except  when 
Scip  was  felled  by  a  clubbed  musket  in  the  hands  of  a  stal- 
wart Yankee.  Among  the  captured  on  that  terrible  day 
was  Captain  A.  D.  Cole,  Company  A.  It  was  Captain  Cole's 
fate,  along  with  Lieutenants  Coggin  and  Bullock,  to  form 
three  of  the  six  hundred  officers  which  the  Federals  placed  un- 
der the  Confederate  fire  at  Charleston  for  several  weeks  in 
1864,  and  to  endure  the  horrible  tortures  inflicted  on  them  by 
starvation  at  Port  Royal  a  little  later.  The  minute  stint  of 
spoiled  meal — a  gill  a  day — and  pickle  on  which  they  sub- 
sisted for  forty  days  ended  by  killing  Lieutenant  Coggin 
and  bringing  Captain  Cole  to  death's  door  and  keeping  him 
there  for  agonizing  months  and  even  years.  This  too,  crown- 
ing three  years  of  gallant  service  in  the  field.  To  few,  if  any, 
of  all  the  sons  of  the  South  was  it  given  to  endure  more  and 
suffer  more  in  her  defense  than  did  this  gallant  officer. 


After  the  Bloody  Angle  fight  our  brigade  was  engaged  in 
the  battle  of  the  19th.  Colonel  C.  C.  Blacknall,  commis- 
sioned Colonel  15  August,  1863,  had  been  exchanged  in  May, 
and  after  commanding  a  brigade  at  Petersburg  for  several 
weeks,  joined  his  regiment  about  1  June  and  assumed  com- 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  245 

mand.  Leaving  camp  near  Cold  Harbor  at  3  a.  m.  18  June 
1864,  we  went  with  the  corps  now  commanded  by  Early, 
on  the  Valley  campaign.  Marching  to  the  railroad  at  Char- 
lottesville we  took  cars  for  Lynchburg,  on  which  Hunter  was 
rapidly  advancing.  We  arrived  just  in  the  nick  of  time  to 
save  the  town.  Passing  at  double  quick  through  the  streets, 
within  twenty  minutes  after  leaving  the  cars  we  were  skir- 
mishing with  Hunter's  advance  guard. 

Lieutenant  Crowder,  the  same  officer  whose  suggestion  to 
General  Ramseur  at  Gettysburg  proved  of  so  much  value,  and 
a  brave  and  efficient  officer,  was  severely  wounded  that  night 
whole  posting  the  picket  lines. 

Skirmishing  at  Liberty  and  driving  Hunter  across  to  Salem 
and  westward  into  the  mountains.  Early  wheeled  suddenly  up 
the  valley. 

There  was  a  little  loitering  to  see  what  Hunter  would  do, 
during  which  the  army  making  a  detour  crossed  the  Natural 
bridge  and  rested  there  a  few  hours,  which  detour  to  see  the 
bridge  was  put  to  a  vote  of  the  men  and  earned  by  a 
small  majority.  Leg-weariness  is  a  great  stifler  to  curiosity. 
However,  pretty  soon  the  race  up  the  valley  begun.  Staun- 
ton was  reached  27  June.  Pressing  rapidly  forward  we 
reached  Harper's  Ferry  on  4  July.  Our  advance  had  been 
so  rapid  and  unexpected  that  we  here  surprised  and  broke  up 
a  Fourth  of  July  celebration,  our  advance  guard  eating  with 
appetites  whetted  by  hard  marching,  the  feast  not  intended 
for  us.  As  the  enemy  held  the  heights  beyond  the  river  and 
commanded  the  approaches  to  Harper's  Ferry  with  artillery, 
only  the  skirmish  line  went  into  the  toA'S'n,  except  a  few  ven- 
turesome officers  who  galloped  do^\m  that  night,  fired  on  in 
every  moonlit  stretch  by  the  Federal  guns.  Crossing  the 
Potomac  a  few  miles  above,  our  forces  for  a  few  days  made 
feints  here  and  there  to  confuse  the  enemy  as  to  our  designs. 

But,  finally,  we  dashed  off  for  Washington.  On  9  July 
we  met  Lew  Wallace  at  Monocacy  Junction,  near  Frederick, 
Maryland,  who  gave  battle  to  bar  our  way  to  the  Federal 
Capital.  Resisting  our  advance  through  the  town,  Wallace 
made  a  determined  stand  at  Monocacy  river. 

Wliile   Gordon's   Division  crossed  the  river   and   strviek 

246  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

the  enemy's  right  flank,  Johnston's  brigade  was  ordered  to 
capture  a  block  house  on  the  other  side  of  the  Baltimore  and 
Ohio  Eailroad.  A  considerable  force  of  the  enemy  were  in 
a  railroad  cut  and  perfectly  protected.  The  Twenty-third 
under  Colonel  Blacknall,  made  a  dash  for  the  block  house, 
but  were  met  by  a  hot  enfilading  fire  from  the  line  of  battle  in 
the  railroad  cut.  A  heavy  battery  across  the  river  also  swept 
them  with  a  raking  fire.  Captain  W.  C.  Wall,  Company  F, 
was  severely  wounded.  Colonel  Blacknall  was  stunned  for  the 
moment  by  an  impact  of  a  bullet  on  the  head,  which  fortu- 
nately did  not  penetrate,  and  the  regiment  was  driven  back. 

Upon  the  failure  of  the  Twenty-third  to  carry  the  block- 
house. General  Johnston  ordered  Colonel  Davis,  of  the 
Twelfth,  to  carry  it.  Colonel  Davis  says:  "General  John- 
ston was  not  in  a  good  humor  and  I  was  suffering  (sick)  so 
that  I  could  hardly  walk.  However,  I  went  forward  to  the 
ravine  (not  knowing  of  the  cause  of  the  falling  back  of  the 
Twenty-third)  and  here  halted  and  had  picked  men  as  videttes 
to  reconnoitre  and  see  all  they  could.  Finding  about  the 
line  of  battle  on  the  railroad,  I  sent  General  Johnston  a  mes- 
sage that  if  I  advanced  I  would  expose  by  men  to  an  en- 
filade fire  and  that  if  he  would  dislodge  the  line  of  battle  in 
the  railroad  cut,  I  could  take  the  house  without  loss  of  men. 
I  never  heard  from  General  Johnston.  In  the  -meantime  the 
fight  was  going  on  on  the  other  side  (of  the  river)  between 
Wallace,  of  Ben  Hur  fame,  and  Gordon.  Three  lines  of  bat- 
tle engaged  Gordon's  one,  and  now  General  Wallace  begins 
to  retreat.  His  men  on  our  side  then  had  to  pass  over  quickly 
or  be  taken.  I  moved  forward,  and  as  we  struck  the  bridge 
on  one  side  the  enemy  were  clearing  it  on  the  other."  This 
rapid  retreat  of  the  enemy  was  also  expedited  by  a  company 
that  passed  under  a  culvert  and  opening  a  flank  fire  on  the 
cut,  drove  the  enemy  out. 

Wallace  was  defeated,  with  the  loss  of  700  prisoners — our 
casualties  being  about  the  same — and  thrown  back  upon  Bal- 
timore. The  way  thus  opened  we  advanced  a  forced  Sun- 
day march  on  Washington.  Hot,  jaded  and  footsore,  we 
arrived  in  sight  of  that  city  and  only  three  miles  distant  at 
3  p.  m.  on  Monday,  11  July.     The  day  was  one  of  overpower- 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  247 

ing  heat.  The  troops  were  too  completely  exhausted 
with  hard  marching  to  have  been  ejBfective  in  imme- 
diate attack.  A  reconnoissance  was  made  Tuesday,  but 
the  works  were  too  strongly  manned  for  our  10,000 
men  to  carry.  In  the  reconnoissance  Melville  Holmes, 
a  lad  belonging  to  Company  G,  of  our  regiment,  is  said  to 
have  fallen  nearer  to  the  works  of  the  Federal  Capital  than 
any  other  Confederate  soldier  of  the  war.  This  is  also  said 
to  have  been  the  only  instance  in  the  history  of  the  country 
in  which  a  President  of  the  United  States  appeared  on  a  field 
of  battle.  Mr.  Lincoln  came  out  to  the  works  on  Tuesday  to 
view  the  situation  and  a  surgeon  was  shot  very  close  to  his 
side  by  Confederate  sharpshooters. 

Our  brigade  bivouacked  in  the  grove  of  the  famous  Blair 
mansion.  Here  an  11 -inch  shell  from  fort  Massachusetts 
burst  in  the  midst  of  the  officers'  mess  at  noon  on  the  12th, 
fortunately  with  no  worse  result  than  knocking  the  food  out 
of  some  of  their  hands.  The  unauthorized  burning  of  Gen- 
eral Blair's  house,  if  done  by  Confederates  at  all,  was  the 
work  of  stragglers.  Though  there  is  a .  strong  probability 
that  it  was  ignited  by  shells  from  the  fort  that  made  our  din- 
ner party  its  target. 

Early's  division  had  now  effected  all  that  could  be  ex- 
pected in  drawing  troops  from  Grant's  hosts  around  Rich- 
mond. Federal  troops  were  now  hastening  to  close  the 
passes  of  South  Mountain  and  the  fords  of  the  Potomac  in 
his  rear.  Therefore  after  maintaining  a  threatening  attitude 
against  Washington  all  day  of  the  12th,  and  driving  in  a 
strong  reconnoitering  force  from  the  works,  he  retreated  at 
dark  without  molestation.  Passing  swiftly  through  Rock- 
ville  and  Poolsville,  we  crossed  the  Potomac  at  White  Ford, 
near  Leesburg,  on  the  morning  of  the  14th,  bringing  off  all 
prisoners  and  captures  in  safety. 

Resting  on  the  14th  and  15th  near  Leesburg,  on  the  16th 
we  resumed  the  march  through  Snicker's  Gap  to  the  valley, 
the  enemy  following.  Occasionally  we  had  a  skirmish  with 
their  cavalry. 

248  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

the  valley  campaign. 

By  this  time  the  Federals  were  in  strong  force  at  Harper's 
Ferry.  Moving  by  Hillsboro  in  Loudon  County,  they  struck 
our  wagon  trains  on  the  16th,  inflicting  some  damage.  We 
were  engaged  in  the  brush  that  drove  them  off.  On  the 
morning  of  the  iTth,  we  crossed  the  Shenandoah  at  Castle- 
man's  Ferry  and  took  position  at  Berryville,  our  division 
with  that  of  Kodes,  guarding  the  Harper's  Ferry  road. 
There  was  skirmishing  with  the  enemy  on  the  Shenandoah. 
On  the  night  of  the  19th  our  division,  Eamseur  now  in  com- 
mand, was  moved  back  towards  Winchester  to  protect  the 
town  from  the  now  aggressive  Federals.  On  the  20th  Ram- 
seur  moved  upon  Stephenson  depot,  near  Winchester,  to  at- 
tack Averill.  The  division  while  moving  by  the  flank,  was 
suddenly  assailed  by  a  large  force  of  Averill's  cavalry  ad- 
vancing in  line  of  battle.  Thus  surprised,  the  division  was 
thrown  into  disorder.  But  Colonel  Jackson  made  a  gallant 
charge  with  his  cavalry  and  E,amseur  rallying  his  men, 
Averill  was  driven  off. 

The  Richmond  Sentinel  printed  about  this  time  a  commu- 
nication very  disparaging  to  the  North  Carolina  troops,  and 
especially  to  Johnston's  brigade,  exalting  Pegram's  Virginia 
brigade  at  their  expense.  In  a  word  it  was  claimed  that  John- 
ston's men  ran  without  firing  a  gun  and  that  Pegram's  re- 
doubtables  alone  saved  them  from  annihilation.  Colonel  C. 
C.  Blacknall  in  a  letter  a  few  days  after  the  battle,  after  re- 
ferring to  the  false  and  deprecatory  account  of  the  affair  as 
published  in  The  Sentinel,  says:  "The  truth  of  the  mat- 
ter and  which  will  be  attested  by  every  gentleman  who  was 
present,  was  as  follows :  General  Ramseur  marched  the  divis- 
ion down  the  Winchester  road  and  from  the  reports  of  the 
officer  commanding  our  cavalry  in  front,  was  led  to  believe 
that  the  enemy  in  small  force  were  at  a  point  more  distant 
than  we  found  them  to  be  after  reaching  the  body  of  woods 
where  our  cavalry  were  in  line  of  battle.  General  Ramseur 
formed  Hoke's  Brigade  on  the  left  and  Johnston's  on  the 
right  of  the  road.  Pegram  being  in  the  rear  when  we  sud- 
denly found  the  enemy  in  a  field,  immediately  in  our  f]-ont, 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  249 

■we  advanced  and  engaged  him  without  hesitation,  our  men 
advancing  under  a  heavy  and  destructive  fire  in  splendid 
style.  The  enemy's  line  in  the  meantime  overlapping  Hoke's 
left  and  pouring  into  his  flank  a  heavy  enfilade  fire  which 
caused  his  left  regiment  to  give  way,  the  panic  being  commu- 
nicated to  the  other  regiments  of  the  brigade,  each  one  in  turn 
falling  back  hastily  and  in  some  confusion.  While  this  was 
going  on,  Johnston's  Brigade  was  steadily  advancing,  having 
broken  the  enemy's  line  in  our  front  and  caused  him  to  fall 
back  before  our  advancing  column.  The  left  of  our  brigade, 
the  Twelfth  and  Twenty-third  Regiments,  had  advanced  to 
within  sixty  yards  of  the  enemy's  line  of  battle,  and  every 
toan  was  standing  up  manfully  when  our  left  was  suddenly 
uncovered  by  the  falling  back  of  Hoke's  brigade,  the  enemy 
pouring  in  a  large  force  immediately  on  our  flank.  Our  lit- 
tle brigade  being  alone  and  unsupported  were,  from  the  na- 
tiire  of  the  case,  compelled  to  retreat  or  be  captured,  as  we 
could  not  resist  the  immense  odds  which  were  hurled 
against  us. 

"Pegram's  Brigade  being  in  the  rear  of  Hoke's,  joined  in 
the  race  and  made  its  escape  from  the  place  of  danger  as  fast 
as  heels  could  carry  them  without  even  attempting  to  make 
a  stand.  After  falling  back  to  the  railroad,  some  distance,  it 
was  thought  necessary  to  make  a  stand  to  cover  the  retreat 
when  the  Twelfth  and  Twenty-third  ;N"orth  Carolina  Regi- 
ments, commanded  respectively  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Davis 
and  'myself  were  the  only  troops  that  could  be  rallied;  all 
the  rest  of  the  division  retreating  in  much  disorder  to  the 
fortifications.  When  we  marched  back  to  the  line  where  the 
troops  had  been  halted,  we  found  Pegram's  Brigade  had 
gotten  there  some  time  before  us,  although  the  world  has 
been  informed  through  the  papers  that  they  covered  our  re- 
treat. General  Ramseur  stated  to  General  Early  tliat  'John- 
ston's Brigade  whipped  everything  in  its  front  and  was  last 
to  leave  the  field,'  which  is  known  to  be  true  by  every  man 
who  was  engaged  in  this  unfortunate  affair.  The  enemy  had 
many  killed  and  wounded  in  our  immediate  front,  which  in- 
dicated very  conclusively  that  we  were  not  stampeded  without 

250  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

firing  a  gun  as  these  veracious  correspondents  would  make 
the  readers  believe." 

In  Early's  victory  over  Crook  at  Kernstown,  24  July, 
our  division  was  sent  to  the  left  to  get  around  Crook's  right 
flank  at  Bartonsville.  Crook  here  occupied  exactly  the  same 
position  that  Shields  did  when  Jackson  fought  him  23  March, 
1862.  The  result  of  the  battle  was  that  Crook  was  defeated 
and  driven  back  in  great  rout. 

Then  followed  much  arduous  marching  and  counter-march- 
ing to  meet  and  check  the  strong  and  active  force  which  was 
placed  under  Sheridan's  command  early  in  August.  The 
open  valley  country  with  its  excellent  roads  gave  great  facil- 
ity for  the  advantageous  use  of  cavalry,  in  which  Sheridan 
was  overwhelmingly  strong.  Our  boys  also  did  much  hard 
work  in  reaping,  threshing  and  grinding  grain  for  food.  This 
labor  could  often  be  done  only  under  the  protection  of  our 
guns.  The  Kichmond  Examiner  grew  facetious  over  the 
merry  harvesting  time  Early's  men  were  having  in  the  valley. 
Colonel  Blacknall,  writing  under  date  of  28  August,  1864, 
says :  "You  have  seen,  perhaps,  some  facetious  descriptions 
of  our  doings  and  not  doing  in  the  Richmond  Examiner.  The 
descriptions  are  drawn  in  the  Examiner's  inimitable  style  and 
quite  laughable  withal  to  one  at  a  distance.  Still  the  'frugal 
swains'  and  the  'gentle  shepherds'  have  not  had  quite  so  gay 
and  festive  a  time  as  one  might  imagine ;  we  have,  it  is  true, 
been  engaged  in  reaping  and  thrashing  and  gathering  supplies 
from  the  teeming  abundance  in  the  country;  but  the  piping 
and  fiddling  and  feasting  and  frolicldng,  exist  in  the  editor's 
fertile  imagination.  The  lowing  and  bleating  herd  are  the 
beef  cattle  which  affords  some  very  tough  steak  and  the  mean- 
dering, bubbling  streams  and  gentle  flowing' rivulets  are  often 
very  muddy  pools  from  which  man  and  mules  all  drink  indis- 
criminately, neither  thinking  themselves  better  than  the 
other.  If,  however,  any  gentleman  is  disposed  to  believe 
that  this  is  a  gay  thing,  all  I  can  say  to  him  is,  that  we  have 
a  good  opening  for  any  such  to  come  and  try  it." 


The  battle  of  Winchester  found  our  little  army  in  the  val- 

Twenty-Thikd  Regiment.  251 

ley  divided.  General  Early  has  been  much  criticised  for  al- 
lowing his  force  to  be  attacked  in  detail — for  "fighting  by 
divisions,"  as  General  Lee  termed  it.  But  the  broad  open 
valley  country  vrith  its  many  roads  along  which  the  strong  and 
active  Federal  cavalry  could  operate  on  his  communications, 
prevented  that  concentration  which  would  have  made  the 
Confederate  force  a  unit.  For  Early,  with  8,000  muskets, 
2,500  cavalry  and  1,000  artillery  had,  as  best  he  could,  to 
hold  the  valley  against  Sheridan's  35,000  infantry,  nearly 
10,000  cavalry  and  an  artillery  force  nearly  or  quite  as  large 
in  proportion  to  his  army  as  Early's  was.  Round  numbers 
are  given,  as  the  exact  numbers  are  not  known,  but  they  are 
very  close.  Sheridan's  numbers  as  given  by  Judge  Mont- 
gomery, are  considerably  below  those  usually  accepted. 

Sunday  night,  18  September,  1864,  found  Ramseur's  divis- 
ion out  on  the  Berryville  Pike  east  of  Winchester.  John- 
ston's Brigade  was  in  advance  with  the  Twenty-third  Regi- 
ment, thrown  out  on  picket  near  the  edge  of  the  woods  that 
skirt  the  Opequon.  Their  position  was  a  little  north  of  the 
pike,  but  very  near  to  it  and  a  mile  or  more  from  the  stream. 
As  the  enemy  was  known  to  be  in  force  just  over  the  creek, 
the  men  were  told  that  they  now  occupied  the  exact  position 
in  which  a  Georgia  Regiment  had  been  captured  and  were 
ordered  to  be  on  the  alert. 

The  mounted  videttes  at  the  ford  of  the  Opequon  must 
have  been  captured  or  eluded,  for  at  earliest  da^vn  Sheridan's 
troopers  swarmed  up  out  of  the  ravine  around  the  advance 
pickets  of  the  Twenty-third,  so  quickly  that  the  pickets  barely 
had  time  to  fire  before  the  horsemen  were  in  their  midst.  A. 
few  minutes  later  an  overwhelming  force  of  cavalry,  closely 
followed  by  infantry,  charged  our  weak  regiment.  Disput- 
ing every  inch  of  ground,  making  stand  after  stand,  we  were 
driven  back  upon  the  brigade  and  that  back  upon  the  division. 
In  one  of  these  stops  Colonel  Blacknall  received  his  mortal 
wound  and  was  borne  back  into  Winchester. 

General  Bradley  T.  Johnston  gives  the  following  vivid 
picture  of  that  gallant  twilight  combat:  "By  daylight,  the 
19th  of  September,  a  scared  cavalryman  of  my  own  command 
nearly  rode  over  me  as  I  lay  sleeping  on  the  grass  and  reported 

252  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

that  the  Yankees  were  advancing  with  a  heavy  force  of  in- 
fantry, artillery  and  cavalry,  up  the  Berryville  road.  John- 
ston and  I  were  responsible  for  keeping  Sheridan  out  of 
Winchester  and  protecting  the  Confederate  line  of  retreat  and 
communication  up  the  valley.  In  two  minutes  the  command 
was  mounted  and  moving  at  a  trot  across  the  open  fields  to 
the  Berryville  road  and  to  Johnston's  assistance.  There  was 
not  a  fence,  nor  a  tree,  nor  a  bush  to  obscure  view.  We  could 
see  the  crest  of  a  hill,  covered  with  a  cloud  of  cavalry  and  in 
front  of  them — 500  yards  in  front — ^was  a  thin  grey  line 
moving  off  in  retreat,  solidly  and  in  perfect  coolness  and  self- 
possession.  *  *  A  regiment  of  cavalry  would  deploy  into 
line  and  their  bugle  would  sound  the  "charge"  and  they'd 
swoop  down  on  the  "thin  grey  line  of  North  Carolina."  The 
instant  the  Yankee  bugles  sounded,  North  Carolina  (John- 
ston's Brigade)  would  halt,  face  by  the  rear  rank,  wait  until 
the  horses  got  within  100  yards  and  then  fire  as  deliberately 
and  coolly  as  if  firing  volleys  on  brigade  drill.  The  cavalry 
would  breali  and  scamper  back  and  North  Carolina  would 
"about  face"  and  continue  her  march  in  retreat  as  solemnly 
and  with  as  much  dignity  as  if  marching  in  review.  But  we 
got  there  just  in  time — that  is  to  engage  cavalry  with  cavalry, 
and  held  Sheridan  in  check  until  Johnston  had  got  back  to  the 
rest  of  the  infantry  and  formed  in  line  at  right  angles  to  the 
Pike  east  of  Winchester." 

Johnston  reached  his  supports,  though  with  loss,  and  from 
then  till  10  o'clock  Eamseur's  weak  division  of  1,700  men, 
unaided  except  by  Lomax's  and  Jackson's  cavalry,  held  the 
foe  at  bay.  Bend  this  line  perforce  must,  under  the  onset 
of  Sheridan's  immense  force,  but  breaJc  it  did  not.  At  10 
Kodes'  division  came  up  and  a  little  later  Gordon's.  And 
all  through  that  splendid  autumnal  day  the  battle  held.  His- 
tory calls  it  the  battle  of  Winchester.  Locally  it  is  known  as 
the  battle  of  Hackwood  from  the  Hackwood  farm  on  which  it 
was  fought. 

Before  noon  the  Federals  were,  by  a  bold  assault,  driven 
back  in  disorder.  But  it  had  been  at  fearftil  cost.  Bodes 
and  many  other  gallant  ofiicers  had  fallen,  and  the  Confeder- 
ate forces  were  too  worn  out  by  marching  and  fighting  and  too 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  253 

weakened  by  losses  to  take  full  advantage  of  Sheridan's  dis- 
comfiture. And  a  little  later  a  fresh  corps  were  hurled 
against  our  necessarily  long  and  attenuated  line.  Thus,  as 
morning  wore  to  evening,  continued  the  strife.  By  strenuous 
and  desperate  fighting  Sheridan's  hosts  were  held  at  bay  in 

But  troops  thus  beset  could  not  be  expected  to  bear  un- 
moved an  attack  in  the  rear.  When  late  in  the  day  two  divis- 
ions of  Federal  cavalry  drove  in  the  weak  force  guarding  the 
Martinsburg  road  and  pressed  forward  to  the  outskirts  of 
Winchester  in  the  rear  of  our  left,  Early's  line  wavered, 
broke,  and  the  army  were  driven  back.  General  Early  dis- 
tinctly says  that  our  division,  Ramseur's,  fell  back  on  the 
right  in  good  order,  taking  position  to  keep  in  line  with  the 
other  troops.  Indeed  those  movements  must  have  been  ef- 
fected with  great  steadiness  for  the  division  was  taken  for 
the  left  wing  of  the  eneany  advancing  to  envelope  the  Confed- 
erate right  on  which  lay  the  line  of  retreat  and  the  report 
came  near  causing  a  panic  at  another  part  of  the  line. 

Night  approached  and  the  Confederate  line  crumbled  un- 
der repeated  assaults  in  front  and  flank.  General  Early  in 
his  memoirs,  says :  "ISTothing  was  now  left  for  us  but  to  re- 
tire through  Winchester,  and  Kamseur's  division,  which 
maintained  its  organization,  was  moved  from  the  east  of  the 
town  to  the  south  side  of  it,  and  put  in  position,  forming  the 
basis  for  a  new  line,  while  the  other  troops  moved  back 
through  the  town.  *  *  When  the  new  line  was  formed 
the  enemy's  advance  was  checked  until  nightfall  and  we  re- 
tired to  Newton  without  serious  molestation. 

The  exact  doings  of  the  Twenty-third  on  that  hard 
foughten  field  have  not  been  recorded.  All  that  is  known  is 
that  it  stood  firmly,  fighting  manfully  among  Ramseur's 
1,700  heroes. 

Lomax  had  held  the  enemy's  cavalry  on  the  Front  Royal 
road  in  check  and  a  feeble  attempt  at  pursuit  was  repulsed  by 
Ramseur  near  Kernstown.  The  army  retreated  that  night  to 
Newton.  At  daylight  we  moved  to  Fisher's  Hill  without  mo- 

Colonel  Blacknall  being  too  painfully  wounded  for  hasty 

254  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

removal,  was  left  in  Winchester,  where  his  wounds  terminated 


Charles  Christopher  Blacknall  was  born  in  Granville 
County,  N.  C,  December  4,  1830. 

His  grandfather,  Thomas  Blacknall,  of  Virginia,  was,  at 
16,  a  soldier  under  Washington.  His  grandfather's  grand- 
father, the  "Eeverend  John  Blacknall,  Gent'n,"  though  later 
of  Virginia,  was  one  of  the  first  Episcopal  clergymen  to  of- 
ficiate in  JSTorth  Carolina.  Thence  through  English  country 
gentlemen  of  record,  his  lineage  runs  back  to  the  Blacknalls 
of  Wing,  Buckinghamshire,  whose  armorial  bearings  were 
two  centuries  old  when  Columbus  sailed  to  discover  the  new- 

Charles  Blacknall  was  educated  for  the  law,  but  never  prac- 
ticed. When  the  war  came  he  promptly  raised  and 
was  elected  Captain  of  the  Granville  Eifles,  which  became 
Company  G,  of  the  Thirteenth,  later  the  Twenty-third  North 
Carolina  Regiment.  15  June,  1862,  he  was  commissioned 
Major  and  15  August,  1863,  Colonel  of  the  regiment. 

His  gallantry  at  Yorktown,  Williamsburg,  Seven  Pines, 
Chancellorsville  and  Gettysburg,  and  his  severe  wounds  at 
Seven  Pines  and  Gettysburg  and  his  capture,  escape,  and  re- 
capture after  the  latter  battle,  have  already  been  told  in  the 
body  of  the  sketch.  Severe  illness  contracted  while  on  duty 
in  the  Chickahominy  swamps  prostrated  him  and  kept  him 
out  of  the  Sharpsburg  campaign.  Only  disabling  wounds  or 
prison  bars  kept  him  from  participating  in  all  battles  in 
which  his  command  engaged  up  to  his  death. 

Few,  if  any,  JSTorth  Carolinians  had  a  more  romantic  or 
eventful  military  career  than  the  subject  of  this  sketch.  Soon 
after  his  recapture  on  the  retreat  from  p-ettysburg  and  while 
imprisoned  atFort  McHenry,  near  Baltimore,  lotswere  drawn 
to  select  a  Confederate  ofiicer  to  be  hung  in  retaliation  for  a 
Federal  officer  about  to  be  executed  in  Richmond  as  a  spy. 
Colonel  Blacknall  drew  the  black  bean.  Though  finally 
spared,  it  was  only  after  a  long  suspense. 

Then  followed  a  rigorous  imprisonment    at    Johnston's 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  255 

Island,  Lake  Erie,  during  the  severe  winter  of  1863-'64. 
Driven  to  desperation  by  cold  and  hunger  the  eighteen  hmi- 
dred  Confederate  officers  there  imprisoned,  planned  an  escape 
to  Canada.  Colonel  Blacknall,  well  known  to  be  ever  for- 
ward in  the  charge,  was  elected  one  of  the  officers  to  lead  the 
forlorn  hope  in  the  assault  with  brick-bats  against  the  guards 
on  the  wall  that  encircled  the  prison.  But  there  was  in  their 
midst  a  Federal  spy,  disguised  as  a  Confederate  officer. 
Their  plans  were  betrayed  and  the  guards  so  heavily  rein- 
forced, that  men  even  as  desperate  as  they  were,  could  see 
no  hope  of  success. 

His  name  standing  alphabetically  near  the  head  of  the  list, 
he  was  paroled  in  March,  1864,  before  the  cartel  was 
stopped.  Exchanged  early  in  May,  he  started  for  his  com- 
mand the  day  that  the  Federals  cut  the  Weldon  road  at  Stony 

Apprised  of  this  on  reaching  Weldon,  he  returned  to  Kit- 
trell,  his  home,  and  without  arousing  his  family,  took  horse 
at  midnight  and  hastened  to  Petersburg.  Arriving  there,  he 
was  placed  in  command  of  a  brigade,  but  ordered  back  to  his 
regiment  before  it  went  with  Early's  force  to  the  Valley. 

In  all  the  arduous  marching  and  counter  marching,  and  in 
the  battles  and  countless  skirmishes  of  this  strenuous  cam- 
paign. Colonel  Blacknall  took  an  active  part  till  mortally 
wounded  early  on  September  19,  1864.  On  the  evening  of 
the  18th,  his  regiment  was  placed  on  outpost  duty  on  the  Ber- 
ryville  pike,  two  or  three  miles  east  of  Winchester.  The 
writer  of  this  (V.  E.  Turner)  spent  that  night  with  him 
under  a  simple  fly  tent.  At  dawn  on  the  19th,  sharp  firing 
on  his  advanced  picket  line  told  that  the  expected  attack  had 
begun.  At  this  Colonel  Blacknall  rode  hastily  to  the  front 
to  direct  his  regiment  in  the  encounter.  He  remained  mounts 
ed  and  held  his  small  force  pluckily  against  the  heavy  ad- 
vancing columns  of  the  enemy.  In  the  midst  of  this  and 
while  being  borne  back  by  overwhelming  superiority  of  num- 
bers, but  contesting  every  inch.  Colonel  Blacknall  received  a 
severe  and  acutely  painful  wound  in  the  ankle,  and  was  car- 
ried back  to  Winchester.  The  surgeons  disagreed  as  to  the 
necessity  of  amputating  the  foot  to  save  his  life,  and  his  wish 

266  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

to  save  it  was  yielded  to.  It  being  deemed  risky  to  carry  him 
in  the  retreat,  he  was  left  in  Winchester  when  the  army  fell 
back  at  the  close  of  the  day.  So  much  interest  was  felt  in  his 
behalf  that  the  hospital  steward  was  ordered  to  remain  and 
take  care  of  him. 

That  was  the  last  seen  of  the  gallant  Colonel  by  his  friends 
of  the  regiment.  The  foot  was  amputated  by  Federal  sur- 
geons, but  too  late  to  save  his  life.  Tenderly  nursed  by  the 
devoted  women  of  Winchester,  he  lingered  for  six  weeks  and 
sij^  days,  dying  JSTovember  6,  1864.  By  a  singular  coinci- 
dence death  came  to  him  in  the  house  of  a  Washington  (Mrs, 
Byrd  Washington)  and  on  the  site  of  Washington's  old  fort 
(Fort  Loudon)  built  in  the  French  Indian  War. 

Colonel  Blacknall  was  buried  by  the  side  of  Colonel 
Christie,  his  predecessor  in  command  of  the  regiment — par 
nohile  fratrum. 

Colonel  Blacknall  was  a  man  of  varied  gifts.  He  loved  let- 
ters and  his  reading  had  been  considerable  and  of  the  best. 
He  was  a  strong  and  graceful  writer  and  a  ready  and  eloquent 
speaker.  To  few  of  the  children  of  men  has  been  given  as 
much  personal  magnetism.  During  his  three  and  a  half 
years'  service  as  a  soldier  no  one  in  the  regiment  was  more  be- 
loved ;  no  one  behaved  more  gallantly ;  no  one  endured  the 
deprivation  and  hardships  of  army  life  more  cheerfully. 

Courage  was  the  common  staple  of  Confederate  soldier- 
hood.  But  Charles  Blacknall  had  a  command  of  faculty  and 
an  ability  to  think  and  act  in  an  emergency  possessed  by  few. 
One  who  knew  him  well  spoke  of  him  as  one  of  the  few  thor- 
oughly chivalrotis  men  that  he  ever  knew;  another  as  the 
ideal  Confederate  officer.  A  chapter  of  Daughters  of  the 
Confederacy  at  Kittrell,  Vance  County  (formerly  a  part  of 
G-ranville  County)  Colonel  Blacknall's  home,  has  been  named 
for  him. 

General  Pegram  was  now  placed  in  command  of  our  divis- 
ion, Ramseur  being  placed  in  command  of  Rodes'  division 
after  the  death  of  that  officer.  Captain  Frank  Bennett,  Com- 
pany A,  by  seniority  of  rank,  assumed  command  of  the 
Twenty-third  on  the  fall  of  Colonel  Blacknall. 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  257 


22  September  Sheridan,  who  had  followed  us  and  occu- 
pied our  front  in  force,  threw  Crook's  corps  on  the  left  flank 
of  our  line  which,  even  when  stretched  to  the  utmost,  was  too 
short  to  occupy  the  position  held.  Driving  back  Lomax's 
weak  line  of  dismounted  cavalry.  Crook  advanced  against 
Eamseur's  left  flank.  Desperate  efforts  were  made  to  throw 
Ramseur's  brigades  and  then  our  division  (Pegram's)  into 
line  to  the  left.  But  this  movement  in  the  face  of  a  vastly 
superior  enemy,  could  not  be  effected  without  disorder.  Crook 
taking  advantage  of  this,  advanced,  and  after  a  brief  contact 
forced  the  whole  army  back  in  confusion,  capturing  eleven 
of  Early's  guns. 

The  Confederate  foot  soldier  was  not  noted  for  his  admira- 
tion or  his  respect  for  his  compatriot  who  bestrode  a  horse. 
Early's  foot  soldiers'  love  for  a  cavalryman  was  even  below 
the  Confederate  average.  Sheridan's  horse  was  so  much 
stronger  in  numbers  and  equipments  than  ours,  and  the  na- 
ture of  the  country  gave  this  superiority  such  opportunity, 
that  our  cavalry,  gallant  fellows  as  they  were,  had  no  showing 
and  cut  a  poor  figure.  But  the  man  who  trudged  and  toted  a 
musket,  made  none  of  these  allowances  for  his  mounted  broth- 
ers, who  dashed  hither  and  thither  with  no  object  apparent  to 
prejudiced  eyes,  except  that  of  keeping  as  much  space  as 
possible  between  themselves  and  the  foe. 

For  some  cause  known  only  to  their  whimsical  philosophy, 
Imboden's  cavalry  was  an  especial  object  of  their  disesteem. 
By  way  of  derision  they  called  it  "Jimboden's"  cavalry.  The 
confidence  in  General  Early  had  met  with  that  impairment 
which  is  almost  sure  to  be  the  lot  of  the  unsuccessful  leader, 
no  matter  from  what  cause.  This  spirit  in  the  troops  mani- 
fested itself  at  Fisher's  Hill  in  the  most  droUy  humorous  in- 
cident of  the  writer's  whole  war  exprience.  Close  beside  the 
road  along  which  the  troops  poured  in  confusion,  a  ragged,  de- 
jected, unkempt  "Confed"  crouched  over  a  little  fire,  regard- 
ing naught,  absorbed  alone  in  warming  numbed  fingers  and 
toes,  for  the  day  was  chilly.  As  he  crouched  and  shivered  he 

258  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

droned  a  song  in  whose  tone  disgust,  despair  and  disdain  all 
strove  for  the  mastery.  The  song,  which  must  have  been 
rich,  was  lost  except  the  following  stanzas  caught  as  a  group 
of  officers  rode  by : 

"Old  Jimboden's  gone  up  the  spout. 
And  Old  Jube  Early's  about  played  out." 

"Gone  lip  the  spout"  was  war  lingo  for  passed  into  noth- 
ingness, even  as  water  in  a  kettle  does  when  it  evaporates 
and  goes  up  the  spout.  The  singer  seems  to  have  believed 
that  Imboden's  instead  of  Lorn  ax's  cavalry  was  the  force  that 
proved  unable  to  cope  with  the  enemy  on  our  left  flank  that 

Halting  at  Mount  Jackson  on  the  23d  to  enable  the -sick, 
wounded,  and  hospital  stores  to  be  carried  off,  the  retreat  was 
resumed  to  Rude's  Hill.  Hither  the  close  pursuit  and  flank- 
ing movements  of  the  enemy  forced  Early  to  retire  in  line  of 
battle,  a  most  difficult  operation  when  done  under  fire  and 
exposed  to  repeated  assaults  which  had  to  be  beaten  off.  Nine 
miles  of  the  retreat  was  thus  covered,  the  troops  passing 
through  the  ordeal  of  repeated  attacks  with  great  coolness. 
While  thus  fighting  and  falling  back  with  the  steadiness  of 
Cffisar's  cohorts,  by  a  strange  coincidence  we  came  to  a  place 
called  "The  Tenth  Legion."  Here  at  sunset  we  made  a  stand 
and  checked  the  pursuit  for  the  night. 

Retreating  up  the  valley,  constantly  skirmishing  with  the 
hostile  cavalry,  we  took  position  at  Port  Republic,  nearly 
one  hundred  miles  south  of  Winchester,  27  September. 
On  the  28th,  Early  moved  twenty  miles  further  south  to  drive 
off  two  divisions  of  Torbet's  cavalry  who  had  got  in  our  rear 
and  were  now  destroying  the  railroad  bridge  at  Waynesboro 
and  the  tunnel  through  the  Blue  Ridge  at  Rockfish  Gap. 
Driving  a  force  of  cavalry  before  us,  our  division  (Pegram's) 
arrived  just  at  night  and  advancing  upon  the  enemy,  drove 
him  off  in  great  haste.  On  October  1st  we  marched  back 
down  the  valley  to  Mt.  Sidney,  the  main  force  of  the  enemy 
being  then  at  Harrisonburg. 

Early  having  been  reinforced  by  Rosser's  cavalry  brigade 
and   Kershaw's   infantry   division   from   Lee's   army,    pre- 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  259 

pared  to  attack  the  enemy  at  Harrisonburg.  But  in  the  night 
of  the  5th  Sheridan  retreated  down  the  valley.  Early  fol- 
lowed and  took  position  at  New  Market  with  his  infantry. 
Rosser's  and  Lomax's  cavalry  pressing  forward  near  Fish- 
er's Hill,  were  encountered  by  a  superior  force  and  driven 
back  in  confusion,  losing  eleven  pieces  of  artillery.  In  fact 
some  wag  suggested  that  the  guns  that  Lee  was  sending  Early 
about  this  time  be  labeled  "General  Phil.  Sheridan,  in  care  of 
General  Jube  Early." 


The  object  of  the  valley  campaign  was  to  keep  the  largest 
possible  Federal  force  detached  from  Grant  to  protect  the  ap- 
proaches to  Washington,  the  acumen  of  Lee  telling  him  that 
the  nervous  Washington  officials  would  see  that  the  protect- 
ing force  was  a  liberal  one.  Early  learning  that  Sheridan 
was  about  to  send  troops  back  to  Grant,  moved  farther  down 
the  valley  on  October  12th.  On  the  13th  we  reached  Fisher's 
Hill,  part  of  the  forces  advancing  as  far  as  LIupp's  Hill. 

Finding  Sheridan's  position  across  Cedar  Creek  too  strong 
for  a  front  attack.  Early  after  having  it  closely  scrutinized 
from  the  signal  station  at  Massanutten  Mountain,  determined 
to  surprise  and  turn  the  Federal  left  flank.  We  moved  out  at 
9  o'clock  on  the  night  of  the  18th  in  great  secrecy.  Canteens 
were  closely  strapped  to  sides  to  prevent  rattling  and  only 
whispering  allowed.  Crossing  the  turnpike  we  went  around 
the  mountain's  base  by  a  trail  that  wotmd  around  over  the 
swift  dashing  stream.  The  moon  was  full  and  our  long  line 
of  bayonets  glittered  in  its  beams.  Just  at  daybreak  we 
waded  the  stream.  The  shot  of  a  Federal  picket  rang  out. 
We  rushed  forward  with  loud  yells  right  into  the  sleeping 
camp.  A  little  later  in  the  morning  our  division  had  a  hand- 
to-hand  engagement  with  and  drove  back  a  larger  part  of  the 
Sixth  corps  and  aided  by  Battle's  Alabamians,  captured  six 
pieces  of  artillery,  which  were  most  bravely  defended,  the  ar- 
tillerymen dying  at  their  guns  rather  than  surrender.  Our 
division  was  then  moved  to  the  north  of  Middleton  and  took 
position  across  the  pike.  Here  it  remained  during  the  day 
skirmishing  with  the  cavalry  force  in  its  front. 

260  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Meanwhile  the  tide  of  battle,  so  strong  in  our  favor  in  the 
morning,  finally  turned.  The  Confederate  commands  had 
been  greatly  weakened  by  men  who  left  the  ranks  to  loot  the 
captured  camps,  so  tempting  to  ill-fed,  ill-equipped  soldiers. 
The  routed  Federals  were  halted  and  reformed.  Sheridan, 
absent  in  the  morning,  came  up,  made  new  disposition  and 
assailed  Early  in  flank.  Then  came  disaster  quick  on  the 
heels  of  disaster. 

Our  command  was  in  position  where  we  could  see  the  line 
as  it  broke,  first  at  the  point  held  by  Gordon  and  then  at  that 
held  by  Ramseur.  These  divisions  retired  from  the  field  in 
great  disorder.  Johnston's  brigade  was  the  only  organized 
body  that  retreated  from  the  face  of  the  enemy  with  its  line 
unbroken,  halting  and  firing  repeatedly  as  they  were  pressed 
upon.  In  fact  they  were  then  the  only  organized  force  in 
Early's  whole  army.  After  falling  back  near  Cedar  Creek, 
General  Pegram  sent  an  order  to  General  Johnston  "to  cross 
the  bridge"  and  follow  the  road  towards  Strasburg.  General 
Johnston  sent  a  message  saying  that  it  would  be  impossible  to 
cross  the  bridge,  as  the  breastworks  built  by  the  enemy  com- 
manded the  bridge  completely,  and  the  enemy  would  occupy 
them  before  he  (Johnston)  could  cross;  but  that  he  could 
cross  below  and  preserve  his  brigade  intact.  A  second  staff 
officer  from  General  Pegram  ordered  Johnston  to  bring  his 
brigade  across  the  bridge  just  under  the  command  of  these 
works  which  in  the  meantime,  had  been  occupied  by  the  en- 
emy. While  the  brigade  was  attempting  to  obey  the  order 
and  cross  the  bridge,  a  hot  fire  was  poured  into  it  from  these 
works.  Being  totally  unprotected  and  at  the  mercy  of  the 
enemy  and  their  formation  broken  by  the  rush  of  fugitives, 
the  brigade  fell  into  confusion  and  retreated  under  cover  of 
the  saving  darkness. 

General  Early  says  that  could  500  men  have  been  rallied 
after  the  creek  was  passed  the  pursuit  which  was  feeble,  could 
have  been  checked  sufficiently  to  have  saved  not  only  his  own 
artillery  and  trains,  but  also  to  have  brought  off  the  captured 
guns,  all  of  which  got  safely  over  Cedar  Creek,  but  were  cap- 
tured afterwards.  Now  in  Johnston's  brigade  he  would  have 
had  a  large  part  of  the  necessary  500.     In  view  of  this  Gen- 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  261 

eral  Pegram's  peremptory  order  to  Johnston  to  cross  at  the 
bridge  was  exceedingly  unfortunate.  For  Early  lost,  not 
only  all  the  captured  guns,  but  likewise  every  piece  of  his 
own  artillery.  A  bridge  broke  on  a  very  narrow  part  of  the 
road  between  Fisher's  Hill  and  Strasburg,  the  artillery  and 
trains  could  not  cross  and  being  undefended,  were  taken  by  a 
small  force  of  Federal  cavalry. 

Halting  at  Fisher's  Hill  till  3  o'clock  the  next  morning 
the  retreat  was  continued  without  halt  to  New  Market,  nearly 
thirty  miles  distant.  On  this  retreat  and  while  near  Mt. 
Jackson,  General  Johnston  was  ordered  to  face  about  and 
hold  the  enemy  in  check.  He  formed  line  of  battle,  threw 
out  skirmishers,  and  had  one  of  the  hottest  fights  in  which  the 
brigade  was  engaged  on  the  skirmish  line  during  the  war. 
The  enemy  was  defeated  and  driven  back. 

At  New  Market  we  rested  undisturbed  during  the  remain- 
der of  October  Recruits  and  stragglers  came  in.  Dejected 
spirits  revived.  The  Confederate  soldier  was  himself  again, 
dogged;^  indomitable.  The  order  to  advance  once  more  down 
the  valley  was  received  with  joy.  Starting  10  November 
on  the  11th  we  approached  Cedar  Creek,  our  last  un- 
fortunate battle  ground.  Sheridan's  main  force  fell  back  to 
Winchester.  Driving  the  cavalry  before  us  we  reached  New- 
ton, within  a  few  miles  of  Winchester.  Making  as  great  a 
show  of  force  so  as  to  hold  as  many  of  the  enemy  here  and 
away  from  Lee  as  possible,  we  remained  here  the  11th  and 
12th,  constant  skirmishing  going  on  between  the  opposing 
cavalry  forces.  Being  too  weak  to  attack  Sheridan  and  he 
refusing  to  leave  his  intrenchments  to  attack  us,  we  retreated 
on  the  night  of  the  12th,  returning  to  New  Market. 

Our  brigade  formed  part  of  the  forces  returned  to  Lee's 
army  about  the  last  of  November.  Camping  near  Waynes- 
boro, on  the  following  night,  we  took  cars  for  Richmond.  We 
arrived  in  the  Confederate  Capital  amid  a  hard  snow  storm. 
The  haste  in  which  we  were  detrained,  double  quicked 
through  the  streets  and  entrained  for  Petersburg  told  us  that 
Grant  was  still  hammering  at  the  defences  and  that  we  were 
sorely  needed.  This  time  he  was  making  another  effort  to  get 
possession  of  the  Petersburg  and  Weldon  Railroad.     We 

262  North  Carolina  Troops,   186l-'65. 

were  hurried  to  a  point  a  few  miles  south  of  Petersburg  to 
frustrate  his  attack. 


Then  followed  much  arduous  picketing  on  Hatcher's  Rim, 
the  winter  being  a  severe  one.  The  Twenty-third  took  a 
prominent  part  in  the  battle  of  Hatcher's  Eun,  fought  in  Feb- 
ruary.  It  was  in  the  hottest  of  the  fight  near  the  Crow 
house.  At  one  time  when  the  opposing  lines  of  battle  were 
less  than  one  hundred  yards  apart,  the  flag  of  the  Twenty- 
third  was  advanced  three  times,  each  time  falling  as  its  gal- 
lant bearer  was  shot  down.  Captain  A.  D.  Peace,  in  com- 
mand of  the  regiment,  now  took  up  the  flag  and  rushed  for- 
ward, followed  by  the  men.  But  just  then  came  the  tidings 
that  Pegram  had  fallen  and  that  we  were  flanked,  and  the 
lines  broke  and  were  falling  back  in  confusion  till  Grordon 
dashed  to  the  front,  restored  the  fight  and  the  enemy  were 
driven  back. 

Our  regiment  lost  heavily  in  the  fight,  in  proportion  to 
numbers.  Captain  Frank  Bennett,  in  command  of  the  skir- 
mishers that  day,  lost  an  arm.  Every  year  of  the  war  had  in 
store  a  wovtnd  for  this  gallant  officer.  The  day  before  Seven 
Pines,  in  1862 ;  Chancellorsville,  in  1863 ;  Spottsylvania,  in 
1864;  Hatcher's  Run,  in  1865,  are  the  dates  of  his  wound- 

General  Pegram,  our  division  commander,  was  killed  at 
Hatcher's  Jiun  and  General  James  Walker  assumed  command 
of  the  division.  Soon  after  the  battle  otir  brigade  was  sent 
back  to  Worth  Carolina,  going  into  camp  at  Garysburg,  our 
first  point  of  rendezvous  in  the  hopeful  days  of  1861.  Pour 
years  of  war  had  dealt  hard  with  the  old  Twenty-third.  Hard- 
ship, disease  and  Yankee  lead  had  left  but  a  battered  rem- 
nant of  the  buoyant  band  of  yore. 

Remaining  here  a  few  days,  we  were  then  put  on 
round  duty.  There  were  so  many  men,  mostly  conscripts, 
deserting  from  Lee's  army  and  passing  southward  through 
North  Carolina,  that  the  Confederate  authorities  sought  to 
check  it  by  drawing  a  cordon  of  troops  across  their  route. 
Johnston's  brigade  was  the  one  selected  for  this  duty.     Some 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  263 

of  the  companies  were  sent  back  to  their  neighborhoods  to 
catch  deserters.  Company  A  went  back  to  Richmond  County. 
The  battalion  of  sharpshooters  went  to  cope  with  the  recalci- 
trant .mountaineers  and  possibly  other  companies  elsewhere. 
But  the  most  of  the  brigade  formed  the  cordon  on  Roanoke 
river,  from  Gaston  to  Clarksville,  guarding  every  road  and 
ferry.  Our  regiment  was  assigned  to  the  lower  end  of  the 
line  near  Gaston  with  headquarters  at  Warren  Plains.  Here 
we  remained  for  about  a  month  catching  probably  as  many 
deserters  as  we  had  men — which  was  not  many. 

March  23rd  Gordon  telegraphed  Johnston  to  bring  his  bri- 
gade to  Petersburg  at  once.  The  return  was  so  sudden  that 
the  troops  far  up  the  river  near  Clarksville,  did  not  reach  the 
railroad  in  time  and  with  the  detached  companies,  in  other 
parts  of  the  State,  joined  us  at  Petersburg  some  days  later. 

It  was  known  to  the  troops  on  that  night  that  the  next  day 
we  were  going  back  to  Lee's  stem  battle  grotmd  around  Pe- 
tersburg. Some  of  the  men,  loosing  that  night  the  captured 
deserters,  fled  with  them  under  cover  of  darkness.  But  not 
many  and  those  few  were  conscripts,  men  forced  into  the 

Bivouacing  at  Stony  Creek  the  first  night  and  marching 
around  the  gap  in  the  railroad  made  by  the  enemy  we  pressed 
on  to  the  front.  The  night  of  the  24th  we  slept  on  the  hard 
pavements  of  Petersburg,  the  last  sleep  but  one  of  many  a  gal- 
lant fellow  that  neither  hardships,  nor  wounds,  nor  even  de- 
spair, could  part  from  the  Southern  standard — nothing  but 

While  it  was  yet  dark  on  Friday  morning,  25  March,  the 
men  were  roused,  thrown  into  column  and  marched  silently 
and  rapidly  to  the  east. 

We  had  been  chosen  part  of  the  forlorn  hope  of  the  des- 
perately straitened  Confederacy — honor  high,  but  danger- 
ous. Lee's  last  hope  was  by  a  sudden  and  desperate  assault 
on  Grant's  left  at  Fort  Steadman  to  roll  back  the  hostile  line 
and  loosen  the  strangling  folds  drawn  around  the  Confederate 
Capital  and  its  sister  city  on  the  Appomattox. 

The  opaque  east  grew  vaguely  translucent.  The  Federal 
works  on  Hare's  Hill  rose  in  sharp  outline  against  the  bright- 

264  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

ening  back  ground.  Then  Grordon's  assaulting  force,  con- 
sisting of  our  division  (Walker's)  and  Grimes'  division, 
sprung  over  the  Confederate  works  and  rushed  forward. 
Hacking,  tearing  our  way  through  the  hostile  abatis,  we 
pressed  onward  under  fire  too  hurried  to  be  other  than  wild. 
In  a  few  minutes  Fort  Stedman  and  a  large  section  of  the  left 
of  Grant's  works  was  in  our  hands  and  our  part  of  the  line,  at 
least,  had  penetrated  several  hundred  yards  further.  But  the 
troops  expected  to  support  us  failed  to  appear.  For  an  hour 
or  more  we  held  on.  Broad  daylight  came.  Gun  after  gun, 
battery  after  battery,  from  the  right,  the  left,  the  rear  of  the 
Federal  line  was  brought  to  bear,  till  it  is  said  that  200  guns 
were  concentrated  on  us.  No  command  to  retreat  reached 
us,  but  we  could  see  the  oth,er  troops  being  driven  back.  To 
reimain  where  we  were  or  to  attempt  to  retreat  meant,  it 
seemed,  annihilation.  About  two  thousand  of  the  assaulting 
force  surrendered.  Our  brigade  was  among  the  troops  that 
came  back.  Every  foot  of  the  retreat  was  swept  by  a  tre- 
mendous tempest  of  shot,  shell,  grape,  canister — every  missile 
that  the  engines  of  war  cast  from  their  iron  lips.  The  artil- 
lery ploughed  and  tore  up  the  ground  so  ceaselessly  that  in 
all  but  color  the  flying  earth  looked  like  a  wind  driven  snow 

The  Twenty-third  had  not  many  men  to  lose,  but  of  these 
few  a  large  proportion  fell ;  how  many  there  are  no  records  to 
tell.  General  R.  D.  Johnston,  comnianding  the  brigade,  sus- 
tained a  severe  sprain  of  the  ankle  as  he  climbed  the  Federal 
works,  while  unf elt  for  a  few  minutes  in  the  excitement  of 
the  battle,  it  soon  rendered  him  unable  to  walk  for  the  rest  of 
the  war.  Colonel  Lea,  of  the  Fifth  Eegiment,  commanded 
the  brigade  for  the  remaining  weeks  of  the  war. 

Soon  after  the  bloody  and  unavailing  assault  on  Fort  Stead- 
man,  our  brigade  was  moved  out  and  placed  on  picket  be- 
tween Swift  Creek  and  Appomattox  river.  Here  for  a  little 
while  we  had  rest.  Early  on  Sunday  morning,  2  April, 
the  brigade  leaving  its  position  on  picket,  was  hurried  on  the 
double  quick  through  the  streets  of  Petersburg.  The  enemy 
had  broken  over  and  captured  part  of  the  works  held  by 
Grimes'  division  and  we  were  the  only  available  troops  to  re- 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  265 

take  it.  This  break  in  the  line  was  about  a  mile  south  of 
that  part  of  the  line  we  passed  over  to  carry  Fort  Steadman. 

Captain  B.  M.  Collins,  of  the  Twelfth  Eegiment,  then  Ad- 
jutant-General of  the  brigade,  gives  me  the  following  graphic 
account  of  this,  the  last  day's  fighting  around  the  doomed 
city :  "We  moved  out  through  the  covered  way,  nearly  knee 
deep  in  mud.  We  could  see  our  captured  works  swarming 
with  blue-coats.  The  fire  was  so  hot  that  to  expose  an  inch  of 
the  person  above  the  protection  meant  death  or  wounding. 
Colonel  Lea  sent  me  back  to  report  to  General  Walker,  our 
division  commander,  that  to  assault  such  a  force  with  his 
weak  brigade  of  about  250  men  was  a  desperate  undertaking. 

General  Walker  repeated  the  order  to  assault,  adding  that 
Captain  Hobson  (father  of  Lieutenant  Hobson,  the  hero  of 
Santiago)  commanding  a  force  of  sharpshooters,  would  make 
a  diversion  in  our  favor.  The  diversion  amounted  to  noth- 
ing. We  crept  up  within  one  hundred  yards  of  the  enemy, 
sprang  from  the  ditch  and  charged.  A  small  part  of  the 
works  were  taken  in  this  rush.  This  position  we  set  to  work 
to  widen,  shooting  to  right  and  left  along  the 'line.  There 
were  traverses  along  the  works  at  frequent  intervals  made  of 
timber  and  earth.  The  ends  of  the  traverses  next  to  the  works 
were  roughly  fitted,  leaving  many  holes  and  openings. 
Through  these  holes  some  of  the  men  fired  away  at  light-blue 
legs  while  the  bulk  of  the  command  fired  over  the  traverses  at 
dark-blue  heads. 

The  Federals  fought  us,  but  not  with  the  spirit  which 
their  immense  superiority  in  numbers  would  have  justified. 
An  attack  half  as  vigorous  as  ours  must  have  swept  over 
us  and  captured  Petersburg  in  an  hour.  For  a  while  no 
attack  at  all  came  from  our  front.  A  part  of  our  command 
was  thrown  forward  recapturing  Fort  Mahone  in  advance  of 
the  line  of  works.  This  opened  the  hornets  nest  on  us.  An 
overwhelming  force  of  red  pantalooned  Yankees,  sweeping 
contemptuously  across  our  weak  front,  recaptured  the  fort, 
our  troops  escaping,  bringing  the  garrison  as  prisoners.  But 
the  charging  force  paid  dear  for  their  temerity.  Our  deadly 
enfilading  fire  piled  the  ground  with  red  breeches  as  their 
flank  came  by  us. 

266  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

"About  midnight  came  the  order  to  withdraw^  telling  us 
that  all  was  up.  Passing  through  Petersburg  we  were  re- 
joined by  the  skirmish  line  left  behind  that  morning  in  the 
sudden  movement  to  recapture  the  works.  We  then  crossed 
the  canal  and  retreated  up  the  south  bank  of  the  Appomattox 
river,  shells  falling  around  us  as  we  went. 

"Our  depleted  corps  formed  the  rear  and  wagon  guards  on 
the  retreat,  fighting  constantly.  The  enemy  brought  up  fresh 
troops  when  one  command  was  worn  out.  We  were  under- 
ceaseless  strain.  I  was  afraid  to  sleep  lest  I  be  left  behind, 
taking  only  short,  restless  naps  when  completely  exhausted." 

The  handful  left  of  the  23rd  fought  at  Amelia  Court 
House  and  at  Sailor's  Creek.  Here  the  whole  corps  was 
broke,  but  got  in  fair  shape  by  the  next  day. 

General  E.  D.  Johnston  suffering  too  acutely  from  his 
swollen  ankle  to  mount  a  horse,  accompanied  the  retreat  in  an 
ambulance.  On  one  occasion  finding  that  the  Federal  cavalry 
was  about  to  capture  the  whole  line  of  wagons  and  ambu- 
lances, he  collected  a  few  stragglers,  stopped  an  ammunition 
M^agon,  made  every  man  get  down  and  take  a  gun  and  Avith 
this  motley  force  prevented  the  capture  of  the  train. 

Further  on  in  the  great  retreat  the  hostile  cavalry  broke 
into  the  line  and  captured  General  Johnston's  ambulance 
and  the  rest,  incltiding  a  portion  of  the  wagon  trains.  Gen- 
eral Johnston  cut  the  insignia  of  rank  from  his  coat,  mounted 
a  mule,  the  rider  having  fled,  rode  back,  organized  a  force  of 
stragglers  and  recaptured  the  whole  line. 

At  midnight  of  8  April,  we  had  a  bloody  skirmish.  Be- 
fore sun  up  of  the  fateful  9  th  the  brigade  passed  smftly 
through  the  little  town  of  Appomattox.  Forming  a  line  to  the 
left  of  the  Lynchbxirg  road  we  made  our  last  charge  against 
dismounted  cavalry  in  a  body  of  woods.  The  hostile  force 
was  swept  back  in  precipitation. 

Then  for  the  last  time  rang  out  from  ouv  thin  line,  the 
"Rebel  Yell,"  which  had  so  long  heralded  the.resistless  charge 
of  the  men  in  gray. 

But  then  comes  an  order  to  halt  and  to  right-about  face. 
We  are  marched  back  towards  the  village,  near  which  the 
remnant  of  the  Army  of  ISTorthem  Virginia  seems  to  be  con- 

Twenty-Third  Regiment.  267 

centrating.  Strange  apparitions  greet  our  eyes.  Officers  in 
Federal  uniform  ride  unchallenged  among  our  troops.  We 
rub  our  eyes  as  if  they  did  not  serve  us  true.  But  the  officers 
in  blue  still  come  and  go. 

Slowly,  heavily,  crushingly  the  agonizing  fact  bears  down 
upon  our  hearts.  The  thing  that  could  not  happen  had  hap- 
pened. The  end  of  all  things  was-  at  hand.  Lee  had  surren- 

It  is  said  that  the  last  man  to  fall  was  a  member  of  the 
First  Battalion  of  North  Carolina  Sharpshooters,  attached  to 
our  brigade,  and  that  Captain  B.  M.  Collins,  of  the  Twelfth 
North  Carolina,  fired  the  last  musket  fired  by  Lee's  army. 

The  greatest  of  Greek  painters  in  depicting  the  mental 
agony  of  a  hero  shows  him  with  his  face  covered,  leaving  to 
the  imagination  the  supreme  expression  of  sorrow.  We 
shall  so  deal  with  the  emotions  that  filled  our  breast.  Words 
are  futile  things  when  we  would  describe  feelings  like  those 
that  weighted  the  Confederate  breast.  Better  leave  to  the 
sympathetic  imagination  which  has  followed  these  men  from 
the  beginning — which  has  seen  with  what  valor,  what  forti- 
tude, what  matchless  self-devotion  they  .upheld  the  cause  of 
Southern  Independence,  to  measure  the  otherwise  fathomless 
abyss  of  their  sorrow  and  despair  at  seeing  it  stricken  down 

Dr.  E.  I.  Hicks,  now  of  Warrenton,  Va.,  the  faithful  and 
efficient  surgeon  of  the  Twenty-third  throughout  the  war,  says 
of  the  regiment:  "It  did  as  much  hard  service,  fought  as 
many  battles,  was  as  constant  in  the  performance  of  duty  as 
any  other  regiment  in  the  army.  And  at  Appomattox  it  sur- 
rendered about  as  many  men  as  any  other  regiment  in  the 
army."  According  to  the  parole  list,  Johnston's  Brigade 
then  numbered  463  men,  rank  and  file. 

The  authors  are  well  aware  that  the  foregoing  sketch  is  but 
a  meagre  and  unworthy  history  of  the  command  whose  deeds 
and  sufferings  they  would  fain  chronicle.  More  than  the 
third  of  a  century  has  passed  since  the  Twenty-third  stacked 
arms  for  the  last  time  at  Appomattox.  On  many  comrades, 
depositories  of  priceless  reminiscences,  death  has  set  all  too 
soon  the  seal  of  silence.     Even  with  the  living  time  is  fast 

268  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

blurring  the  scenes  that  were  long  so  clear  and  sharply  cut 
that  it  seemed  they  must  abide  with  us  forever.  But  the 
writers  have  garnered  what  little  could  be  saved  before  it  was 
too  late,  grieving  that  the  harvest  should  be  so  poor. 

Many  a  gallant  deed  has  passed  into  oblivion  with  him  who 
performed  it  and  the  few  who  witnessed  it.  Of  some  individ- 
uals a  good  deal  is  recorded,  of  many,  nothing.  This  must 
not  be  taken  to  mean  that  the  men  whose  gallant  deeds  are 
given  are  the  only  worthy  or  even  the  most  worthy.  Largely 
owing  to  chance,  the  m.emory  of  some  brave  acts  and  of  the 
men  who  performed  them  survives;  while  others,  perhaps 
even  more  gallant,  have  been  lost.  Such  authentic  ones  as 
could  be  collected  the  writers  have  given,  deploring  none  the 
less  that  time  should  have  been  so  partial  in -his  treatment  of 
these  comirades  in  arms,  preserving  the  deeds  of  some,  casting 
to  oblivion  the  deeds  of  others. 

Vestes-  E.  Turner^ 
Raleigh,  N.  C. 

H.  Clay  Wall, 

Rockingham,  N.  C. 

Note. — In  rewriting  Sergeant  Wall's  sketch  of  the  regi- 
ment, it  gives  me  great  pleasure  to  acknowledge  the  valuable 
assistance  of  Mr.  O.  W.  Blacknall  (son  of  the  late  Colonel 
Chas.  C.  Blacknall),  who  has  visited  the  important  battle- 
fields of  the  Army  of  ISTorthern  Virginia  and  has  given  much 
study  to  Lee's  campaigns. 

He  also  has  had  access  to  the  private  letters  and  papers  of 
his  gallant  father  which  have  enabled  him  to  rescue  from 
oblivion  many  interesting  and  important  facts  relating  to  the 
history  of  the  regiment. 

V.  E.  Turner. 

Raleigh,  N.  C.  , 

9  April,  1901. 


1.    John  L.  Harris,  Lieut. -Colonel.  3.    Junius  P.  Moore,  Chaplain 

a.    Thaddeus  D.  Love,  Major.  4.    William  G.  Balrd,  Captain.  Co.  H 

5.    Barna  Lane,  Captain,  Co.  E. 


By  corporal  W.    N.    ROSE,  Company  E. 

This  regiment  was  the  Fourteenth  Eegiment  of  Volunteers, 
and  served  as  such  the  first  year  of  the  war. 

It  was  organized  at  Weldon,  IST.  C.,  about  the  first  of 
July,  1861,  with  the  following  Field  and  Staff  officers : 

William  J.  Clarke^  Colonel,  of  Craven  County. 

Thos.  B.  Venable,  Lieutenant-Colonel,  of  Granville 

Jonathan  Evans,  Major,  of  Cumberland  County. 

John  Feeeel,  Assistant  Quartermaster,  of  Halifax 

John  A.  Williams,  Assistant  Commissary,  of  Granville 

De.  Bedfoed  Beown,  Surgeon,  of  Person  County. 

Dr.  W.  E.  Wilson,  Assistant  Surgeon,  of  Granville 

William  W.  Baied,  Sergeant-Major,  of  Person  County. 

Company  A — Captain,  John  G.  Dillehay,  Person  County. 

Chaeles  D.  Claek,  Quartermaster  Sergeant,  of  Wake 

Laweence  E.  Duffy,  Orderly  Sergeant,  of  Onslow 

The  following  companies  constituted  the  regiment : 

Company  B — Captain,  George  T.  Duffy,  Onslow  County. 

Company  C — Captain,  George  W.  Crockett,  Johnston 

Company  D — Captain,  David  C.  Clark,  Halifax  County. 

Company  E — Captain,  Barney  Lane,  Johnston  County. 

Company  F — Captain,  Charles  H.  Blocker,  Cumberland 

Company  G — Captain,  Thaddeus  D.  Love,  Eobeson 

270  North  Carolina  Troops;   1861-65. 

CoMPAM-Y  ^ — Captain,  John  L.  Harris,  Person  County. 
Company  I^Captain,  Ira  T.  Woodall,  Johnston  County. 
Company   K — Captain,     David    W.     Spivey,     Franklin 

The  regiment,  after  its  organization,  remained  at  Weldon 
for  a  few  days,  practicing  in  regimental  drill.  From  Wel- 
don, the  regiment  was  ordered  to  Richmond,  Va.,  where  it 
went  into  camp  in  the  western  suburbs  of  the  city  for  one  day 
and  night.  From  here  it  was  ordered  to  join  General  John 
B.  Floyd,  then  operating  in  the  region  of  the  Gauley  river, 
West  Virginia. 

Boarding  the  cars,  we  set  out  on  a  two  days'  trip,  it  being 
often  the  case  that  the  three  engines  attached,  could  hardly  as- 
cend the  gi-ades  on  this  mountain  road,  then  completed  only 
to  Jackson  River  depot. 

The  regiment  remained  at  Jackson  River  about  one  week, 
it  raining  most  of  the  time. 

From  here  we  took  up  the  line  of  march  to  join  General 
Floyd,  then  in  the  Kanawha  Valley.  This  was  a  long  and 
tedious  march,  of  nearly  or  quite  one  hundred  miles,  over 
the  mountain  roads.  The  weather  being  very  warm  the  boys 
began  to  see  some  of  the  realities  of  war  and  the  life  of  a  sol- 
dier. On  this  march  we  encamped  for  a  short  while  at  the 
celebrated  White  Sulphur  Springs,  Meadow  Bluff  and  Blue 
Sulphur  Springs.  We  joined  General  Floyd  in  the  latter  part 
of  October,  on  his  return  from  the  Kanawha,  where  he  and 
General  Wise  had  a  fight  with  General  Rosecrans,  then  in 
command  of  the  Federal  forces  in  West  Virginia. 

General  Floyd,  retreating  into  the  mountains,  being  pur- 
sued by  the  Federals,  took  a  position  on  Big  Sewell  Mountain 
with  the  enemy  in  front.  Here  he  built  a  very  substantial 
breastwork  of  chestnut  logs,  and  in  this  position  the  two 
armies  remained  during  the  fall  and  early  part  of  the  winter 
of  1861. 

Heretofore  the  boys  had  not  been  used  to  hard  marching, 
and  the  severities  of  camp  life.  The  measles  having  broken 
out  among  them,  many  died  from  disease.  We  remained, 
however,  in  the  mountains  of  West  Virginia  until  the  winter 

Twenty-Fourth  Regiment.  271 

was  well  advanced.  It  was  in  this  campaign  that  the  Twen- 
ty-fourth Regiment  served  under  the  immortal  soldier,  Robert 
E.  Lee,  then  a  Brigadier-General.  From  here  the  regiment 
was  ordered  to  Richmond  and  on  to  Petersburg,  where  we 
went  into  winter  quarters  at  the  Model  Farm. 

Here  the  boys  had  fun  and  a  good  time  generally. 

In  the  early  spring  of  1862,  the  regiment  was  ordered  to 
Eastern  ISTorth  Carolina.  We  remained  at  and  near  Mur- 
freesboro,  IST.  C,  for  quite  a  while  watching  the  enemy.  It 
was  near  this  place  in  May,  1862,  that  the  regiment  was  re- 
organized and  became  the  Twenty-fourth  Regiment,  State 
Troops.  As  stated  in  the  outset,  the  regiment  up  to  this  time 
was  twelve  months  Volunteers  and  the  Fourteenth  Regiment. 
In  the  reorganization  there  was  some  dissatisfaction  among 
the  volunteers  at  having  to  move  up  to  higher  numbers.  The 
Fourteenth  Volunteers,  however,  became  the  Twenty-fourth 
State  Troops  and  reorganized  as  follows : 

William  J.  Claeke,  Colonel,  of  Craven  County. 

J  OHN  L.  Haeeis,  Lieutenant-Colonel,  of  Person  County. 

Thaddeus  D.  Love,  Major,  of  Robeson  County. 

Oliver  D.  Cooke^  Adjutant,  of  Craven  County. 

John  Feerel^  Assistant  Quartermaster,  of  Halifax 

John  A.  Williams,  Assistant  Commissary,  of  Granville 

Dr.  Wm.  R.  Wilson,  Surgeon,  of  Granville  County. 

De.  Charles  Dufft,  Assistant  Surgeon,  of  Onslow 

EvANDEE  McNair,  Chaplain,  of  Robeson  County. 

Other  Staff  Officers  about  the  same  as  first  year  of  the 

Company  A — Captain,  James  Holeman,  Person  County. 
Company  B — Captain,  Geo.  T.  Duffy,  Onslow  County. 
Company  C — Captain,  John  D.  Gulley,  Johnston  County. 
Company  D — Captain,  David  C.  Clark,  Halifax  County. 
Company  E — Captain,  Barney  Lane,  Johnston  County. 
Company  F — Captain,  Jas.  S.  Evans,  Cumberland 

272  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Company  G — Captain,  A.  A.  Mclver,  Robeson  County. 
Company  H — Captain,  Jas.  C.  Bailey,  Person  County. 
Company  I — Captain,  Ira  T.  Woodall,  Johnston  County, 
Company    K — Captain,    David    W.     Spivey,     Franklin 

Having  thus  organized,  we  were  now  "in  for  the  war." 
The  regiment  left  North  Carolina  for  Virginia  just  before 
and  in  time  for  the  seven  days'  fight  below  Richmond.  We 
had  passed  the  first  year  of  the  war  in  marching  and  watch- 
ing the  enemy,  and  many  of  the  boys  were  fearful  that  the 
war  would  close  without  giving  them  a  chance  at  the  Yankees, 
but  the  time  had  now  come  when  such  fears  were  no  longer  to 
be  entertained,  for  it  was  on  25  June,  1862,  that  the  Twenty- 
fourth  Regiment  was  led  into  its  first  engagement  at  White 
Oak  Swamp,  below  Richmond. 

In  this  fight  Compa,ny  E,  of  the  Twenty-fourth,  was 
thrown  forward  as  skirmishers,  and  while  deploying  William 
Scott,  of  this  company,  was  killed.  This  was  the  first  man 
killed  in  the  Twenty-fourth  Regiment  by  a  Yankee  bullet.  In 
this  fight  we  began  to  see  war  as  a  reality.  We  held  the  line 
that  had  been  occupied  by  the  Tenth  Louisiana  Regiment  in 
the  morning  part  of  the  day,  they  having  been  badly  cut  to 
pieces.  At  sunset  the  Twenty-fourth  was  ordered  to  take  a 
Yankee  battery  that  had  been  shelling  us  during  that  after- 
noon, not  more  than  150  yards  in  front,  but  while  we  were 
forming  in  the  hedgerow,  the  Yankees  began  falling  back. 

Soon  after  dark,  the  Twenty-fourth  Regiment  was  relieved 
by  Colonel  Zeb  Vance's  Regiment,  the  Twenty-sixth  JSTorih 
Carolina,  and  sent  back  immediately  in  the  rear  to  rest  for 
the  night.  However,  we  were  not  out  of  danger,  for  during 
the  night  Vance's  men  got  up  a  fuss  with  the  enemy,  and 
Yankee  bullets  came  thick  and  fast  among  us. 

Next  morning,  26  June,  the  Twenty-fourth  Regiment 
was  ordered  to  re-occupy  the  same  position  of  the  even- 
ing before.  On  reaching  this  post.  Colonel  Vance  came  up 
to  Colonel  Clarke  and  asked  him  if  he  was  ready.  Clarke  an- 
swered him  yes.  Whereupon  Vance  said :  "Very  well  then, 
Colonel.     I  will  open  the  ball,  and  the  baby  shall  be  born." 

Twenty-Fourth  Regiment.  273 

In  a  few  minutes  he  turned  and  walked  ofE  in  the  direc- 
tion of  his  command,  whistling  as  jovial  as  a  boy  going  to 

Reaching  his  command  he  gave  the  order  to  charge,  but  the 
Yankees  did  as  the  evening  before — they  limbered  up  and 
got  further.  This  was  the  first  time  the  writer  ever  saw 
Colonel  Vance,  and  this  little  incident  made  an  impression 
that  Vance  would  do  to  tie  to,  no  matter  where  you  placed  him, 
and  we  never  had  cause  to  change  that  opinion.  Later  in  the 
day,  the  Twenty-fourth  Regiment  was  ordered  to  the  right 
of  the  Confederate  lines,  and  later  to  the  extreme  right. 
About  dark  an  order  passed  down  the  line  to  fall  back  in  good 
order.  This  order  proved  to  be  a  false  order,  but  was  not  so 
understood  by  Captain  Lane,  who  was  on  the  extreme  right 
of  the  regiment,  tmtil  he  was  lost  in  a  thick  marsh  or  swamp, 
where  we  had  to  remain  during  the  night  in  water  almost  knee 
deep.  We  could  hear  the  enemy  as  they  were  moving  near 
us  on  our  right.  We  could  hear  the  clanking  of  their  armor, 
and  did  not  know  what  moment  they  might  discover  our  iso- 
lated condition.  Company  E  being  cut  off  from  the  regiment. 

To  the  writer,  this  was  perhaps  the  most  miserable  night 
of  the  war.  Captain  Lane,  however,  at  dawn  of  day,  found 
his  way  back  to  the  regiment,  and  Company  E  resumed  her 
place  in  line.  The  regiment  was  then  ordered  to  drive  the 
enemy  from  an  oak  thicket  in  front,  which  was  done  in  ad- 
mirable style. 

We  quietly  remained  on  this  line  the  remainder  of  the  day. 

The  28th  was  passed  quietly  by  us  on  this  line.  The  29th 
was  quiet  also. 

The  30th,  moved  to  the  left  and  did  some  skirmishing. 

1  July,  McClellan's  retreat  from  Richmond  was  dis- 
covered. Lee's  pursuit  commenced.  The  Twenty-fourth 
Regiment  had  previously  been  assigned  to  General  Robert 
Ransom's  Brigade,  and  Ransom's  brigade  was  among  the  ad- 
vance troops,  the  Twenty-fourth  Regiment  at  the  head  of  the 
column.  Reaching  the  fork  of  the  road  near  Frazier's  farm, 
we  found  General  Lee  and  Staff  on  horseback.  General  Lee 
remarked  to  Colonel  Clarke  that  we  were  an  hour  too  late,  that 


274  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

McClellan  liad  just  passed.  We  followed  on,  however,  reach- 
ing Malvern  Hill  about  3  p.  m.  Wright's  Georgia 
Brigade  on  Ransom's  right  led  the  attack.  The  Twen- 
ty-fourth Eegiment  was  posted  on  the  hill  behind  an 
old  fence.  While  in  this  position,  Eansom  rode  in  front  of 
the  line,  and  gave  the  order  to  wait  until  we  could  "see  the 
whites  of  their  eyes,  and  d — n  it,  give  it  to  them."  We  were 
soon,  however,  moved  to  the  support  of  Wright,  who  by  this 
time  was  getting  things  hot.  Soon  after  the  whole  of  Lee's 
army  became  engaged,  and  from  then  until  9  o'clock  at  night, 
the  contest  was  unabated.  It  was  here  that  Captain  Bill  Gul- 
ley,  of  Company  C,  from  Johnston  County,  was  found  dead 
in  advance  of  any  other  Southern  soldier  that  fell  on  this 
blood-red  field.  We  slept  at  night  on  the  battle  field,  expect- 
ing a  renewal  of  the  strife  the  next  morning.  Morning  came 
and  with  it  the  rain  in  torrents,  which  prevented  a  renewal  of 
the  strife. 

McClellan  retreated  to  Harrison's  Landing,  on  the  James. 
Lee  followed.  McClellan  evacuated  Harrison's  Landing  and 
swung  his  army  around  to  the  north  of  Richmond.  Lee 
moved  to  the  Rapidan.  The  Twenty-fourth  Regiment  camped 
for  a  few  days  near  the  old  Seven  Pines  battle  field,  and  then 
crossed  the  James,  camped  near  Drewry's  Bluff.  From  here 
we  marched  through  Petersburg,  and  went  into  camp  near 
City  Point.  It  was  here  that  we  heard  the  farewell  address 
of  our  beloved  Vance,  who  had  been  elected  to  the  governor- 
ship of  ISTorth  Carolina.  From  here  the  regiment  moved  to 
the  north  of  Petersburg  and  camped  on  Dunlap's  farm.  About 
the  first  of  September  we  reached  Richmond,  boarded  the 
train  to  Gordonsville,  the  railroad  having  been  torn  up  be- 
yond there  to  Manassas.  From  Gordonsville  we  took  up  the 
line  of  march  to  Frederick  City,  Maryland,  fording  the  Po- 
tomac north  of  Leesburg.  The  first  night  in  Maryland,  a 
detachment  was  sent  out  to  attack  the  Yankee  picket  at  Mon- 
ocacy  bridge,  under  Captain  Duffy,  of  Company  B.  Cross- 
ing the  canal,  an  attack  was  made,  in  which  Captain  Duffy 
was  severely  wounded  and  he  and  his  men  taken  prisoners. 
The  following  day  we  recrossed  the  Potomac  at  Point  of 
Rocks,  south  of  Harper's  Ferry.     The  next  day  we  marched 

Twenty-Fourth  Regiment.  275 

thirty-eight  miles  to  reinforce  troops  near  the  Ferry,  whose 
garrison  was  captured  the  next  day. 

From  here  we  forded  the  Shenandoah  and  16  Septem- 
ber we  crossed  the  Potomac  near  Shepherdstown.  At 
night  Lee's  army  was  drawn  up  in  line  of  battle  in  front  of 
Sharpsburg.  On  the  following  morning  Ransom's  Brigade 
was  placed  on  the  extreme  right.  The  battle  opened  from 
center  to  left  of  Lee's  line,  soon  Ransom's  Brigade  was  trans- 
ferred in  double  quick  to  the  left.  Here  we  were  ordered  to 
lay  off  our  knapsacks,  which  we  never  saw  again.  The  Twen- 
ty-fourth Regiment  was  ordered  to  dislodge  some  Yankees 
from  behind  a  stone  fence,  and  of  course  we  did  so  in  good 
style.  General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  with  General  Ransom, 
watching  this  charge  from  a  distance.  General  Stuart  re- 
marked to  General  Ransom  that  every  soldier  in  that  com- 
mand was  worthy  to  be  made  a  commander.  Ransom  replied, 
"God  bless  the  gallant  boys,  I  will  never  curse  them  any 

It  was  in  commemoration  of  this  gallant  charge  that  Mrs. 
Mary  Bayard  Clarke,  wife  of  our  Colonel,  wrote  that  beau- 
tiful poem,  which  runs  something  like  this : 

"Well  may  the  noble  Old  North  State, 

Be  of  her  soldiers  proud, 
But  of  her  glorious  Twenty-Fourth 

I'll  sing  with  praises  loud. 
Eight  gallantly  they've  borne  the  flag, 

Their  State  unto  them  gave; 
Though  torn  by  many  a  shot  and  shell, 

Long  may  it  o'er  them  wave. 

"God  with  us  on  this  blood-red  field, 

Is  set  in  purest  white; 
For  by  His  arm  and  their  good  swords 

They  trust  to  win  the  fight. 
On  Sewell's  Mount  they  tentless  lay. 

For  days  in  sleet  and  snow, 
Faced  sickness,  hunger,  cold  and  toil, 

As  bravely  as  the  foe. 

276      North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

''They  foiled  the  wily  Roseerans, 

Neath  Floyd  and  General  Lee, 
And  bore  their  part  in  Richmond  fights 

With  Ransom  and  Hnger. 
That  bloody  charge,  which  cost  so  dear, 

At  Malvern  Hill  they  led, 
And  in  the  foremost  rank  they  left. 

Their  brave  and  honored  dead. 

Upon  Potomac's  famous  banks. 

Again  their  banners  flew. 
In  Sharpsburg's  fight  they  won  a  place 

And  stoutly  held  it  too. 
The  gallant  Louisiana  Tenth 

Which  fought  with  them  on  Malvern  Hill, 
Here  again  beside  them  stood. 

And  cheered  them  with  good  will. 

"And  when  their  General  saw  them  charge, 

His  eyes  with  tears  ran  o'er, 
'God  bless  the  gallant  boys,'  he  cried, 

'I'll  ne'er  curse  them  more.'  " 

On  the  following  day  we  remained  in  line,  but  that  night 
we  were  again  on  the  march,  with  orders  to  follow  our  file 
leader  and  ask  no  questions ;  daylight  the  next  morning  once 
more  finding  us  across  the  Potomac,  near  Shepherdstown. 

We  then  went  on  to  Martinsburg,  and  on  to  near  Win- 
chester, Va.,  where  we  went  into  camp  for  about  ten  days. 
From  here  we  were  ordered  to  Culpepper  and  Madison  Court 
House,  whence  in  the  latter  part  of  November  we  marched 
to  Fredericksburg  where  we  occupied  a  very  important  posi- 
tion. On  the  famous  Marye's  Heights,  13  December,  the 
Twenty-fourth  Regiment  suffered  severely,  losing  many 
men  and  several  valuable  officers.  It  was  here  that  Lieuten- 
ant London  Browne,  of  Company  E,  was  mortally  wounded 
and  died  a  few  days  later. 

It  was  after  the  battle  of  Fredericksburg  that  Ransom's 
Brigade  left  the  army  of  Northern  Virginia  (3  January, 
1863)  and  was  sent  back  to  North  Carolina. 

General  Robert  Ransom,  in  June,  1863,  was  promoted  to 
Major-General,    and    sent    west,    and    Colonel    Matt.    W. 

Twenty-Fourth  Regiment.  277 

Ransom,  of  the  Thirty-fifth  Regiment,  promoted  to  Brigadier 
in  his  place,  thenceforth  he  was  our  Brigadier. 

Just  here,  the,  writer  woiild  say  for  General  Matt.  Ran- 
som, what  we  helieve  every  soldier  would  say  that  ever  be- 
longed to  the  old  brigade,  that  IS^orth  Carolina  never  produced 
a  more  noble  son  or  a  better  soldier.  He  was  ever  kind  to  his 
men,  and  as  indulgent  as  army  discipline  would  permit  him 
to  be,  always  urging  them  to  duty  and  at  the  same  time  warn- 
ing them  against  unnecessary  danger.  The  night  before  the 
storming  of  Plymouth,  IST.  C,  by  Ransom's  Brigade  in  rear 
of  the  town,  the  writer  was  acting  as  a  courier  for  General 
Ransom  from  the  skirmish  line  and  as  such  bore  a  dispatch 
from  Captain  Lane  to  General  Ransdm  with  regard  to  the 
bridge  at  the  creek  below  the  town..  He  asked  us  onany 
questions,  spoke  words  of  kindness  and  caution,  and  said  that 
he  would  not  have  one  life  lost  unnecessarily  for  the  glory  of 
beating  the  Yankees  in  the  morning.  Such  a  commander 
will  ever  be  held  dear  in  the  hearts  of  the  old  brigade,  and  his 
memory  can  never  perish  while  there  is  one  left  living  to  tell 
the  story. 

About  the  first  of  March,  1863,  the  regiment  reached  Wel- 
don,  ]Sr.  C. ;  went  on  to  Goldsboro  and  Wilmington,  back  to 
ISTorth  East  river,  and  on  to  Kenansville.  Ransom's  Bri- 
gade was  sent  down  here  to  guard  the  Wilmington  and  Wel- 
don  Railroad.  The  Twenty-fourth  Regiment  reached  Golds- 
boro from  Kenansville  21  March.  From  Goldsboro  we 
were  ordered  to  Kinston,  where  we  did  picket  duty  below 
the  town  at  Wise's  Fork  and  Gum  Swamp.  At  the  latter 
place  we  had  some  skirmishing  with  the  enemy,  and  drove 
them  as  far  in  the  direction  of  New  Bern  as  "Deep  Gully." 
20  April  the  Twenty-fourth  Regiment  was  ordered  to  Wel- 
don.  Nothing  transpired  worthy  of  note  while  at  this  place. 
31  May  ordered  to  Virginia;  10  June  down  on  Blackwa- 
ter,  Va.  While  in  this  region,  and  near  the  home  of  our  be- 
loved General,  we  had  a  fight  with  Spears'  cavalry  at  Boone's 
Mill  near  Jackson,  IST.  C.  The  Yankees  caught  some  of  the 
boys  in  the  pond  swimming,  but  of  course,  they  were  out  in 
time  and  "whipped"  the  Yanks  just  the  same.  The  next 
morning  after  this  little  fight,   General  Ransom  took  the 

278  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

Twenty-fourth  Kegiment  to  his  home  near  by  and  gave  us 
breakfast,  and  some  of  the  boys  said  here  was  the  most  fried 
bacon  they  ever  saw  at  one  time.  The  Twenty-fourth  Kegi- 
ment had  also  a  skirmish  down  on  the  Blackwater  with  some 
Yankees  that  came  up  the  river  on  a  gunboat. 

Ordered  from  here  to  Drewry's  Bluff,  reaching  that  place 
16  June.  From  this  place,  a  few  days  later,  we  were  sent 
down  below  Eichmond,  at  Bottom's  Bridge.  4  July  had  a 
fight  near  the  bridge,  in  which  we  lost  several  men,  and  drove 
back  the  enemy  with  severe  loss,  after  which  we  returned  to 
Eichmond  about  8  July,  and  went  into  camp  for  a 
few  days  below  the  city.  On  the  march  from  Bottom's 
Bridge  one  of  the  boys  became  sick,  and.  the  writer  was  de- 
tailed and  left  behind,  to  take  care  of  and  help  him  on  to 
camp.  Night  soon  came — one  of  those  dark,  dismal  nights, 
that  is  so  intensely  dark  that  we  can  almost  feel  it  with  the 
hand,  and  we  had  to  pass  over  the  old  battle  field  of  the  seven 
days'  fights  below  Eichmond  of  the  year  before.  As  we 
trudged  along  we  talked  of  the  loneliness  of  the  hour  and  of 
the  sacredness  of  the  ground  over  which  we  were  passing,  not 
knowing  what  moment  we  might  stumble  over  the  bleaching 
bones  of  an  old  comrade  that  had  fallen  on  this  blood-red  field 
the  year  before.  We  moved  on,  however,  reaching  camp  late 
at  night,  tired  and  worn  out.  The  Twenty-fourth  remained 
here  a  few  days,  after  which  it  was  ordered  to  Petersburg. 

From  Petersburg,  on  20  July,  the  Eegiment  was  or- 
dered to  Weldon,  N.  C.  Beaching  that  place  we  went  into 
camp  on  the  east  side  of  the  town.  It  was  expected,  when  the 
Eegiment  left  Eichmond,  that  we  would  go  on  to  Eocky 
Mount,  ]Sr.  C,  as  the  Yankees  had  the  day  before  invested 
that  town  and  burned  part  or  all  of  the  pviblic  buildings ;  but 
on  reaching  North  Carolina  it  was  found  that  the  enemy  had 
fallen  back  nearer  the  coast.  The  regiment  remained  near 
Weldon  for  quite  a  while  awaiting  orders.  On  the  28th  of 
October  we  left  Weldon  for  Tarboro,  N.  C,  reaching  there 
on  the  30th.  On  the  first  of  November  we  set  out  for  Ham- 
ilton, N.  C,  arriving  there  on  the  6th.  Here  the  regiment  re- 
mained for  some  time,  doing  picket  duty  at  Eawl's  Mill  and 
below  there.     Scouting  parties  were  often  sent  out  from  the 

Twenty-Fourth  Regiment.  279 

regiment  to  go  down  in  the  enemy's  lines  in  the  vicinity  of 
Washington,  E".  0.,  to  watch  their  movements.  The  writer 
had  some  experience  along  this  line,  but  time  and  space  forbid 
any  account  of  the  same  here.  22  E"ovember,  ordered  to 
Williamston,  IST.  0.  Here  the  regiment  did  picket  duty  on 
the  river  below  the  town  for  some  time. 

In  the  latter  part  of  December  Major  Love  took  a  detach- 
ment of  three  companies  from  the  regiment,  to-wit :  Compa- 
nies E,  I,  and  F,  and  went  down  near  to  Plymouth  to  ambus- 
cade a  regiment  of  Yankee  cavalry  that  was  in  the  habit  of 
going  in  the  country  to  forage.  After  a  hard  march  all  night 
over  hedges  and  byways,  we  reached  a  place  of  concealment 
to  await  their  coming ;  but  soon  after  the  rain  began  pouring 
down  in  torrents,  and  so  thoroughly  wet  our  guns  and  aimmu- 
nition  that  the  Major  gave  up  the  idea  as  a  bad  job,  and  we 
set  out  to  retrace  our  footsteps,  marching  on  until  late  in  the 
afternoon.  We  reached  a  mill,  where  we  found  Colonel 
Clarke  with  the  remaining  companies  of  the  Twenty-fourth. 
Here  we  camped  for  the  night,  completely  tired  and  worn 
out.  On  the  following  day  the  regiment  set  out  in  the  direc- 
tion of  Weldon,  reaching  there  a  day  or  two  later,  where  we 
remained  for  a  few  days. 

13  January,  1864,  the  Twenty-fourth  Regiment  reached 
Tarboro,  JST.  C,  and  remained  here  for  a  short  while,  doing 
picket  duty  below  the  town.  In  the  latter  part  of  January 
the  Twenty-fourth  was  ordered  to  Goldsboro,  and  from  this 
place  to  Kinston,  ISTew  Bern  and  back  to  Goldsboro  and  on  to 
Weldon.  It  was  a  continuous  move,  with  no  fighting,  except 
at  ISTew  Bern,  where  we  had  what  we  called  a  litte  "round" 
with  the  Yanks.  From  Weldon,  19  February,  the  Twenty- 
fourth  Regiment  was  ordered  to  Petersburg,  Va.,  and 
went  into  camp  on  Dunn's  Hill,  near  the  city.  17  Febru- 
ary returned  to  Weldon,  IST.  C.  24  February  the  regiment 
was  called  on  to  re-enlist  for  the  duration  of  the  war.  It 
was  understood  by  the  boys,  however,  that  they  were  in  for 
the  war,  and  the  consequence  was,  but  few  re-enlisted. 

On  25  February  Major  Love  took  Company  E,  with 
three  other  companies  of  the  regiment,  and  went  down 
in' Eastern  Carolina  on  a  series  of  hard  marches.     The  de- 

280  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

tachment  reached  G-atesville  about  the  first  of  March.  Erom 
Gatesville  on  to  South  Mills,  which  place  had  previously  been 
burned  by  the  enemy.  At  this  place  the  Yankee  cavalry  was 
stationed,  and  on  our  approach  a  running  fight  ensued  up  the 
Dismal  Swamp  Canal.  We  followed  up  the  canal  for  several 
miles,  driving  the  enemy  before  us,  until  we  reached  the  only 
house  we  had  seen  since  we  had  left  the  burnt  town.  Here 
we  halted,  and  at  night  Major  Love  placed  the  detachment 
in  ambush,  and  awaited  results.  Soon  after,  the  enemy  was 
heard  moving  in  our  direction  down  the  canal ;  and  had  it  not 
been  for  the  impatience  of  the  detachment  highest  up  the 
canal,  who  fired  too  soon,  we  must  have  had  a  nice  time  of  it. 
This,  of  course,  spoiled  the  whole  trick,  and  the  Yankees 
whirled  about  and  made  a  hasty  retreat  up  the  canal — ^not 
however,  without  leaving  several  dead  and  wounded. 

It  was  now  snowing,  'and  the  night  was  intensely  cold,  and 
we  without  fire  or  blankets.  Major  Love  called  to  order  and 
returned  down  the  canal,  breaking  the  dikes  behind  him — 
reaching  South  Mills  in  the  early  morning,  where  we  re- 
mained that  day.  The  following  night  we  set  out  on  a  march 
of  about  thirty  miles  and  went  into  camp  ;  remaining  here  for 
a  day  or  two,  or  until  the  regiment  joined  us.  From  this 
place,  the  Twenty-fourth  set  out  for  Suffolk,  Va.,  which  place 
was  in  possession  of  a  regiment  of  negro  cavalry.  Moving  on 
during  the  day,  we  camped  within  seven  miles  of  the  place.  At 
3  o'clock  in  the  morning  we  resumed  the  m.arch,  General  Ran- 
som with  the  brigade  having  joined  vis  the  night  before. 
Moving  on  in  the  darkness,  we  came  in  contact  with  what  we 
supposed  the  enemy  drawn  iip  in  line  of  battle  at  the  fork  of 
the  road.  Ransom  ordered  Colonel  Clarke  to  form  the  Twen- 
ty-fourth in  line  and  advance  as  near  as  possible  without  forc- 
ing a  fight  to  observe,  if  possible,  if  it  was  the  enemy  or  Col- 
onel Tom  Kennedy's  cavalry  that  was  supposed  to  have  been 
captured  a  day  or  two  before.  It  proved  to  be  Kennedy, 
which  was  found  out  when  it  was  light  enough  so  that  we 
could  see  their  gray  uniforms.  Each  party  sprung  their  guns 
many  times  that  morning,  and  had  one  gun  been  discharged, 
there  wotild  have  been  a  dreadful  slaughter  among  friends. 
After  the  parties  were  known  to  each  other,  Kennedy  took  the 


1.  James  A.  Holeman,  Captain.  Co.  A.         3. 

2.  John  A.  Williams,   Captain,  Commis-    4. 

sary.  5. 

C.  S.  Powell.  2d  Lieut..  Co.  E. 

J  A.  Long.  Orderly  Sergeant,  Co.  H. 

Edwin  G.  Moore,  Private,  Co.  A. 

Twenty-Fourth  Regiment.  281 

left  hand  road  and  Ransom  the  right.  We  ran  in  with  the 
Yankee  pickets  about  three  miles  from  town  and  drove  them 
in.  In  the  afternoon  the  Twenty-fourth  Regiment  was  sent 
around  to  the  west  of  the  town  at  a  church.  Soon  after  we 
saw  in  the  distance  a  squad  of  Yankee  cavalry.  At  this  mo- 
ment Captain  Durham,  of  Ransom's  StafE,  took  charge  of 
the  Texas  Zouaves,  about  fifteen  in  niimber,  and  mounted  on 
very  poor  horses,  dashed  forward  to  meet  them.  A  running 
fight  ensued,  the  Twenty-fourth  being  ordered  to  follow  in 
double-quick.  Durham  pursued  at  close  quarters  until  reach- 
ing the  lower  part  of  town,  when  the  enemy  received  rein- 
forcements and  a  hand  to  hand  conflict  was  had.  The  Twen- 
ty-fourth Riegiment  had  now  reached  the  scene  in  disorder, 
having  double-quicked  about  two  miles.  The  ladies  were  on 
the  streets  with  their  inspiring  words  and  telling  us  that  it 
was  but  a  regiment  of  negroes,  to  go  forward.  At  this  mo- 
ment General  Ransom  came  up  and  commenced  forming  the 
men  in  ranks.  In  the  meantime  the  negroes  were  forming 
for  a  charge,  splendidly  mounted  on  fine  chargers,  and  at  the 
command  dashed  forward  as  if  they  would  ride  over  us ;  but 
every  man  of  the  Twenty-fourth  that  had  arrived  needed  no 
words  of  command  to  make  him  do  his  duty,  except  to  hold 
his  fire  until  the  proper  time.  On  they  came  to  within  forty 
paces,  when  the  order  was  given  to  fire,  which  was  done  with 
telling  effect.  It  was  enotigh.  The  negroes  wheeled  their 
horses  and  fled  in  the  direction  from  which  they  came;  and 
the  writer  has  often  thought  this  the  most  splendid  exhibi- 
tion of  horsemanship  we  have  ever  witnessed.  The  negroes 
did  not  return.  Those  that  fell  into  our  hands  were  in  some 
houses  in  town  and  refused  to  surrender,  and  continued  to  flre 
out  of  the  windows  until  the}'  were  burned  up  in  the  houses. 
Late  in  the  evening  General  Ransom  permitted  the  Twenty- 
fourth  Regiment  to  plunder  the  camps  of  the  enemy,  which 
were  rich  in  many  good  rations,  which  were  very  much  needed 
by  our  boys.  We  remained  in  Siiffolk  two  days,  and  our  part- 
ing with  the  citizens  and  ladies  were  as  sad  as  our  meeting 
upon  entering  the  town  was  joyous.  On  12  March,  1864, 
we  again  reached  Weldon,  worn  ovit  and  tired,  and  went  into 
camp,  soon  after  which  orders  came  to  clean  guns  and  get 

282  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

ready  for  regimental  inspection.  We  remained  at  this  camp 
for  several  days. 

We  left  Weldon  in  the  early  part  of  April  and  reached 
Plymouth,  IST.  C,  about  the  15th,  and  began  the  siege  of  that 
place.  There  were  about  3,500  Yankees  here,  under  the 
command  of  General  Wessell,  strongly  fortified  by  a 
series  of  breastworks  and  forts,  well  mounted,  with  nearly  two 
hundred  heavy  siege  guns,  which  would  seem  to  make  the 
place  well  nigh  invulnerable  to  an  equal  number  of  troops  as 
the  assaulting  party. 

General  Hoke  established  his  lines  on  the  upper  town  or 
river,  and  Ransom's  Brigade  on  the  south  or  front  part  of  the 
town,  all  under  the  command  of  Hoke.  On  the  18th,  Ran- 
som was  ordered  to  assault  the  works  in  front  of  the  town 
which,  by  the  way,  was  that  part  of  the  work  that  embraced 
the  three  principal  forts  and  could  not  be  carried  by  an  as- 
sault made  directly  in  front. 

Preparatory  to  making  this  assault  the  Twenty-fourth  Reg- 
iment was  drawn  up  in  line  of  battle  in  a  skirt  of  woods,  some 
three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  the  enemy's  works,  and  a  de- 
tail made,  to  intercept  and  drive  back  the  enemy's  sharpshoot- 
ers, posted  some  two  hundred  yards  in  front  of  us  in  the  open 
field.  Our  line  advanced  about  half  the  distance,  when  the 
firing  commenced,  and  we  can  truthfully  say,  that  this  was 
the  finest  work  of  the  kind  we  ever  saw,  our  lines  steadily 
advancing,  while  the  enemy's  retreated  into  the  forts. 

The  Twenty-fourth  Regiment  followed  the  line  of  skirmish- 
ers to  within  a  short  distance  of  the  forts,  where  we  were 
halted  and  ordered  to  lie  down  in  a  deep  ravine.  At  this  mo- 
ment (dark)  all  the  artillery  on  both  sides,  that  could  be 
brought  to  bear  was  in  full  play,  and  from  then  until  a  late 
hour  at  night  it  was  a  sublime,  as  it  was  also  an  awful  scene, 
to  watch  the  transition  of  the  bursting  shells,  dealing  death 
and  destruction  on  every  hand.  The  light  caused  by  the 
vivid  flash  of  the  cannon  and  the  explosion  of  shells,  made 
it  sufficient  at  times  to  have  picked  up  a  pin  from  the  earth. 
In  this  assault  our  casualties  were  comparatively  light,  con- 
sidering how  terriffic  was  this  artillery  duel. 

We  withdrew  late  at  night,  and  the  next  day  Ransom's  Bri- 

Twenty-Fourth  Regiment.  283 

gade  was  sent  around  in  rear  of  the  town  on  the  river  to  make 
the  assault  from  below.  Company  E,  of  the  Twenty-fourth, 
was  thrown  forward  as  skirmishers  and  to  find  out,  if  possi- 
ble, if  the  bridge  at  the  creek  had  been  burned.  As  we  have 
before  stated  in  this  sketch,  the  writer  was  acting  as  courier 
from  the  skirmish  line  to  General  Ransom's  headquarters.  It 
was  now  night,  and  I  had  delivered  a  message  froim  Captain 
Lane,  in  charge  of  the  skirtmishers,  to  General  Ransom,  with 
regard  to  the  force  of  the  enemy  at  the  creek,  when  Lieuten- 
ant Applewhite,  of  Texas,  and  acting  as  aid  to  General  Ran- 
som, was  standing  by  and  asked  permission  to  take  "this 
man"  (myself),  and  go  to  the  creek  and  ascertain  if  the  bridge 
had  been  burned.  Ransom  at  first  objected,  but  finally 
yielded,  and  Applewhite  and  myself  set  out,  but  did  not  go 
far  before  we  met  General  Bearing,  of  our  eavarly,  and  one 
other  man. 

On  learning  that  we  were  going  to  the  creek,  Bearing  and 
his  man  joined  us  and  we  four  soon  stood  on  the  bank  of  the 
creek.  The  bridge  had  been  burned  and  a  small  boat  was  on 
the  opposite  side.  Bearing  asked  who  would  swim  the  creek 
and  get  the  boat,  and  no  sooner  said  than  the  man  we  did  not 
know  was  across  the  creek  and  had  the  boat.  The  enemy,  as 
we  soon  learned,  was  about  forty  paces  from  us  behind  breast- 
works. The  man  that  swam  the  creek,  we  have  learned  since 
the  war  was  Cavenaugh,  from  Onslow  county.  It  was  a 
brave  deed,  and  we  mention  it  simply  to  show  the  material 
that  composed  the  Southern  army,  then  around  Plymouth, 
and  no  doubt  there  were  hundreds  of  equally  brave  spirits 
in  that  unequal  contest,  some  of  whom  fell  that  night  and  the 
next  morning  in  the  storming  of  this  strong  citadel. 

Captain  Lane,  with  Company  E,  of  the  Twenty-fourth, 
now  arrived  at  the  creek,  and  soon  after  a  pontoon  was  fixed 
and  Lane  and  his  ooimpany  went  across  to  the  Yankee  side. 
When  he  gave  the  order  to  forward,  the  enemy  poured  into 
them  a  heavy  fire  from  behind  breastworks,  wounding  several 
of  Lane's  men.  Lane,  however,  maintained  his  ground  until 
reinforcements  arrived,  which  was  about  ten  minutes  later, 
when  the  Yankees  fled. 

We  followed  on  to  a  hedgerow  about  one  thousand  yards 
from  the  main  forts,  when  Company  E  held  the  skirmish 

284  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

line  during  the  night.  At  dawn  of  the  day,  the  20th,  Cap- 
tain Durham  of  Eansom's  Staff,  ordered  Captain  Lane  to 
forward  his  line  of  Skirmishers.  This  order  was  greeted  by 
a  shower  of  minie  balls  from  the  enemy.  At  the  time  all 
of  his  artillery  that  could  be  brought  to  bear  upon  us  was  in 
full  play,  which  made  the  earth  quake  beneath  our  feet. 
Amid  this  storm  of  shot  and  shell,  Lane  led  his  line  in  ad- 
vance of  the  line  of  battle  to  the  first  fort.  On  arriving  at 
the  fort,  Daniel  King,  Orderly  Sergeant  of  Company  E, 
mounted  the  parapet  and  demanded  its  surrender,  which 
order  was  obeyed.  The  second  fort  was  then  stormed  and 
carried ;  the  third  also,  and  our  victory  was  complete.  The 
Twenty-fourth  Regiment  and  Eansom's  Brigade  had  stormed 
and  taken  an  army  greater  in  nunibers  than  they  themselves, 
and  the  enemy  well  fortified  within  these  strong  forts,  but 
this  was  not  done  without  some  loss  to  us,  for  in  Company  E, 
Lane's,  alone,  we  numbered  twenty-one  killed  and  wounded. 

Hoke's  Brigade  occupied  the  line  above  town  on  the  river 
and  consequently  did  but  little  of  the  fighting  on  this  day. 
This  was  a  complete  victory  for  our  side  and  it  was  greatly 
due  to  Ransom  and  his  brigade. 

The  recapture  of  Plymouth,  IST.  C,  under  the  existing  cir- 
cumstances, was  one  of  the  most  splendid  victories  achieved 
by  Southern  arms  in  this  great  contest,  and  about  the  only 
hard  fought  battle  on  North  Carolina  soil.  At  night,  the 
troops  were  marched  out  of  town  and  the  dead  buried  with 
military  honors.  On  the  following  day  the  Twenty-fourth 
Regiment  was  sent  to  garrison  the  town  where  we  remained 
for  a  day  or  two,  when  we  were  relieved  by  the  Fiftieth  Regi- 
ment, North  Carolina  troops,  and  Ransom's  Brigade  sent  to 
lay  siege  to  Washington,  N.  C. 

Soon  after  our  arrival  at  this  town  the  Yankees  took  to  their 
gunboats  and  left  for  parts  unknown,  and  we  set  oxit  for  New 
Bern,  N.  C,  reaching  a  point  near  the  city  on  the  south  side 
of  the  Trent,  6  May.  Here  we  had  some  fighting,  cap- 
turing about  fifty  prisoners,  with  a  loss  of  but  two  men  on 
our  side  killed. 

8  May,  we  reached  Kinston,  N.  C,  on  our  way  to 
Virginia.     About  10  May,    we    reached    Petersburg,    Va., 

Twenty-Fourth  Regiment.  285 

and  were  sent  down  on  the  James  river  to  intercept  Butler, 
then  advancing  on  Richmond  from  the  south  side  of  the 
James ;  Ransom's  Brigade  was  now  assigned  to  Bushrod 
Johnson's  division,  under  command  of  General  Beauregard. 
Ransom's  Brigade  was  now  sent  to  Drewry's  Bluff,  and  on 
the  14th,  was  sent  down  the  railroad  to  occupy  a  line  of 
breastworks  on  the  extreme  right  of  our  lines.  The  Twenty- 
fourth  Regiment  rested  its  right  at  the  end  of  the  works,  on 
a  marsh  said  to  be  impassable  by  troops. 

The  enemy  was  closing  in  upon  us  in  front  and  file.  Soon 
after  reaching  this  position  the  enemy  broke  through  this 
swamp  and  attacked  our  line  in  rear,  breaking  our  line  tem- 
porarily and  severely  wounding  General  Ransom.  At  this 
moment,  the  gallant  Captain  Durham  was  killed  at  the  head 
of  the  Twenty-fourth  Regiment,  which  was  now  being  pressed 
from  all  sides  and  the  only  alternative  was  to  cut  through  the 
enemy's  lines  from  the  rear,  which  was  done  in  admirable 
style.  The  Twenty-fourth  was  ordered  to  cover  the  retreat 
up  the  railroad,  the  enemy  shelling  with  all  their  artillery 
which  made  this  position  anything  but  comfortable.  At 
night,  the  Twenty-fourth  was  ordered  to  rest  on  their  arms 
and  Company  E  was  sent  forward  on  a  skirmish.  During 
the  night  we  could  hear  the  cries  of  a  wounded  reb  in  front 
of  our  lines,  the  words  of  whom  we  could  not  understand  at 
the  time,  or  that  it  had  a  special  signification  or  meaning 
until  hostilities  ceased  for  the  time  and  the  wounded  man 
was  brought  safely  into  our  lines.  It  was  said,  by  men  that 
knew,  that  this  man  was  a  Free  Mason,  and  was  thus  safely 
rescued.  Firing  was  kept  up  during  the  night,  and  in  the 
early  morning  of  the  15th  assumed  the  proportions  of  a  regu- 
lar battle.  Fighting  was  kept  up  during  the  day,  and  in  the 
afternoon  the  whole  line  became  engaged.  Ransom's  Brigade 
occupying  much  the  same  position  of  the  night  before.  The 
Twenty-fourth  Regiment  suffered  terribly  during  the  day. 
Cotapany  E  lost  nine  m«n  wounded  and  one  killed  by  the  ex- 
ploding of  a  shell.  It  was  here  that  Colonel  Clarke,  com- 
manding the  brigade,  was  severely  wounded,  and  never  again 
returned  to  the  regiment.  ISTight  closed  this  day's  fighting, 
and     as    the    morning    of    16     May,'  1864,   was   ushered 

286  North  Carolina  Troops,  186]-'65. 

in,  we  were  again  on  the  move,  the  Twenty-fourth  Kegi- 
ment  occupying  the  left  of  the  line  from  that  of  the  previous 
day.  About  9  o'clock  Ransom's  Brigade,  in  command  of 
Colonel  Eutledge,  of  the  Twenty-fifth  Eegiment,  was  ordered 
to  retake  a  portion  of  our  works  that  had  been  captured  the 
day  before.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Harris  led  the  Twenty- 
fourth  to  the  charge.  The  route  over  which  we  had  to  pass 
was  about  500  yards. 

The  timber  had  been  cut  and  felled  in  the  direction  from 
which  we  had  to  make  the  advance.  At  the  word  forward,  we 
made  our  way  as  best  we  could,  losing  our  men  at  every  step. 
Reaching  the  works  occupied  by  the  enemy,  the  conflict  be- 
came fearful,  the  breastwork  only  dividing  the  two  lines.  At 
this  moment  the  Twenty-fourth  Regiment  had  one  hundred  or 
more  of  her  already  thin  ranks  stricken  down,  and  for  the 
first  time  in  her  history  had  to  fall  back  in  disorder.  On 
reaching  the  point  from  which  we  first  started^  Colonel  Har- 
ris reformed  the  regiment  for  a  second  charge.  Captain 
Lane,  Company  E,  on  getting  his  men  together,  found  that 
he  had  but  two  men  left.  The  writer  was  one  of  the  two.  Ad- 
dressing General  Beauregard,  who  was  present,  in  tears,  told 
him  that  he  had  lost  all  of  his  men  but  two,  pointing  to  my- 
self and  Creech.  Beauregard  said  to  Lane:  "Captain,  you 
have  done  enough ;  take  those  two  men  and  act  as  rear  guard 
and  recruit  your  company."  But  when  Harris  ordered  the 
second  charge.  Lane  ordered  us  to  fall  in  and  we  did  so.  But 
on  reaching  the  works  the  Yankees  had  fled,  leaving  their 
dead  and  wounded  behind. 

This  was  a  heart-rending  scene.  The  dead  and  wounded 
were  lying  in  every  conceivable  condition,  and  cries  for  help 
went  up  all  around.  It  is  enough  that  we  should  say,  that 
none  could  look  on  and  not  weep,  unless  he  possessed  a  heart 
as  unsusceptible  as  stone,  or  that  he  were  a  soldier.  Butler 
retreated  to  Bermuda  Hundred.  Beauregard  followed. 
About  the  flrst  of  June,  we  had  a  heavy  skirmish  fight  at  Ber- 
muda Hundred,  and  the  fighting  was  kept  up  from  day  to 
day  for  several  days.  On  one  occasion  Company  E  was  sent 
to  reinforce  Colmpany  H  on  the  skirmish  line.  Soon  the 
whole  regiment  was  sent  and  drove  the  enemy  back.     Reach- 

Twenty-Fourth  Regiment.  287 

ing  a  road,  Colonel  Harris  gave  the  order  to  lie  down,  and 
just  here  happened  a  little  incident  that  we  will  mention  for 
the  fun  of  the  thing.  When  the  order  came  to  lie  down,  the 
writer  crossed  over  the  road  and  took  a  position  behind  a 
forked  oak,  and  began  firing  at  the  Yankee  colors  about  one 
hundred  yards  off.  Soon  we  were  joined  by  Tom  Toler,  who 
also  began  to  fire  soon  after.  Looking  around  we  saw  that 
the  regiment  was  going.  Calling  to  Tom  to  let's  go,  he  said, 
"No,  we  are  going  up." 

We  shook  hands  and  parted  and  on  reaching  the  regiment, 
I  told  the  boys  Tom  was  gone  up ;  that  he  was  a  prisoner,  but 
in  a  few  moments  up  came  Tom,  out  of  breath,  puffing  and 
blowing,  and  said  the  next  time  he  offered  himself  to  the 
Yanks,  they  would  be  sure  to  have  him.  The  boys  gave  a 
loud  yell  at  Tom's  expense. 

18  June  below  Richmond,  near  Bottom's  Bridge,  doing 
picket  duty  on  a  creek.  This  was  as  bad  picket  duty 
as  we  ever  did,  the  two  lines  being  divided  by  the  streaim  and 
not  more  than  forty  yards  apart.  All  that  was  necessary  for 
the  exchange  of  shots  was  to  show  yourself  or  shake  a  bush. 

21  June,  left  Chaffin's  Bluff  and  went  to  Petersburg,  fight- 
ing every  day.  On  reaching  the  city,  we  were  hastened  for- 
ward to  reinforce  some  militia  that  had  withstood  the  Yan- 
kee forces  around  Petersburg  up  to  this  time,  and  had  been 
driven  to  our  last  line  of  works.  Soon  after  our  arrival,  the 
enemy  charged  our  regiment  in  heavy  column.  We  let  them 
come  sufficiently  near,  when  we  mowed  them  down  so  fear- 
fully that  hundreds  threw  down  their  guns  and  surrendered. 

At  night  the  firing  was  kept  up  on  both  sides.  Just  before 
day  the  enemy  broke  Johnson's  (Tennessee)  Brigade  and 
came  in  our  rear  before  we  knew  it.  The  result  was  that  all 
of  the  Twenty-fourth  that  were  asleep  were  captured,  being 
over  one  hundred.  It  was  now  day  and  the  remainder  of  the 
Twenty-fourth  fell  back  to  a  new  position,  and  were  ordered 
to  build  new  works  and  support  Miller's  battery.  We  worked 
during  the  day  with  our  hands  and  bayonets,  and  by  night  we 
had  a  strong  work.  At  night  Colonel  Faison,  in  command  of 
the  brigade,  ordered  us  to  move  to  the  left,  and  soon  after  to 
take  back  a  portion  of  the  works  that  Wise's  Virginia  Brigade 

288  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

had  been  run  out  of.  The  Twenty-fourth  Regiment  was  led 
by  Major  Love.  This  was  a  desperate  struggle,  it  being  nec- 
essary to  club  the  enemy  out  with  the  butts  of  our  guns.  It  was 
soon  over,  however,  and  our  loss  was  light,  considering  the 
situation.  We  remained  here  in  this  captured  works  until 
just  before  day,  the  enemy's  dead  and  wounded  in  piles 
among  us,  when  we  were  moved  to  the  right.  This  brought 
day  of  the  morning  of  the  23rd,  and  we  were  again  ordered 
to  built  breastworks  which  was  again  done  during  the  day 
with  bayonets  as  our  only  tools.  The  eneray  massed  their 
columns  all  day  in  a  deep  ravine  in  our  front. 

About  sunset  they  advanced  several  columns  deep.  Our 
lines  were  doubled  also.  On  they  came  to  within  seventy- 
five  yards  before  we  gave  them  the  first  fire;  still  they  came 
until  the  third  round,  Avhen  they  weakened  and  fell  back 
down  the  hill,  still  firing  but  to  no  effect,  as  the  balls  passed 
well  over  us.  About  9  o'clock  at  night,  we  were  relieved  by 
General  Longstreet's  corps,  and  sent  out  near  the  reservoir 
for  rest,  the  first  we  had  had  for  several  days.  On  leaving 
the  works,  we  came  in  range  of  the  enemy's  bullets  and  suf- 
fered considerable  loss.  The  siege  of  Petersburg  now  began 
by  General  Grant,  and  the  line  of  breastworks  built  this  day 
by  the  Southern  army  was  the  line  maintained  and  held  by 
them  during  the  remaining  nine  raontlis  of  the  war.  During 
this  nine  months,  there  was  scarcely  a  moment,  and  certainly 
not  an  hour,  but  the  sound  of  arms  could  be  heard  on  some 
portion  of  the  lines.  Time  rolled  on.  Ransom's  Brigade  oc- 
cupying that  portion  of  Lee's  line  from  the  right  bank  of  Ap- 
pomattox river  to  and  beyond  the  iron  railroad  bridge,  east  of 
the  city.      Skirmishing  was  now  an  every  day  occurrence. 

In  many  places  the  two  lines  were  not  one  hundred  yards 

On  30  July,  Grant  sprung  the  mine,  afterwards 
known  as  the  "Crater,  or  Blow-xip  at  Petersburg."  The  right 
of  the  Twenty-fourth  Regiment  rested  within  a  few  paces  of 
the  "Crater"  at  the  time  of  this  explosion,  and  was  among  the 
first  troops  to  engage  in  repelling  "Bumside's  IsTegro  Sol- 
diers" from  this  bloody  chasm.  We  remained  here  among 
these  dead  negroes  until  they  were  buried,  or  partially  so,  for 

Twenty-Fourth  Regiment.  ,289 

several  days,  the  stench  being  unbearable  under  other  circum- 
stances. This  portion  of  the  lines  was  ever  after  known  as 
Mortar  Hill.  Subsequently,  the  Twenty-fourth  Regiment 
was  moved  to  the  left,  and  occupied  the  line  from  the  iron 
bridge  to  the  river  as  before  stated.  Here  it  was  our  daily  oc- 
cupation to  watch  the  enemy  through  port  holes  made  through 
sand  bags  and  to  dodge  mortar  shells.  At  night  we  did  picket 
duty  in  the  rifle  pits  between  the  two  lines,  in  some  places  not 
more  than  forty  yards  from  the  Yankee  pickets.  Often  we 
would  meet  and  exchange  tobacco  and  coffee,  and  have  a  social 
chat  with  each  other. 

In  Qctober,  the  Regiment  was  recruited  by  conscripts  from 
Camp  Holmes,  which  swelled  our  ranks  somewhat,  and  many 
of  these  men  made  good  soldiers.  Time  moved  on  with  its 
many  changes,  in  men  and  other  things.  The  Yankees  often 
making  desperate  efforts  to  break  our  lines,  but  were  as  often 
repulsed,  and  sometimes  with  heavy  loss.  About  15  March, 
1865,  Ransom's  Brigade  was  relieved  and  sent  about 
seven  miles  west  of  the  city.  Here  we  remained  for  a  few 
days  in  some  houses  or  huts  that  had  been  built  by  the  army. 
About  24  March,  at  night,  we  were  ordered  to  fall  in 
ranks,  not  knowing  what  was  going  to  happen  next.  We  took 
up  the  line  of  march  in  the  direction  of  Petersbuig,  which 
place  we  reached  after  midnight.  We  were  ordered  to  the 
place  we  had  left  but  a  few  days  before,  at  the  iron  bridge. 
It  now  became  apparent  that  something  had  to  be  done.  About 
one  hour  to  day,  the  Twenty-fourth  Regiment  was  ordered 
to  mount  the  works  and  move  as  quietly  as  possible  on  the 
enemy's  works. 

Moving  on  in  the  darkness  we  soon  came  in  contact  with 
the  enemy's  cJieveaux  de  freise  fastened  together  Avith  wire. 
Through  this  we  so&n  made  an  opening,  and  entered  the  works 
without  firing  a  gun,  the  Yankees  not  expecting  an  assault. 
As  we  brought  them  out  in  their  night  clothes  we.  would  send 
them  to  the  rear.  A  moment  later  firing  commenced  to  our 
right,  but  the  enemy  was  so  completely  taken  by  surprise  that 
their  effort  was  but  a  feeble  one,  and  we  had  their  line  for  a 
mile  or  more.  For  some  unknown  cause  the  advantage  we 

290  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

had  then  gained  was  thrown  away,  and  we  were  permitted  to 
quietly  remain  where  we  were  until  Grant  moved  a  portion 
of  his  army  from  Hatcher's  Run,  some  nine  miles  away. 

It  was  now  9  o'clock  in  the  morning ;  and  when  the  Yan- 
kees came,  they  presented  a  sublibae  scene  in  their  long  lines 
of  blue.  We  prepared  to  receive  them  as  they  came;  but 
soon  yelling  commenced  to  the  right  of  Ransom's  Brigade, 
and  later  they  came  in  both  front  and  rear  and  poured  into 
us  a  heavy,  enfilading  fire,  which  was  very  destructive  to  our 
men.  It  was  here  that  Lieutenant-Colonel  Harris  was  severely 
wounded,  and  Major  Love  took  command  of  the  Twenty- 
fourth  Regiment.  We  were  now  powerless  to  help  ourselves, 
as  the  Yankees  were  closing  in  upon  us  from  every  quarter, 
and  the  order  was  given  to  fall  back  by  companies,  begin- 
ning on  the  left  of  the  regiment ;  but  before  the  right  compa- 
nies received  the  order  the  enemy  had  cut  off  all  chances  of 
retreat.  The  writer  was  present  with  Major  Love  at  the 
head  of  the  regiment  when  the  Yankees  came,  and  saw  him 
wrest  frdm  the  hands  of  a  Yankee  color-bearer  his  colors,  but 
of  course  he  was  not  allowed  to  keep  them,  for  we  were  now 
prisoners,  or  ^.t  least  one-half  of  the  men  belonging  to  the  two 
right  companies  were.  We  have  never  known  the  number 
killed  and  wounded  in  the  Twenty-fourth  in  this  engagement, 
but  it  was  very  heavy  in  both  men  and  officers,  as  there  was 
but  a  handful  of  men  left  under  the  command  of  Captain 

• to  surrender  at  Five  Forks,  a  week  later.     We 

believe,  however,  that  the  Twenty-fourth  Regiment  was  repre- 
sented at  Appomattox  in  the  final  surrender  by  our  beloved 
commander,  but  by  no  organized  command.  Those  of  us 
taJsen  prisoners  were  sent  to  Point  Lookout,  Md.,  and  to  John- 
son's Island,  N.  Y.,  where  we  remained  until  June,  1865. 

Thus  closed  the  services  to  the  "Lost  Cause"  of  one  of  the 
best  regiments  that  the  Old  North  State  furnished  during  the 
late  war. 

W.  K  Rose,  Je. 

OVBESHOT,    N.    C, 

9  April,  1901. 

1.    T.  L.  Clingman,  Colonel.  4.    James  A.  Blalock,  Captain,  Co.  F. 

8.    Henry  M.  Butledge,  Colonel.  5.    James  M.  Cathey,  Captain,  Co.  F. 

3.    T.  D.  Bryson,  Captain,  Co.  B.  6.    W.  Pinck  Welch,  1st  Lieut.,  Co.  C. 

7.    J.  C.  L.  Gudger,  1st  Lieut,  and  Adjutant. 


By  garland  S.  FERGUSON,  Second  Lieutenant  Company  F. 

In  May,  1861,  the  companies  which  were  to  form  the  Twen- 
ty-fifth Regiment  began  to  organize  in  Western  North  Caro- 
lina and  to  assemble  in  Camp  Patton  at  Asheville.  As  each 
successive  company  took  its  position  in  camp  the  guard  line 
was  extended  and  the  civilian  began  to  do  duty  and  learn  the 
step  and  manoeuvers  of  the  soldier.  By  15  August,  ten  com- 
panies, the  requisite  number,  were  in  camp  and  the  regiment 
was  organized,  the  field  ofiicers  being  elected  by  the  votes  of 
the  commissioned  officers  of  the  companies. 

Hon.  Thomas  L.  Clingmajst,  Colonel,  who  for  years  had 
represented  the  mountain  district  in  the  Congress  of  the 
United  States,  and  who  had  resigned  his  seat  in  the  United 
States  Senate — afterwards  Brigadier-General. 

St.  Claib  Deaeing,  Lieutenant-Colonel,  who  had  resigned 
his  position  in  the  United  States  Army — later  Brigadier-Gen- 

Hektey  M.  EutlegEj  Major,  a  boyish-looking  young  man 
of  22,  with  military  education  and  bearing. 

W.  ]Sr.  Feeeman,  was  appointed  Adjutant. 

W.  H.  Beysow^  Quartermaster. 

John  W.  Walkee,  Commissary. 

De.  S.  S.  Satchwell^  Surgeon. 

De.  G.  W.  Fletchee,  Assistant  Surgeon. 

J.  C.  L.  Gudgee^  Sergeant-Major. 

Clinton  A.  JoneSj  Quartermaster  Sergeant. 

Julius  M.  Toung^  Commissary  Sergeant. 

Petee  M.  EicHj  Drum  Major. 

The  companies  composing  the  regiment  were : 

Com  f  ANY  A — From  Henderson  County,  conmianded  by 

292  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Captain  Baylis  M.  Edney,  who  was  killed  in  1863,  and  after- 
wards by  Captain  Matthew  H.  Love,  who  was  promoted  to 
Major  and  Lieutenant-Colonel;  Captain  John  Plumby, 
who  was  killed  at  Five  Forks. 

Company  B — From  Jackson  County,  commanded  by  Cap- 
tain  Thaddeus  D.  Bryson,  and  afterwards  by  Captain  David 

Company  C — ^From  Haywood  County,  commanded  by 
Captain  Sam  C.  Bryson,  who  was  promoted  Major,  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel, wounded  at  Eraser's  Farm  in  front  of  Peters- 
burg on  the  night  of  lY  June,  1864,  resigned,  and  afterwards 
by  Captain  W.  IST.  Freeman. 

Company  D — From  Cherokee  County,  commanded  by 
Captain  John  W.  Francis,  who  was  promoted  Major,  wounded 
at  Malvern  Hill,  resigned,  and  afterwards  comtaianded  by 
Captain  Lee  B.  Tatham. 

Company  E — From  Transylvania  County,  commanded  by 
Captain  Francis  W.  Johnston,  afterwards  by  Captain  Wm. 
W.  Graves,  who  was  killed  in  front  of  Petersburg,  then  by 
Captain  Charles  L.  Osborne. 

Company  F — From  Haywood  County,  commanded  by 
Captain  Thomas  I.  Lenoir,  afterwards  by  Captain  James  M. 
Cathey,  who  was  killed  at  the  "Crater"  in  front  of' Peters- 
burg on  the  30th  of  June,  1864,  then  by  Captain  James  A, 

Company  G^ — From  Athens,  Georgia,  Clay  and  Macon 
counties,  North  Carolina,  commanded  by  Captain  Wm.  S. 
Grady,  who  was  promoted  Major  and  mortally  wounded  at 
the  "Crater"  30  June,  1864,  and  afterwards  by  Captain  John 
S.  Hayes,  then  Captain  John  H.  Phinisee. 

Company  H — From  Buncombe  and  Henderson  counties, 
commanded  by  Captain  Frederick  Blake,  and  afterwards  by 
Captain  Solomon  Cunningham,  who  was  killed  at  Fredericks- 
burg 13  December,  1862,  then  by  Captain  Thomas  J.  Young. 

Company  I — From  Buncombe  County,  commanded  by 
Captain  George  W.  Howell,  afterwards  by  Captain  W..  Y. 
Morgan,  who  was  promoted  Major,  and  then  by  Captain  A.  B. 

Company  K — From  Buncombe  cotinty,   commanded  by 

Twenty-Fifth  Regiment.  293 

Captain  Charles  M.  Roberts,  who  was  promoted  Major  of  a 
battalion  and  killed  by  bush  whackers  while  on  detail  duty  in 
Madison  County  in  1864,  and  then  commanded  by  Captain 
Jesse  M.  Burleyson. 

With  the  exception  of  a  part  of  Company  G,  the  regiment 
was  composed  of  mountain  men  west  of  the  Ridge,  the  Colo- 
nel was  a  politician  and  statesman ;  the  Lieutenant-Colonel  a 
professional  soldier;  the  Major  a  civilian  with  a  military  ed- 
ucation. There  were  but  few  slave  owners  in  the  regiment, 
90  per  cent,  of  the  men  were  farmers  and  farmer's  sons,  fully 
80  per  cent,  home  owners,  or  the  sons  of  farmers  who  owned 
their  farms.  With  the  exception  of  the  Lieutenant-Colonel 
the  survivors  expected  to  return  to  the  peaceful  pursuits  of 
life  after  the  war  should  terminate. 

The  majority  of  the  men  composing  the  regiment  had  been 
Union  men  until  after  President  Lincoln's  Proclamation, 
they  then  regarded  their  interests  with  the  South  and  ac- 
knowledged their  allegiance  to  the  State.  They  had  gone  to 
war  to  defend  their  homes  from  invasion  by  an  armed  foe. 

The  men  had  been  accustomed  to  independence  of  thought 
and  freedom  of  action  and  had  elected  for  their  company  of- 
ficers their  neighbors  and  companions  and  had  no  idea  of 
giving  up  more  of  their  personal  liberty  than  should  be  nec- 
essary to  make  them  effective  soldiers — obedient  on  duty,  in- 
dependent off — this  spirit,  they  in  a  marked  degree,  retained 
to  the  close  of  the  war,  and  it  was  this  which  made  them  the 
pride  of  their  General  in  battle  and  sometimes  gave  him  an- 
noyance in  camp.  Under  the  mild  discipline  of  the  Colonel 
and  skillful  training  and  accurate  drill  of  the  LieutenanlhCol- 
onel  and  Major,  the  regiment  was  soon  thoroughhly  drilled 
and  disciplined,  on  duty.  On  18  September  the  reg- 
iment marched  from  Asheville  to  Icard  Station  below  Mor- 
ganton,  the  nearest  railroad  point;  the  majority  of  the  regi- 
ment had  never  seen  a  steam  engine  or  a  railroad.  It  stopped 
a  day  or  two  in  Raleigh  and  drew  uniforms  and  reached  Wil- 
mington 29  September  and  went  into  camp  at  Mitch- 
ell's Sound.  Here  the  regiment  had  arms,  muskets, 
distributed  to  it.  In  ISTovember  it  was  sent  to  the  coast  de- 
fence of  South  Carolina  and  camped  near  Grahamville  most 

294  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

of  the  winter,  doing  picket  duty,  drilling  and  building  fortifi- 
cations. 14  March,  1862,  the  regiment  left  Grahamville  for 
ISTew  Bern,  N.  0.,  but  before  reaching  that  point  the  city  had 
been  taken  and  the  regiment  met  the  retreating  Confederate 
troops  at  Kinston,  where  it  went  into  camp  and  remained 
until  after  the  reo-rganization,  being  attached  to  the  bri- 
gade commanded  by  General  Robert  Ransom,  which  consisted 
of  the  Twenty-fourth,  Twenty-fifth,  Twenty-sixth,  Thirty- 
fifth  and  Forty-ninth  North  Carolina  Regiments.  At  the  re- 
organization Clingman  was  re-electel  Colonel,  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Dearing  being  a  professional  soldier  ob- 
jected to  again  taking  a  second  place  in  the  regi- 
ment and  retired  from  the  command.  Major  Rutledge 
was  elected  Lieutenant-Colonel  and  Captain  S.  C.  Bry- 
son  of  Company  C,  elected  Major.  Colonel  Clingman  was 
soon  promoted  Brigadier-General,  Rutledge  to  Colonel ;  Bry- 
son  to  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  Captain  Francis  of  Company 
D,  to  Major. 

On  24  June,  1862,  the  regiment  reached  Richmond, 
Va.,  as  a  part  of  General  Robert  Ransom's  brigade; 
by  sunrise  of  the  25th  it  was  on  the  march  towards  the  front 
and  to  join  the  division  of  General  Huger,  which  was  then  en- 
gaged at  Seven  Pines  on  the  Williamsburg  road.  There  was 
heavy  firing  of  artillery  and  musketry  in  front.  It  had  at 
last  come  in  hearing  of  the  true  music  of  war.  About  one-half 
mile  from  the  line  the  regiment  was  ordered  to  double  quick. 
It  was  thrown  in  line  on  the  immediate  left  of  the  Williams- 
burg road,  and  when  within  range  of  the  enemy  the  regi- 
ment halted,  the  front  rank  at  the  command  fired  and  fell  to 
the  ground,  the  rear  rank  fired  over  theln,  then  with  bayo- 
nets fixed  we  raised  the  rebel  yell  and  charged ;  the  enemy 
gave  way  and  the  ground  which  had  been  lost  in  the  morning 
was  retaken.  The  enemy  opened  a  heavy  fire  of  musketry 
and  three  times  tried,  without  effect,  to  retake  their  lines.  At 
6  o'clock  p.  m.  a  heavy  fire  of  grape  was  opened  on  the  regi- 
ment without  demoralizing  or  moving  it.  It  was  relieved  at 
dark.  Major-General  Huger  in  his  report  of  this  battle 
says:  "The  Twenty-fifth  Regiment  (Colonel  H.  M.  Rut- 
ledge) was  pushed  to  the  left  of  the  Williamsburg  road, 

Twenty-Fifth  Regiment.  295 

where  the  enemy  had  advanced,  and  drove  them  back  in  gal- 
lant style."  The  loss  of  the  regiment  was  two  killed  and  forty 
wounded.  Private  B.  B.  Edmondson  was  promoted  to  Ad- 
jutant of  the  regiment  for  gallantry  on  the  field.  General  Rob- 
ert Ransom  commended,  in  his  report  of  the  engagement,  the 
officers  and  men  of  the  regiment. 

The  regiment  was  on  several  occasions,  during  the  suc- 
ceeding days,  under  fire.  On  2  July  at  Malvern  Hill  late 
in  the  evening  it  made  a  charge,  but  for  want  of  sup- 
port and  on  account  of  a  galling  fire,  it  was  ordered  back,  and 
with  other  regiments  of  the  brigade,  was  reformed  under 
cover  by  General  Robert  Ransom,  and  again  advanced  to 
within  one  hundred  yards  of  the  enemy's  guns  and  line,  when 
the  men  raised  a  yell  and  charged  in  the  face  of  a  perfect 
sheet  of  fire  from  musketry  and  artillery,  without  wavering, 
to  within  twenty  yards  of  the  enemy's  guns,  some  going  even 
nearer.  At  this  point  General  Ransom  discovered  that  he 
was  not  supported  and  that  the  enemy  were  heavily  massed, 
very  greatly  outnumbering  his  men.  Unwilling  to  sacrifice 
his  men  in  a  hopeless  charge  and  dark  coming  on  he  withdrew 
from  the  attack.  In  his  report  of  the  battle  he  speaks  in  the 
highest  terms  of  praise  of  the  conduct  of  the  officers  and  men, 
commending  especially  the  courage  and  coolness  of  Colonel 
Rutledge  and  Major  Francis.  The  Colonel  was  stunned  by  a 
bursting  shell  and  the  Major  wounded.  The  regiment's  loss 
was  ninety-three  in  killed  and  wounded.  After  the  battle  of 
Malvern  Hill  General  Ransom  had  full  confidence  in  the 
fighting  qualities  of  the  Twenty-fifth  Regiment,  and  the  men 
of  the  regiment  .had  full  confidence  in  him  as  a  careful,  cour- 
ageous and  skillful  leader  in  battle.  It  was  only  in  camp 
and  on  the  march  that  any  difl^erence  existed  between  the  men 
and  their  General;  this  existence  amounted  to  positive  dis- 
like, in  some  instances  hate.  The  men  of  the  Twenty-fifth 
Regiment  would  not  have  exchanged  General  Robert  Ran- 
som as  a  leader  in  battle  for  any  General  in  the  Army  of 
Northern  Virginia.  His  mastery  of  military  tactics,  cool- 
ness on  the  field,  and  judgment  of  ground  enabled  him  to 
place  his  men  in  action  with  great  rapidity  and  comparative 
safety,  xmtil  they  were  ready  to  do  execution.     If  he  had  un- 

296  NoETH  Carolina  Troops,  186] -'65. 

derstood  volunteer  soldiers  and  realized  that  four-fifths  of  the 
men  in  ranks  were  as  careful  of  their  personal  honor,  and  as 
anxious  for  the  success  of  the  cause  as  he,  he  would  have 
been  one  of  the  gi-eatest  generals  in  Lee's  army,  was  the  opin- 
ion of  some,  and  is  still  the  opinion  of  the  writer.  After  Mal- 
vern Hill  the  regiment  went  into  camp  for  a  time  at  Drewry's 
Bluff.  It  was  here,  in  consequence  of  the  exposure  just  gone 
through,  that  army  sickness  first  made  its  telling  effect  on  the 
regiment,  the  loss  by  death  from  sickness  being  eighty-one. 
About  this  time  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment  was  taken  out  of 
our  brigade  and  later  the  Fifty-sixth  Eegiment  was  assigned 
us  in  its  place. 

The  regiment,  with  the  brigade,  was  attached  to  Walker's 
Division  in  the  Maryland  campaign,  and  at  Harper's  Ferry 
was  placed  to  gviard  Loudon  Heights  to  prevent  the  escape  of 
the  enemy.  When  it  was  first  made  known  to  the  men 
by  General  Lee's  order  that  the  army  was  to  cross  the  Poto- 
mac there  was  a  considerable  murmur  of  disappointment  in 
ranks.  The  men  said  thej^  had  volunteered  to  resist  invasion 
and  not  to  invade,  some  did  not  believe  it  right  to  invade 
Northern  territory,  others  thought  that  the  same  cause  that 
brought  the  Southern  army  to  the  front  would  increase  the 
jSTorthern  army,  still  others  thought  the  war  should  be  car- 
ried into  the  North;  thus  the  men  thought,  talked  and  disa- 
greed. This  was  the  first  dissension  among  the  men  of  the 
regiment,  but  all  were  united  in  their  confidence  and  love 
for  Lee. 

At  Sharpsburg  the  regiment  was  put  into  action  near  the 
extreme  left  of  Lee's  line.  Our  troops  were  retreating  in 
front  of  a  determined  charge  of  the  enemy,  the  men  passed 
through  the  retreating  troops,  raised  the  yell,  and  charged 
with  a  determination  that  drove  the  enemy  from  the  field 
to  cover  of  his  heavy  works. 

Camping  equij^ments  had  been  left  behind  at  Richmond, 
and  frequently  on  the  march  the  men  had  to  resort  to  ram- 
rods for  baking  purposes  and  forked  sticks  for  the  roast; 
blankets  and  change  of  clothing  had  been  left  at  Sharpsburg, 
and  when  the  men  recrossed  the  Potomac  they  were  without 
blankets  and  bare  of  clothing,  this  was  late  in  September  and 


J.    S.  J.  SheltoD,  1st  Lieut.,  Co.  C.  3.    J.  T.  Cathey,  2d  Lieut.,  Co.  F. 

2.    W.  H  Hartgrove.  1st  Lieut.,  Co.  F.  4.    Garland  S.  Ferguson, 8<1  Lieut.,  Co.F 

5.    John  W.  Norwood,  1st  Sergeant,  Co.  C. 

Twenty-Fifth  Regiment.  297 

the  regiment  did  not  receive  new  blankets  till  some  time  in 
October.     The  beds  were  room}'  but  cool. 

After  remaining  in  the  Shenandoah  Valley  for  some  time 
the  regiment  marched  to  Madison  Court  House,  where  it 
bivouaced  and  there  drew  a  stipply  of  clothing  and  blankets, 
then  marched  to  Fredericksburg.  The  winter  at  Fredericks- 
burg was  cold,  but  sh^ters  were  made  of  pine  brush,  log  fires 
built  in  front,  and  with  an  additional  supply  of  blankets  and 
clothing,  which  most  men  received  from  home,  the  men  were 
fairly  comfortable. 

On  11  and  12  December,  1862,  the  regiment  was 
in  position  back  of  Marye's  House.  About  11  o'clock 
on  the  morning  of  the  13th,  General  Robert  Ransom  informed 
the  regiment  that  General  Cobb's  men  who  were  holding  ovir 
line  in  front  of  Marye's  House,  were  short  of  ammunition 
and  must  be  reinforced,  and  that  the  xmdertaking  was  a  dan- 
gerous one;  the  men  fully  understanding  the  importance  and 
danger  of  the  duty,  moved  forward  with  a  firm  and  steady 
step,  like  patriots,  to  battle.  On  reaching  the  crest  of  the 
hill  (the  regiment  having  been  divided  so  as  to  pass  the  house 
on  either  side)  it  met  a  fearful  fire  from  the  enemy  two  hun- 
dred yards  off.  In  casting  an  eye  along  the  line  men  could  be 
seen  falling  like  sheaves  before  the  sickle.  In  less  than  two 
minutes  the  regiment's  loss  in  killed  and  wounded  was  one 
hundred  and  twenty.  It  reached  Cobb's  line  just  as  his  men 
were  emptying  their  last  cartridge,  and  held  the  line,  repell- 
ing six  successive  assaults,  until  relieved  at  nightfall. 

During  the  spring  of  1863  the  regiment  was  stationed 
at  Kenansville,  Wilmington,  and  other  places  in  North 
Carolina.  The  fall  and  winter  of  1863  the  regiment  was  sta- 
tioned at  Garysburg,  from  which  place  it  made  several  ex- 
cursions to  check  the  advances  of  the  enemy  on  the  coast  of 
ISTorth  Carolina,  but  did  not  see  much  hard  service  until  the 
spring  of  1864.  In  October,  1863,  a  detachment  of  the  regi- 
ment under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Bryson,  had  an  engagement 
at  Hot  Springs,  in  Madison  County,  North  Carolina.  The 
enemy  outnumbered  them  twenty  to  one,  and  the  loss  of  the 
detachment  in  killed  and  wounded  was  heavy,  including  Lieu- 
tenant Hyatt,  of  Company  F,  who  was  killed  on  the  field. 

298  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

In  April,  1864,  the  regiment  participated  in  the  assault 
and  capture  of  Plymouth,  IST.  C. 

During  the  Virginia  and  Maryland  campaigns,  Colonel 
Eutledge  had  so  endeared  himself  to  the  non-commissioned  of- 
ficers and  privates  of  his  regiment,  by  his  courage  and  kind- 
ness, that  they  presented  him  a  fine  saddle  horse,  not  allowing 
the  commissioned  ofiicers  to  bear  any  part  of  the  expense  or 
take  any  part  in  the  presentation  ceremonies. 

General  Robert  Hansom  was  promoted  Major-General  June 

1863,  and  Colonel  Matthew  W.  Eansom,  of  the  Thirty-fifth, 
was  promoted  to  Brigadier-General  and  assigned  to  the  com- 
mand of  the  brigade.  General  Matthew  Ransom  was  a  law- 
yer, very  handsome  in  appearance,  of  undoubted  courage  and 
knew  the  temper  of  volunteer  soldiers.  The  men  of  the  regi- 
ment loved  him  and  trusted  him. 

The  regiment  was  engaged  at  Drewry's  Bluff  12  May, 

1864,  in  which  engagement  Company  F  lost  Lieutenant 
Ebed  J.  Ferguson,  killed,  and  six  non-commissioned  officers 
and  privates  wounded;  and  participated  in  the  engagements 
at  Ware  Bottom  Church  and  Bermuda  Hundred. 

On  16  June,  1864,  the  regiment  crossed  to  the  South  of 
the  Appomattox  for  the  defence  of  Petersburg  and  entered  at 
once  into  the  fight  in  front  of  Avery's  House,  and  checked  the 
advance  of  the  enemy  who  was  driving  back  the  Petersburg 
militia,  the  only  protection  to  the  city  at  that  time.  On  the 
night  of  the  17th  the  regiment  participated  in  the  engagement 
at  Avery's  Farm,  and  drove  the  enemy  from  their  breastworks 
at  the  point  where  the  Twenty-fifth  made  its  attack. 

From  16  June,  1864,  until.April,  1865,  the  regiment  was 
constantly  under  fire,  with  the  exception  of  about  ten  days 
in  March,  occupying  the  trenches  in  front  of  Petersburg. 
The  position  of  the  regiment  on  30  June,  1864, 
was  on  the  right  of  Ransom's  brigade  and  to  the 
left  of  Elliott's  South  Carolina  brigade.  The  explosion  of 
Grant's  Mine  (the  "Crater")  was  in  the  line  occupied  by  the 
left  regiment  of  the  South  Carolina  brigade.  Immediately 
after  the  explosion  the  Twenty-fifth  regiment,  then  number- 
ing about  two  hundred  and  fifty  men  moved  from  the  trenches 
and  formed  a  new  line  in  the  rear  of  the  trenches  occupied  by 

Twenty-Fifth  Regiment.  299 

the  South  Carolinians,  which  had  been  taken  at  the  time  of 
the  explosion  and  which  were  then  occupied  by  the  enemy.  The 
regiment,  with  a  remnant  of  the  Sixth  South  Carolina,  was  the 
only  force  between  the  enemy  and  the  city,  at  that  point. 
The  enemy  massed  his  troops  in  our  trenches  in  front  of  us 
until  he  had  sixteen  regimental  flags  in  our  works.  He  made 
several  attempts  to  move  forward  and  force  our  line,  but 
was  successfully  repulsed  and  held  in  check  for  several  hours, 
until  reinforcements  arrived.  The  regiment  led  Mahone's 
men  in  the  charge  which  retook  the  works.  In  retaking  the 
works  the  fight  was  hand  to  hand,  with  guns,  bayonets,  and 
swords,  in  fact  anything  a  man  could  fight  with.  One  six- 
teen year  old  boy  had  his  gun  knocked  out  of  his  hands  and 
picked  up  a  cartridge  box  and  fought  with  that.  Major 
Grady,  who  commanded  the  regiment,  was  mortally  wounded 
and  Captain  Jas.  M.  Cathey,  of  Company  F,  killed. 

On  21  August,  1864,  the  regiment  participated  in  the 
battle  of  the  Weldon  Railroad,  between  Petersburg  and 
Reams'  Station.  The  enemy  had  entrenched  himself  behind 
heavy  earthworks  and  had  felled  the  timber  in  front,  crossing 
the  laps  of  the  trees  and  sharpening  the  limbs.  In  order 
to  reach  their  works  the  timber  had  to  be  removed  so  as  to 
make  a  passway  for  the  men.  During  this  time  the  enemy 
kept  up  a  constant  fire  until  our  men  reached  the  works.  The 
color-bearer  of  the  regiment  was  shot  down  and  Sergeant 
J.  B.  Hawkins,  of  Company  C,  caught  the  colors,  rushed  for- 
ward and  placed  them  on  the  works.  The  works  were  taken 
and  the  enemy  driven  back  under  cover  of  his  heavy  artillery. 
The  loss  of  the  regiment  was  heavy  in  killed  and  wounded. 
Lieutenant  Garland  S.  Ferguson,  of  Company  F,  was 
wounded  in  the  right  shoulder,  but  did  not  quit  the  field. 

On  25  March,  1865,  a  detail  of  ten  men  from  each 
regiment  of  Ransom's  brigade,  under  Lieu.tenant  Burch,  was 
placed  in  charge  of  Lieutenant  J.  B.  Hawkins,  of  Company 
C,  Twenty-fifth  regiment,  who  received  his  orders  from  Gen- 
eral Robert  Ransom  in  these  words:  "I  order  you  to  take 
Fort  Steadman,  not  attack  it."  Lieutenant  Hawkins  quietly 
executed  this  order  and  had  the  fort  in  possession  without  the 
firing  of  a  gun. 

300  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

The  Twenty-fifth  was  moved  forward  to  the  left  of  Fort 
Steadman  and  nearly  in  front  of  the  position  it  had  occupied 
in  the  ditches  through  the  winter ;  drove  in  the  enemy's  pick- 
ets, took  their  first  works  and  held  them.  The  fort  of  the 
enemy  in  the  field  on  the  left  was  not  taken,  and  the  enemy 
from  that  point  poured  a  fearfnl  enfilading  fire  into  the 
regimBnt.  Several  unsuccessful  efforts  were  made  from  the 
front  to  dislodge  the  regiment.  After  the  enemy  retook  Fort 
Steadman  and  was  advancing  in  front  and  while  the  regiment 
was  suffering  the  effects  of  an  enfilading  fire  from  the  left,  the 
Colonel  walked  along  the  line  of  his  regiment  with  his  cap  on 
sword,  shouting  to  his  men,  "Don't  let  them  take  our  front, 
Twenty-fifth,  the  Twenty-fifth  has  never  had  her  front 
taken."  At  this  time  orders  were  received  from  General  G-or- 
don  to  fall  back  to  our  line  of  works.  The  loss  of  the  regi- 
ment was  hfeavy.  A  number  of  commissioned  ofiicers  were 
severely  wounded,  including  Lieutenant  Garland  S.  Fergu- 
son, whose  left  thigh  was  broken ;  many  non-commissioned  of- 
ficers and  privates  were  killed  and  wounded. 

After  Steadman  the  regiment  moved  to  the  right,  marching 
and  fighting ;  the  principal  battles  in  which  it  was  engaged 
were  at  Amelia  Court  .House,  and  Five  Forks.  I  can  do  no 
better  in  giving  the  description  of  the  battle  of  Five  Forks 
than  to  do  so  in  the  language  of  the  gallant  and  beloved  Colo- 
nel of  the  regiment.  He  says :  "At  Five  Forks  I  was  more 
proud  of  the  regiment  than  I  had  ever  been  before,  and  that 
is  saying  a  great  deal.  I  have  thought  of  them  and  com- 
pared them  to  the  'Stonewall'  of  Manassas.  They  were  sur- 
rounded on  three  sides  by  -many  times  their  own  numbers, 
but  there  they  stood,  a  solid  mass  of  mountain  men, 
broad  sides  from  the  enemy  being  poured  into  them,  and  there 
they  stood  like  the  rock  of  Gibraltar.  When  I  remember 
that  heroic  scene,  I  cannot  fail  to  compare  that  gallant  com- 
pany, desperate  band,  to  the  line  the  Great  Napoleon  saw  at 
Waterloo.  Speaking  afterwards  of  the  English  line  of  bat- 
tle, he  says :  'I  covered  them  with  artillery,  I  fiooded  them 
with  infantry,  I  deluged  them  with  cavalry,  but  when  the 
smoke  of  battle  rose,  there  stood  the  red  line  yet.'  Yes,  there 
stood  the  gray  line,  the  only  line  that  stood  that  day,  that  I 

Twenty-Fifth  Regiment.  301 

saw,  and  finally,  after  combating  five  different  and  separate 
times  over  the  same  field,  pine  thickets,  broom  grass,  old 
fields,  all  sorts  of  a  place,  I  was  going  to  win.  I  was  attempt- 
ing to  whip  the  enemy  with  the  Twenty-fifth  North  Caro- 
lina, and  I  knew  I  could  do  it.  I  thought  I  was  getting  along 
finely,  until  I  happened  to  look  to  front,  left  and  right,  and 
saw  we  were  surrounded  with  but  a  small  loop  hole  to  get 
through.  We  backed  through  that,  emptying  into  their  faces 
the  last  cartridge  we  had." 

The  regiment's  loss  from  its  enlistment  to  the  surrender 
was:  Killed  in  battle,  220;  died  from  disease,  280,  and  470 
were  wounded,  of  which  last  number  140  were  wounded 
more  than  once. 

When  General  Lee's  order  to  surrender  was  received,  the 
Twenty-fifth  regiment  still  had  its  flag.  It  was  furled,  and 
taken  down  in  obedience  to  the  order,  but  the  color-sergeant 
concealed  it  on  his  person,  returned  with  it  home  and  gave  it 
to  his  captain,  and  it  was  destroyed  by  a  fire  when  Captain 
Freeman's  house  was  burned. 

I  omitted  to  state  that  Dr.  F.  N.  Luckey  was  made  surgeon 
of  the  regiment  in  1862,  in  place  of  Dr.  Satchwell,  who  was 
assigned  to  hospital  duty,  and  Serge  ant-Major  J.  C.  L. 
Gudger  was  promoted  Adjutant  in  1864,  to  fill  the  vacancy 
caused  by  the  resignation  of  Adjutant  Edmondston. 

Captain  H.  A.  Boone  succeeded  Captain  T.  D.  Bryson  in 
command  of  Company  B.  Captain  Boone  was  murdered  on 
the  streets  of  Murphy  by  the  celebrated  outlaw.  Morrow,  af- 
ter the  close  of  the  war. 

Garland  S.  FeegusoNj 
Waynesville,  N.  0., 

9  April,  1901. 


1.  Zebulon  B.  Vance,  Colonel. 

8.  Harry  K.  Burgwyn.  Colonel. 

3.  John  R.  Lane,  Colonel. 

4.  J.  T.  Jones,  Lieut-Colonel. 

5.  N.  P.  Rankin,  Major. 

6.  Thomas  J.  Boykin,  Surgeon. 

7.  J.  J.  Young,  Captain  and  Asst.  Q.  M. 

8.  James  B.  Jordan,  1st  Lieut,  and  Adjt. 



"  Vi-xere  fortes  ante  agamemnona  multi;  sed  omnes  illacrimabUes.  urgentur 
ignotique  longa  node,  carent  quia  vote  sacro.  Paulum  sepultx  distat  inertise 
celata  virtus." 


The  regiment  was  mobilized  at  the  Camp  of  Instruction 
at  "Crab  Tree,"  about  three  miles  from  Ealeigh,  IST.  0.  At 
this  Camp,  during  the  months  of  July  and  August,  1861, 
were  assembled  ten  companies  from  the  counties  of  Alamance, 
Anson,  Ashe,  Caldwell,  Chatham,  Moore,  Eandolph,  Union, 
Wake,  and  Wilkes.  These  companies  were  organized  before 
leaving  home,  and  on  arrival  at  Camp  of  Instruction,  reported 
as  follows : 

1. — Jeff  Davis  Mountaineers,  Ashe  County ;  Captain,  An- 
drew ]Sr.  McMillan;  Eirst  Lieutenant,  George  K.  Eeeves; 
Second  Lieutenant,  Jesse  A.  Eeeves ;  Junior  Second  Lieuten- 
ant, James  Porter. 

2. — Waxhaw  Jackson  Guards,  Union  County ;  Captain,  J. 
J.  C.  Steele;  First  Lieutenant,  William  Wilson;  Second 
Lieutenant,  Taylor  G.  Cureton;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant, 
John  W.  Eichardson. 

3. — ^Wilkes  Volunteers,  Wilkes  County ;  Captain  Abner  E. 
Carmichael ;  First  Lieutenant,  Augustus  H.  Horton ;  Second 
Lieutenant,  Phineas  Horton ;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  Wil- 
liam W.  Hampton. 

4. — ^Wake  Guards,  Wake  County;  Captain,  Oscar  E. 
Eand ;  First  Lieutenant,  James  B.  Jordan ;  Second  Lieuten- 
ant James  T.  Adams ;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  James  W. 

5. — Independent  Guards,  Chatham  County;  Captain,  W. 

304  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

S.  Webster;  First  Lieutenant,  William  J.  Headen;  Second 
Lieutenant,  Bryant  0.  Dunlap;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant, 
S.  W.  Brewer. 

6. — Hibriten  Guards,  Caldwell  County;  Captain,  Nathan- 
iel P.  Rankin ;  First  Lieutenant,  Joseph  E.  Ballew ;  Second 
Lieutenant,  John  B.  HoUoway;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant, 
Alfred  T.  Stewart. 

Y. — Chatham  Boys,  Chatham  County;  Captain,  William 
S.  McLean;  First  Lieutenant,  John  E.  Matthews;  Second 
Lieutenant,  George  C.  Underwood;  Junior  Second  Lieuten- 
ant, Henry  C.  Albright. 

8. — Moore  Independents,  Moore  County;  Captain, William 
P.  Martin ;  First  Lieutenant,  Clement  Dowd ;  Second  Lieu- 
tenant, James  D.  Mclver ;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  Robert 
W.  Goldston. 

9. — Caldwell  Guards,  Caldwell  County;  Captain,  Wilson 
S.  White;  First  Lieutenant,  John  Carson;  Second  Lieuten- 
ant, John  T.  Jones;  Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  Milton  P. 

10. — Pee  Dee  Wild  Cats,  Anson  County;  Captain,  James 
C.  Carraway;  First  Lieutenant,  James  S.  Kendall;  Second 
Lieutenant,  John  C.  McLauchlin;  Junior  Second  Lieuten- 
ant, William  C.  Boggan. 

The  commandant  of  the  Camp  of  Instruction  at  Crab  Tree 
was  Major  Harry  King  Burgwyn,  Jr.,  not  twenty-one  years 
of  age,  who  had  graduated  at  the  Virginia  Military  Institute 
in  May  previous. 

The  Adjutant  of  the  Camp  was  Oliver  Cromwell  Petway, 
also  a  cadet  at  the  Virginia  Military  Academy  in  1860-1861, 
subsequently  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the  Thirty-fifth  North 
Cal-olina  Regiment,  and  killed  at  Malvern  Hill  1  July,  1862. 

Of  this  young  commandant,  Corporal  John  R.  Lane,  Com- 
pany G,  subsequently  rising  by  his  military  talents  to 
the  Colonelcy  of  the  regiment,  gives  his  first  impressions  as 
follows :  "We  took  the  train  at  Company  Shops  (now  Bur- 
lington) for  Raleigh;  arriving  at  this  place,  the  company 
marched  out  to  Camp  Crab  Tree,  a  Camp  of  Instruction,  and 
were  assigned  our  position  in  camp  a  little  after  dark.  On 
the  next  morning  when  we  awoke,  we  saw  the  sentinels  at 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  305 

their  posts  and  realized  that  we  were  indeed  in  the  war.  Im- 
mediately after  roll  call — but  there  was  no  roll  call  in  our 
company — Major  li.  K.  Burgwyn,  commander  of  the  Camp 
of  Instruction,  sent  down  to  Captain  W.  S.  McLean,  demand- 
ing the  reason  for  his  failure  to  report  his  company. 

Before  the  excitement  occasioned  by  his  message  had  sub- 
sided among  the  commissioned  ofScers,  an  order  came  for  a 
corporal  and  two  men  to  report  at  once  at  headquarters.  Cap- 
tain McLean  selected  Corporal  Lane,  his  lowest  subaltern  of- 
ficer, and  two  of  the  most  soldierly-looking  men,  S.  S.  Car- 
ter and  W.  G.  Carter,  to  report  to  Major  Burgwyn. 

Accordingly,  these  three  worthies  appeared  before  the  com- 
mandant, wondering  whether  they  were  going  to  be  promoted, 
hanged  or  shot.  This  was  our  first  sight  of  the  commanding 
officer,  who  appeared  though  young,  to  be  a  youth  of  author- 
ity, beautiful  and  handsome;  the  flash  of  his  eye  and  the 
quickness  of  his  movements  betokened  his  liravery.  At  first 
sight  I  both  feared  and  admired  him.  He  gave  us  the  fol- 
lowing order:  "Corporal,  take  these  men  and  thoroughly 
police  this  Camp ;  don't  leave  a  watermelon  rind  or  anything 
filthy  in  Camp." 

This  cheering  order  completely  knocked  the  starch  out  of 
our  shirts  and  helped  greatly  to  settle  us  down  to  a  soldier's 
life.  The  cleanliness  of  the  camp  was  reported  by  the  officer 
of  the  day  as  being  perfect.  You  may  be  sure  our  officers  re- 
ported the  company  promptly  after  that. 


The  companies  composing  the  regiment  were  from  the  cen- 
tral and  western  coiinties  of  the  State ;  counties  which  had  op- 
posed secession  until  the  Proclamation  of  President  Lincoln 
(April  15,  1861)  calling  upon  Governor  Ellis  to  furnish 
North  Carolina's  quota  of  seventy-five  thousand  volunteers 
to  coerce  the  seceding  Southern  States. 

After  being  drilled  and  otherwise  disciplined,  these  ten 
companies  were  organized  into  a  regiment  designated  as  the 


306  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Twenty-sixth  North  Carolina  Troops    (Infantry)    and  the 
companies  took  rank  as  follows : 

Captain  McMillan's  Company,  from  Ashe  County,  as 
Company  A. 

Captain  Steele's  Company,  from  Union  County,  as 
Company  B. 

Captain  Caemighael's  Company,  from  Wilkes  County, 
as  Company  C. 

Captain  Rand's  Company,  from  Wake  County,  as  Com- 
pany D. 

Captain  Webster's  Company,  from  Chatham  County,  as 
Company  E. 

Captain  Rankin's  Company,  from  Caldwell  County,  as 
Company  F. 

Captain  McLean's  Company,  from  Chatham  County,  as 
Company  G. 

Captain  Martin's  Company,  from  Moore  County,  as 
Company  H. 

Captain  White's  Company,  from  Caldwell  County,  as 
Company  I. 

Captain  Caeea way's  Company,  from  Anson  County,  as 
Company  K. 

The  company  officers  completed  the  regimental  organiza- 
tion by  electing  as  Colonel,  Captain  Zehulon  B.  Vance,  then 
Captain  of  the  "Rough  and  Ready  Guards"  from  Buncombe 
County,  in  the  Fourteenth  North  Carolina  Troops ;  as  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, Major  Harry  K.  Burgwyn,  Jr.,  commandant 
of  the  camp;  and  as  Major,  Captain  Abner  B.  Carmichael, 
of  Company  C. 

Colonel  Vance  subsequently  appointed  First  Lieutenant 
James  B.  Jordan,  of  Company  D,  Adjutant ;  Sergeant  Joseph 
J.  Young,  of  Company  D,  Quartermaster ;  Lieutenant  Robert 
Goldaton,  of  Company  H,  Commissary,  who  died  at  Carolina 
City  October,  1861 ;  Dr.  Thomas  J.  Boykin,  of  Sampson 
County,  Surgeon;  and  Private  Daniel  M.  Shaw,  Company 
H,  Assistant  Surgeon. 

Rev.  Robert  H.  Marsh,  of  Chatham  County,  since  so  widely 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  307 

known  as  an  eloquent  preacher  of  the  Baptist  persuasion, 
was  appointed  Chaplain.  The  commissions  of  the  officers 
tore  date  27  August,  1861.  First  Lieutenant  A.  H.  ITorton, 
of  Company  C,  was  promoted  Captain  vice  Carmichael, 
elected  Major.     The  non-commissioned  staff  were: 

L.  L.  Polk,  Sergeant-Ma j or,  of  Company  K. 
Benjamin  ITind^  Hospital  Steward,  of  Company  ~K. 
E.  H.  HoBNADAYj  Ordnance  Sergeant,  of  Company  E. 
Jesse  Feeguson,  Commissary  Sergeant,  of  Company  C. 
Abbam  J.  Lanb^  Quartermaster  Sergeant,  of  Company  G. 


Promptly  on  its  organization  the  regiment  was  ordered  to 
the  defence  of  Fort  ii  aeon,  on  Bogue  Island.  Leaving  Ral- 
eigh on  the  2d  of  September,  1861,  under  command  of  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Burgwyn,  (Colonel  Vance  not  having  as  yet 
reported  for  duty) ,  the  regiment,  halting  a  few  days  at  More- 
head  City,  took  up  its  permanent  camp  near  Fort  Macon — • 
at  which  place  Colonel  Vance  assumed  command.  The 
months  of  September,  October  and  ISTovember,  1861,  were 
passed  at  this  place.  The  time  was  occupied  in  guard 
duties,  drilling  and  preparing  for  the  arduous  duties  that  lay 
before  them. 

Occasionally,  upon  rumor  that  the  enemy  were  landing, 
the  long  roll  would  be  sounded,  and  the  regiment  drawn  up  in 
line.  There  was  great  sickness  among  the  soldiers.  An  en- 
demic of  measles  and  fever  prevailed.  A  hospital  was  estab- 
lished at  Carolina  City  on  the  mainland,  three  miles  west  of 
Morehead  City — Commissary  Goldston,  Assistant  Surgeon 
Shaw,  Lieutenant  John  E.  Matthews  and  many  privates  died 
in  a  short  while.  Nine  men  from  one  Company  died  in  a 
week.  Supplies  had  to  be  brought  across  the  Sound,  and  the 
water  being  shallow,  the  men  had  to  wade  quite  a  distance  to 
get  to  the  vessels  bringing  the  rations. 

The  regimental  officers  were  incessant  in  their  attentions  to 
their  men,  showing  them  every  kindness,  providing  every 
comfort  possible,  and  became  much  endeared  to  those  under 
their  authority.     When  time  came  to  go  into  winter  quar- 

308  North  Carolina  Troops,  186r-'65. 

ters,  the  regiment  was  moved  to  the  mainland  and  camped 
midway  between  Morehead  and  Carolina  Cities.  While  in 
this  camp,  Captain  McLean,  of  Company  Gr,  was  appointed 
Acting  Assistant  Surgeon,  and  Corporal  John  K.  Lane  elected 
Captain  of  the  Company. 

The  winter  of  1861-1862  was  passed  in  unremitting  drill 
and  under  strict  measures  of  discipline,,  which  got  the  regi- 
ment into  fine  condition' for  the  opening  campaign;  and  here 
they  acquired  a  reputation  for  efficiency  in  drill  and  obedi- 
ence to  orders  which  they  retained  with  increasing  credit  until 
the  final  surrender 

In  October,  1861,  General  D.  H.  Hill  was  appointed  to  the 
command  of  the  District  of  Pamlico,  to  be  succeeded  in  No- 
vember by  Brigadier-General  L.  O'B.  Branch.  After  the  fall 
of  Eoanoke  Island  (10  February,  1862)  and  in  view  of  the 
threatened  attack  on  New  Bern  by  General  Burnside,  the  reg- 
iment was  ordered  up  the  railroad  within  three  miles  of  New 
Bern,  and  there  went  into  bivouac  and  assigned  to  Branch's 
command,  which  as  then  constituted,  was  composed  of  the 
Seventh,  Twenty-sixth,  Twenty-seventh,  Thirty-third,  Thir- 
ty-fifth and  Thirty-seventh  North  Carolina  Regiments,  In- 
fantry, and  Latham's  and  Brem's  Batteries  of  artillery.  Colo- 
nel Spruill's  Second  Cavalry  (Nineteenth  North  Carolina), 
a  battalion  of  militia  under  Colonel  H.  J.  B.  Clark,  and  some 
detached  companies.  Brigadier-General  R.  C.  Gatlin  com- 
manding the  Department  of  North  Carolina  and  coast  de- 
fenses, headquarters  at  Goldsboro,  was  in  supreme  command. 

BATTLE  OF  NEW  BEEN,  N.  0.  14  MARCH,  1862. 

General  Ambrose  E.  Burnside  flushed  with  his  captures  of 
Fort  Hatteras  (29  August,  1861)  and  Eoanoke  Island  (If) 
February,  1862)  was  now  about  to  attempt  still  greater  move- 
ments on  the  military  chess  boajd,  and  on  11  March,  1862 
he  embarked  the  brigades  of  Foster,  Bono  and  Parke  aad 
accompanying  artillery,  at  Eoanoke  Island  and  reached  Slo- 
cum's  Creek  where  it  empties  into  the  Neuse  river,  some  six- 
teen miles  from  New  Bern,  on  the  evening  of  the  12th.  Early 
next  morning,  after  shelling  the  country  around,  General 
Burnside  disembarked  his  command,  and  ordered  Foster's 

Ted era I 

1  .J77i«JffaXtory  t^&tv  £fJ'4fil 

Y  ^5anft>gwffi»aiis;y 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  309 

Brigade  to  advance  up  the  county  road,  and  attack  our  front 
and  left ;  Reno's  Brigade  to  march  up  the  railroad  with  orders 
to  turn  our  right;  and  Parke's  Brigade  to  follow  along  the 
county  road  at  convenient  distance  as  a  support  either  to  Fos- 
ter or  Reno  as  there  might  be  need. 

General  Burnside's  advance  appears  to  have  met  no  oppo- 
sition ;  the  Croatan  breastworks  above  Otter  Greek  he  found 
abandoned,  and  at  night  his  entire  command  bivouacked  in 
easy  striking  distance  of  the  Confederate  lines  of  defence, 
which  we  will  now  describe. 

About  five  miles  below  New  Bern  on  the  right  bank  of  the 
!N"euse  River  the  Gonfederates  had  constructed  a  strong  fort, 
called  "Fort  Thompson,"  manned  by  thirteen  siege  guns  of 
good  size,  stipported  by  ten  field  pieces,  with  three  navy  32- 
pounders  on  its  rear  face. 

From  the  fort  in  a  straight  line  to  the  railroad  leading 
from  New  Bern  to  Morehead  City,  was  the  main  line  of  de- 
fense, consisting  of  a  strong  breastwork  about  one  and  one- 
quarter  miles  in  length. 

Through  the  centre  of  these  breastworks  the  Beaufort 
County  road  leading  to  New  Bern  passed,  and  intersected  the 
railroad  about  two  miles  behind  the  works ;  thence  crossed  the 
Trent  river  on  a  wooden  bridge  about  a  mile  and  a  half  above 
New  Bern.  Where  the  breastworks  met  the  railroad  there 
was  a  brick  kiln,  and  this  proved  to  be  the  cause  of  all  our 
woes  in  this  battle.  Instead  of  continuing  the  breastworks 
straight  across  the  railroad  into  the  swamp  beyond,  to  make 
the  line  as  short  as  possible  after  reaching  the  railroad,  the 
line  was  thrown  back  abou.t  15U  yards  to  the  banks  of  BuUen's 
Creek  and  thence,  a  series  of  small  breastworks  conforming 
to  the  features  of  the  ground,  ran  off  in  the  direction  of  a 
swamp.  To  guard  this  gap  of  150  yards  in  which  was  this 
brick  kiln  plant,  General  Branch  ordered  the  brick  kiln  to  be 
loopholed;  and  the  evening  before  the  battle,  had  ordered 
down  two  24-pounder  guns  which  were  being  mounted  when 
the  party  was  fired  into  in  the  beginning  of  the  action  and 
the  work  was  stopped  never  to  be  resumed.  The  timber  in 
front  of  the  breastworks  had  been  felled  for  some  350  yards. 

General  Branch's  disposition  of  his  troops  had  to  be  made 

310  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

with  great  rapidity,  as  the  enemy  left  him  no  time  for  delay. 
At  4  p.  m.  on  the  12th  of  March,  General  Branch  was  notified 
of  the  enemy's  approach.  He  ordered  Colonel  Sinclair,  of 
the  Thirty-fifth  JSTorth  Carolina  Regiment,  to  proceed  to 
Fisher's  landing,  just  above  the  mouth  of  Otter  Creek,  to  re' 
sist  any  attempt  of  the  enemy  to  land.  Late  in  the  night 
he  ordered  the  Twenty-sixth  Worth  Carolina  Regiment  and 
Brem's  Battery,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Burgwyn  in  command,  to 
follow.  Colonel  Vance  being  temporarily  in  command  of  the 
Post  of  New  Bern.  These  troops  arrived  to  find  the  enemy 
had  anticipated  them  by  occupying  this  ground,  so  the  two 
regiments  fell  back  to  take  their  places  in  the  main  line  for 
the  next  day's  battle. 

General  Branch  divided  his  forces  that  were  to  defend  the 
works  on  the  left  of  the  railroad,  namely,  between  the  rail- 
road and  Fort  Thompson,  into  two  wings  to  be  commanded 
respectively  by  Colonel  C.  C.  Lee,  of  the  Thirty-seventh 
North  Carolina  Regiment,  and  Colonel  Reuben  P.  Camp- 
bell, of  the  Seventh  North  Carolina  Regiment.  Colonel  Lee's 
command  embraced  the  troops  between  the  fort  and  the  county 
road,  and  was  composed  of  the  Twenty-seventh  North  Caro- 
lina Regiment  and  his  own,  the  Thirty-seventh  North  Caro- 
lina Regiment;  on  the  right  of  the  county  road  reaching  to 
the  railroad  constituted  Colonel  Campbell's  command  and 
was  defended  by  his  own  regiment  (the  Seventh) ;  the  Thirty- 
fifth  g.nd  Captain  Whitehurst's  independent  company,  and 
on  the  right  next  to  the  railroad  was  placed  the  battalion  of 
militia  under  command  of  Colonel  H.  J.  B.  Clark.  Two  sec- 
tions of  Brem.'s  and  Latham's  batteries  of  artillery  were 
posted  along  this  line  between  the  county  road  and  railroad, 
under  Colonel  Campbell's  command. 

Colonel  Vance,  of  the  Twenty-sixth  North  Carolina  Regi- 
ment, was  in  command  of  all  the  defences  on  the  right  of  the 
railroad,  comprising  a  distance  of  one  and  a  quarter  miles. 
His  own  regiment,  one  or  two  detached  companies  and  a  sec- 
tion of  Brem's  artillery,  were  the  only  troops  at  his  disposal 
for  this  important  defense.  His  line  ran  along  the  bank  of 
BuUen's  Creek  for  ahowt  half  a  mile,  until  the  creek  emptied 
into  a  swamp ;  beyond  this  swamp  his  line  was  extended  to  the 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  311 

Weathersby  road  leading  to  ISTew  Bern ;  and  beyond  this  (on 
the  right)  was  Bryce's  Creek,  a  deep  and  impassable  stream  of 
about  75  yards  wide,  which  empties  into  the  Trent  Biver. 
Shortly  after  the  battle  opened,  the  part  of  Governor  Vance's 
line  next  to  the  railroad  and  under  the  immediate  command 
of  Major  Carmichael,  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Eegiment,  was  re- 
inforced, first  by  five  companies  of  Colonel  Avery's  Eegi- 
ment, the  Thirty-third  North  Carolina,  held  in  reserve ;  and 
as  the  battle  progressed  and  more  determined  became  the  at- 
tempt of  the  enemy  to  carry  this  position,  the  other  five  com- 
panies of  the  Thirty-third  Regiment,  under  the  gallant  Colo- 
nel Avery  and  Lieutenant-Colonel- Robert  F.  Hoke,  came  to 
Major  Carmichael's  assistance.  As  will  hereafter  be  seen, 
the  enemy  never  succeeded  in  carrying  the  works  on  the  right 
of  the  railroad. 

During  the  day  of  the  13th,  the  enemy  kept  up  a  brisk 
shelling  from  their  gun  boats,  now  in  the  l^euse,  and  keeping 
abreast  of  their  land  forces ;  and  by  night  had  gocten  his  three 
brigades  in  position  for  the  attack  early  the  next  morning. 
These  were  disposed  as  follows :  General  J.  G.  Foster  formed 
his  line  across  the  county  road  parallel  to  the  Confederate 
works,  the  Twenty-fifth  and  Twenty-fourth  Massachusetts 
Regiments  on  the  right,  and  the  Twenty-seventh  and  Twenty- 
third  Massachusetts  on  the  left,  supported  by  six  navy  howitz- 
ers and  the  howitzers  of  Captains  Dayton  and  Bennett. 

General  Jesse  L.  Reno  formed  his  brigade  on  the  left  of  the 
railroad  in  the  following  order,  viz.,  the  Twenty-first  Massa- 
chusetts, Ninth  New  Jersey  and  Fifty-first  Pennsylvania 
Regiments.  General  Parke's  Brigade  was  drawn  up  in  line 
in  the  intermediate  space  between  General's  Foster  and  Reno, 
with  orders  to  support  whichever  brigade  needed  it. 

About  1 :30  a.  m.  the  battle  was  opened  by  a  shot  from  a 
Parrott  gun  from  Latham's  battery  under  Lieutenant  Wood- 
btiry  Wheeler.  This  shot  dispersed  a  squad  of  horsemen  who 
seemed  to  be  reconnoitering  under  cover  of  the  woods.  Imme- 
diately after  this,  the  firing  became  general.  General  Fos- 
ter's attacks  on  the  main  works  in  his  front  made  but  little,  if 
any,  impression;  they  were  easily  repulsed.  Doubtless  the 
enemy  knew  the  weak  points  in  the  Confederate  line  of  de- 

312  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

fense.  Immediately  on  getting  his  men  into  line,  General 
Eeno  ordered  Lieutenant-Colonel  W.  S.  Clark  to  charge  with 
the  right  wing  of  his  regiment,  the  Twenty-first  Massachu- 
setts, and  tate  the  brick  kiln. 

Colonel  Clark  says  in  his  report :  "At  the  moment  of  our 
arrival  at  the  Cut,  the  enemy  were  busily  engaged  in  re- 
moving ammunition  from  the  cars  which  had  just  come  down 
from  New  Bern  with  re-enforcements.  At  the  first  volley 
from  Company  C  the  enemy  in  great  astonishment,  fled  from 
the  road  and  trench  to  a  ravine  in  the  rear  of  the  brick  yard. 
General  Reno  ordered  Color-bearer  Bates  to  plant  his  flag 
upon  the  roof  of  a  building  within  the  enemy's  intrench- 
ments.  General  Reno,  with  Companies  C,  A,  B,  and  H,  of 
the  right  wing,  dashed  across  the  railroad  up  the  steep  bank 
and  over  the  rifle  trench  on  top  into  the  brick  yard.  Here 
we  were  subjected  to  a  most  destructive  cross  fire  from  the 
enemy  on  both  sides  of  the  railroad  and  lost  a  large  number 
of  men  in  a  very  few  minutes.  The  General  supposing  he 
had  completely  flanked  the  enemy's  works,  returned  across 
the  road  touring  up  the  rest  of  his  brigade;  but  just  at  this 
time  a  tremendous  fire  of  nmsketry  and  artillery  was  opened 
from  the  redoubts  hitherto  unseen,  which  were  nine  in  nu.m- 
ber,  extending  from  the  railroad  more  than  a  mile  to  the 
right  into  the  forest. 

"The  General,  now  obliged  to  devote  his  attention  to  the 
enemy  in  front  of  his  brigade,  ordered  the  left  wing  of  the 
Twenty-first  Massachusetts  not  to  cross  the  road,  but  to  con- 
tinue to  fire  upon  the  enemy  in  the  first  two  redovibts.  These 
troops  consisted  of  the  Thirty-third  North  Carolina  and  the 
Twenty-sixth  North  Carolina  Regiments,  and  were  the  best 
an  led  and  fought  the  most  gallantly  of  any  of  the  enemy's 
forces ;  their  position  was  almost  impregnable  so  long  as  their 
left  flank  resting  on  the  railroad  was  defended.  They  kept 
up  an  incessant  fire  for  three  hours  until  their  ammunition 
was  exhausted,  and  the  remainder  of  the  rebel  forces  had  re- 
treated from  that  portion  of  their  works  lying  between  the 
river  and  the  railroad." 

Having  quoted  so  freely  from  the  Federal  side,  let  us  now 
see  what  was  doing  among  the  Confederates.     It  is  seen.  Gen- 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  313 

eral  'Branch  had  but  one  brigade  to  oppose  three — but  six  reg- 
ments  to  oppose  thirteen.  These  thirteen  Federal  regiments 
were  in  full  ranks.  The  Twenty-iirst  Massachusetts,  of 
which  we  have  been  speaking,  took  into  the  battle  743  men. 
When  Colonel  Campbell  was  informed  by  Colonel  Sinclair, 
"under  much  excitement,"  that  the  enemy  had  flanked  him 
and  were  coming  up  the  trenches  which  had  been  vacated  by 
the  militia,  Colonel  Campbell  ordered  Colonel  Sinclair  to 
leave  the  works  and  charge  bayonets  upon  the  advancing  col- 
umns ;  this  Colonel  Sinclair  failed  to  do,  and  left  the  field  in 
confusion.  Colonel  Campbell  then  ordered  Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Haywood  to  have  his  men,  the  Seventh  IsTorth  Carolina 
Regiment,  leave  the  works  and  charge  the  enemy.  This  was 
done  in  handsome  style,  and  the  enemy  were  driven  over  the 
breastworks  and  the  guns  of  Brem's  Battery  that  had  fallen 
into  their  hands,  were  retaken.  This  charge  was  so  impetuous 
that  the  enemy  largely  magnified  the  number  of  men  that 
made  it.  Says  Colonel  Clark,  of  the  Twenty-first  Massachu- 
setts Regiment,  resuming  our  quotation  from  his  report  of  the 
battle:  "Having  been  ordered  into  the  brick  yard  and  left 
there  with  my  colors  and  the  four  companies  above  mentioned, 
and  finding  it  impossible  to  remain  there  without  being  cut  to 
pieces,  I  was  compelled  either  to  charge  upon  Captain  Brem's 
Battery  of  flying  artillery  or  retreat.  Accordingly,  I  formed 
my  handful  of  men  (about  200)  in  line,  the  right  resting  on 
the  breastworks  of  the  enemy,  and  commenced  firing  upon  the 
men  and  horses  of  the  first  piece.  Three  men  and  two  horses 
having  fallen,  I  gave  the  order  to  charge  bayonets  and  went 
to  the  first  gun.  Leaving  this  in  the  hands  of  Captain  Wal- 
cott  and  Private  John  Dunn,  of  Company  B,  I  proceeded  to 
the  second  gun,  about  300  paces  from  the  brick  yard.  By  this 
time  the  three  regiments  of  the  rebel  infantry,  who  had  re- 
treated from  the  breastworks  to  a  ravine  in  the  rear  when  we 
entered  the  brick  yard,  seeing  that  we  were  so  few  and  re- 
ceived no  support,  rallied  and  advanced  on  us.  The  Thirty- 
fifth  and  Thirty-seventh  ISTorth  Carolina,  supported  by  the 
Seventh  North  Carolina,  came  upon  us  from  the  ravine  in 
splendid  style,  with  their  muskets  at  the  right  shoulder  and 
halted.     Most  forttmately,  or  rather  providentially,  for  us. 

314     North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

they  remained  undecided  for  a  minute  or  two,  and  then  re- 
solved on  a  movement  v^hich  saved  us  from  destruction.  In- 
stead of  giving  us  a  volley  at  once,  they  first  hesitated,  and 
then  charged  upon  us  vs^ithout  firing.  I  instantly  commanded 
my  men  to  spring  over  the  parapet  and  ditch  in  front,  and  to 
retreat  to  the  railroad,  keeping  as  close  as  possible  to  the  ditch. 
On  the  railroad  I  found  Colonel  Rodman  with  the  Fourth 
Rhode  Island  Regiment  waiting  for  orders,  and  I  urged  him 
to  advance  at  once  and  charge  upon  their  flank,  as  I  had 

Up  to  this  point  in  the  battle,  everything  had  gone  on  sat- 
isfactorily for  the  Confederates  on  the  right  of  the  railroad. 
General  Reno's  attacks  had  been  met  and  repulsed  hand- 
somely. The  Confederate  line  of  defense  on  the  right  of  the 
railroad  as  heretofore  stated,  consisted  of  rifle  pits  and  de- 
tached intrenchments  in  the  form  of  lunettes  and  redans  along 
the  bank  of  BuUen's  Creek,  and  across  the  swamp  to  the 
Weathersby  road,  about  one  and  one-quarter  miles.  A  rifle 
pit  near  the  railroad  was  occupied  by  Captain  Oscar  R.  Rand, 
Avith  his  Company  D,  about  77  men ;  by  Company  A,  68  men, 
and  by  25  men  from  Company  G,  all  under  command  of  Ma- 
jor A.  B.  Carmichael,  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment.  Quot- 
ing from  Captain  Rand's  account  of  the  battle,  written 
shortly  after  his  capture  and  addressed  to  Colonel  Z.  B. 
Vance : 

"About  7 :30  a.  m.  the  battle  commenced  on  the  left  and  for 
a  time,  extending  from  Fort  Thompson  along  the  whole  line 
of  the  breastworks  to  the  railroad,  the  roar  of  cannon  and 
musketry  was  incessant.  Within  a  few  minutes  after  the 
battle  had  commenced,  the  enemy  made  his  appearance  on  the 
right  of  the  railroad  directly  in  front  of  us.  About  one  reg- 
iment (the  left  wing  of  the  Twenty-first  Massachusetts)  took 
position  between  the  railroad  and  BuUen's  Creek,  sheltering 
themselves  in  the  woods  and  behind  the  logs,  while  the  main 
body  consisting  of  several  regiments  advanced  under  cover  of 
the  woods  down  the  opposite  side  of  the  creek,  occupying  the 
heights  and  extending  himself  along  ovlt  right. 

"When  the  advance  of  the  enemy  had  reached  nearly  oppo- 
site Major  Carmichael's  position,  he  gave  the  order  to  fire, 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  315 

and  sent  a  volley  full  into  the  head  of  the  advancing  column. 
The  enemy  replied  immediately  and  from  this  time  to  the 
close  of  the  action,  the  j&ring  never  ceased.  At  first,  the  en- 
emy shooting  very  badly,  their  balls  flying  high  above  our 
heads  and  cutting  the  boughs  from  the  tops  of  the  trees  in  our 
rear,  whereas  our  men,  under  direction  of  Major  Oarmichael 
and  other  officers,  took  deliberate  aim,  sending  death  into  their 
ranks.  As  soon  as  we  were  fairly  engaged  with  this  part  of 
the  enemy,  the  other  part  which  held  position  between  the 
railroad  and  the  creek  came  up  from  under  their  cover  and 
attempted  to  cross  the  railroad  with  a  view  to  flank  the  main 
intrenchments  and  cut  our  lines  in  two. 

"No  sooner  was  this  attempted  than  it  was  discovered,  and 
every  gun  ordered  to  bear  upon  them.  One  well  directed 
volley  scattered  this  force.  Many  a  poor  fellow  fell  here  to 
rise  no  more,  for  they  were  well  exposed. 

"Just  at  this  time,  about  half  an  hour  after  the  battle  had 
commenced,  Colonel  Avery,  who  had  been  held  in  reserve,  ar- 
rived with  the  Thirty-third  regiment.  He  with  four  compa- 
nies entered  the  rifle  pits  occupied  by  us,  while  four  other 
companies  under  Major  Gaston  Lewis,  were  ordered  to  occupy 
an  advanced  rifle  pit  nearest  to  the  brick  yard.  This  move- 
ment was  attended  with  great  danger,  and  was  gallantly  ex&- 
cuted.  Major  Lewis  had  to  advance  a  space  of  150  yards 
over  fallen  timber ;  all  the  while  exposed  to  the  enemy's  flre, 
and  without  being  able  to  return  it.  He  gained  the  position, 
however,  and  held  it  during  the  remainder  of  the  action. 

"The  battle  now  raged  furiously ;  the  enemy  throwing  them- 
selves along  our  right  so  as  to  gain  the  point  from  which  he 
could  fire  directly  into  our  trenches,  and  Colonel  Avery,  ably 
seconded  by  Major  Oarmichael,  using  every  effort  to  prevent 
it.  In  this  they  were  somewhat  aided  by  the  artillery  and 
infantry,  part  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Eegiment  and  two  com- 
panies of  the  Thirty-third  Regiment,  under  Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Hoke — on  the  right  of  us,  only  two  or  three  companies 
of  which,  however,  were  within  range.  The  intention  of  the 
enemy  was  plain.  They  were  to  engage  lis  hotly  on  both 
wings,  and  then  with  a  sufficient  force  can-y  the  railroad, 
which,  when  gained,  would  cut  our  lines  in  two  and  be  equiv- 

316  North  Carolina  Troops,   l861-'65. 

alent  to  flanking  us  right  and  left.  No  troops  were  at  any 
time  stationed  along  the  line  from  the  extreme  left  of  the 
Twenty-sixth  Eegimeht  to  the  brick  kilns,  a  distance  of  over 
200  yards,  until  Colonel  Avery  ordered  Major  Lewis  with 
four  companies  of  the  Thirty-third  Regiment,  to  occupy  it. 
There  were  also  no  troops  defending  the  line  from  the  brick 
kiln  to  where  the  main  breastworks  touched  the  railroad,  a 
distance  of  200  yards  or  more. 

"The  enemy  now  determined  to  carry  this  part  of  the  line 
of  our  defence.  What  part  the  militia,  who  were  stationed 
along  the  main  breastworks  nearest  the  railroad,  and  the 
Thirty-fifth  Regiment,  who  were  next  to  them,  took  in  resist- 
ing this  attempt,  I  cannot  say.  The  brick  kilns  and  other 
buildings  excluded  the  view.  These  troops  were  certainly 
aear  enough,  and  by  a  proper  change  of  front  could  have 
thrown  themselves  upon  the  enemy  and  overwhelmed  him. 

"The  force  attempting  this  point  of  our  works,  I  do  not  be^ 
lieve  to  have  been  more  than  one  regiment.  (It  was  only  the 
right  wing  of  the  Twenty-first  Massachusetts  Regiment) ,  and 
the  main  resistance  he  encountered  came  from  the  rifle  pits 
occupied  by  Major  Carmichael's  and  Major  Lewis'  com- 
mands. The  enemy  was  held  in  check  for  some  considerable 
time,  but  at  last  he  succeeded  and  carried  the  railroad  be- 
tween the  brick  kilns  and  the  main  breastworks  and  a  part 
of  his  force  passed  in.  They  had  advanced  but  a  short  dis- 
tance, however,  when  they  were  met  by  a  part  of  the  Seventh 
North  Carolina  Regiment  and  driven  out  at  the  point  of  the 
bayonet,  the  Yankees  leaping  over  the  breastworks  into  the 
ditch  beyond. 

"It  was  during  this  time  that  we  met  with  a  severe  loss  in 
the  death  of  Major  Carmichael — as  true  a  patriot  and  as 
brave  a  gentleman  as  ever  lived.  His  death  occurred  in  this 
manner:  Colonel  Avery  and  Major  Carmichael  were  stand- 
ing together  at  the  corner  of  the  traverse  nearest  the  railroad. 
Tliey  were  watching  the  action  on  the  left  and  beyond  the 
brick  yard,  when  a  single  ball,  whether  aimed  at  the  party  or 
not,  entered  the  mouth  of  Major  Carmichael  as  he  was  speak- 
ing, and  passed  out  at  the  back  of  the  neck.  I  was  standing 
at  his  side  when  he  fell.     He  died  instantly.     A  feeling  of 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  317 

bitter  grief  ran  through  the  trenches  as  he  fell,  for  there  was 
not  a  man  in  the  Twenty-sixth  regiment  who  was  not  devot- 
edly attached  to  him.  During  the  battle,  Major  Carmichael 
wore  a  small  Confederate  flag,  perhaps  three  by  four  inches  in 
dimension,  mounted  on  a  staff  and  attached  to  his  cap.  This 
ma;j  have  attracted  the  fatal  shot."  The  flag  had  been  given 
the  Major  by  a  lady  of  New  Bern,  and  he  had  promised  her 
he  would  wear  it  in  his  cap  in  his  first  battle.  It  was  doubt- 
less the  cause  of  his  being  singled  out  by  some  sharpshooter. 

We  will  now  return  to  the  left  of  the  Confederate  line  be- 
tween the  railroad  and  Fort  Thompson.  General  Branch's 
paucity  of  troops  prevented  his  taking  advantage  of  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Haywood's  brilliant  bayonet  charge  with  the 
Seventh  Kegiment.  The  enemy  were  driven  back,  but  there 
were  no  soldiers  to  occupy  the  vacant  line  of  defense  at  the 
brick  yard,  or  to  take  the  place  in  the  works  vacated  by  the 
retreat  of  the  militia  and  the  Thirty-fifth  Eegiment.  Says 
General  Branch,  in  his  report :  "The  whole  of  the  militia  had 
abandoned  their  positions.  Colonel  Sinclair's  Regiment  very 
qiiickly  followed  their  example.  This  laid  open  Haywood's 
right  and  a  portion  of  the  breastworks  was  left  vacant.  I  had 
not  a  njan  with  whom  to  occupy  it,  and  the  enemy  soon  passed 
in  a  column  along  the  railroad  and  through  a  portion  of  the 
cut  down  timber  in  front  which  marched  up  behind  the  breast- 
works to  attack  what  remained  of  Colonel  Campbell's  com- 
mand." How  this  was  done  we  will  explain  by  quoting  from 
Brigadier-General  Parke,  commanding  the  force  su.pporting 
Reno's  Brigade  attacking  the  Confederate  right  wing. 

"Lieutenant-Colonel  Clark,  commanding  the  Twenty-first 
Massachusetts,  meeting  Colonel  Rodman,  of  the  Fourth 
Rhode  Island,  informed  him  he  had  been  in  the  works  and 
assured  him  of  the  feasibility  of  again  taking  the  intrench- 

"I  approved  of  this  course  on  the  part  of  Colonel  Rodman, 
and  at  once  ordered  the  Eighth  Connecticut  and  the  Fifth 
Rhode  Island  to  his  support.  Passing  quickly  by  the  rifie 
pits  which  opened  on  us  with  little  injury,  we  entered  in  rear 
of  the  intrenchments  and  the  regiments  in  a  gallant  manner 
carried  gun  after  gun,  until  the  whole  nine  brass  pieces  on 

318  North  Carolina  Troops,  l861-'65. 

their  front  line  wei-e  in  our  possession,  the  enemy  sullenly  re- 
tiring, firing  only  three  guns  from  the  front  and  three  others 
from  the  fort  on  their  left  (Thompson).  The  Eighth  Con- 
necticut and  Fifth  Elhode  Island  followed  immediately  in 
the  rear,  and  in  support  of  the  Fourth  Khode  Island.  Al- 
though now  in  possession  of  the  entire  works  of  the  enemy  be- 
tween the  railroad  and  the  river,  the  heavy  firing  on  our  left 
and  beyond  the  railroad  proved  that  General  Reno's  Brigade 
was  still  hotly  engaging  the  enemy. 

"I  ordered  the  Fifth  Ehode  Island  Battalion  and  the 
Eighth  Connecticut  to  advance  cautiously.  Captain  J.  N". 
King  then  reported  that  the  enemy  still  occupied  rifie  pits 
along  side  the  railroad  back  of  the  brick  yard  and  a  series  of 
redoubts  extending  beyond  the  railroad  and  in  General  Eeno's 

"I  then  had  the  Fourth  Rhode  Island  brought  up  and  or- 
dered the  Colonel  to  drive  the  enemy  from  his  position.  This 
order  was  executed  in  a  most  gallant  manner.  The  regiment 
charged  the  enemy  in  flank,  while  a  simultaneous  charge  was 
made  by  General  Reno  in  front,  thus  driving  the  enemy  from 
his  last  stronghold." 

General  Burnside  in  his  report  of  the  battle,  says :  "Gen- 
eral Foster  seeing  our  forces  inside  the  enemiy's  lines,  im- 
mediately ordered  his  brigade  to  charge,  when  the  whole  line 
of  breastworks  between  the  railroad  and  the  river  were  most 
gallantly  carried.  After  the  cheers  of  our  men  had  subsided, 
it  was  discovered  that  General  Reno  was  still  engaged  with 
the  enemy  on  the  left,  upon  w\iich  General  Parke  moved  back 
with  a  view  of  getting  in  rear  of  the  enemy's  forces  in  the  in- 
trenchments  to  the  left  of  the  railroad.  General  Foster,  also 
moved  forward  with  one  of  his  regiments,  with  a  view  of  get- 
ting to  the  rear."  It  was  to  this  last  regiment  that  Colonel 
Avery  and  Captain  Rand  surrendered.  This  regiment  Gen- 
eral Foster  marched  down  the  county  road  leading  to  ITew 
Bern,  until  opposite  the  camp  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment, 
when  turning  to  the  left,  he  marched  through  the  woods  and 
took  position  on  both  sides  of  the  railroad;  he  also  brought 
up  four  pieces  of  artillery  and  placed  them  in  positicm. 

Let  us  now  return  to  Captain  Rand's  account  of  the  clos- 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  319 

ing  incidents  of  the  battle  on  his  part  of  the  line :  "The  ac- 
tion at  this  place  had  now  continued  for  more  than  three 
hours.  Our  men  from  first  to  last  poured  in  their  fire  with 
deliberate  aim.  Colonel  Avery  was  everywhere  along  the 
trenches  animating  the  men  by  his  presence.  I  may  say 
that  nearly  every  man  did  his  duty  nobly.  Many  were  the 
narrow  escapes.  Colonel  Avery  received  a  ball  through  his 
cap,  and  many  received  balls  through  their  hats  or  clothes. 
The  respective  forces  were  all  the  time  within  from  two  to 
three  hundred  yards  of  each  other ;  all  had  been  silent  along 
our  lines,  both  right  and  left  of  us  for  some  time.  Just  at 
this  time,  while  we  were  so  intently  engaged  on  our  front,  we 
were  fired  into  on  our  left  by  a  considerable  body  of  the  enemy 
who  had  taken  position  in  the  edge  of  the  woods  beyond  the 
railroad.  This  determined  the  conflict  so  far  as  we  were 
concerned.  Colonel  Avery  saw  in  an  instant  that  nothing 
now  remained  but  to  draw  off  the  troops.  The  order  was 
given  and  we  went  out  of  the  trenches  amidst  a  perfect  storm 
of  bullets  from  both  right  and  left. 

The  intention  of  Colonel  Avery  was  to  rally  the  men  and 
form  line  on  the  railroad.  He  succeeded  in  a  great  measure, 
and  marched  diagonally  through  the  woods,  a  distance  of 
three  or  four  hundred  yards,  for  a  point  on  the  railroad  just 
above  the  camp  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment.  My  com- 
pany occupied  the  extreme  left  of  the  rifle  pit,  and  became  the 
right  of  the  line  in  retreat.  The  woods  were  so  filled  with 
underbrush  that  we  could  see  but  a  short  distance  before  us. 
When  we  had  advanced  far  enough  to  see  through  the  opening 
made  for  the  railroad  track,  and  had  nearly  reached  the  place 
where  we  were  to  form  line,  we  discovered  just  across  the 
railroad,  and  about  fifty  or  seventy-five  yards  in  front  of  our 
right,  four  pieces  of  the  enemy's  artillery  and  a  regiment  of 
infantry  deployed  on  each  side  and  extending  across  the  rail- 
road. An  officer  immediately  rode  out  and  demanded  a  sur- 
render. Seeing  ourselves  surrounded  and  no  hope  of  escape. 
Colonel  Avery,  and  those  on  the  right,  surrendered.  Those 
on  the  left,  being  further  off,  and  aided  by  the  cover  of  the 
woods,  nearly  all  escaped.  The  surrender  took  place  at  11 :30 
o'clock  a.  m.     The  number  of  prisoners  taken  at  this  place 

320  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

were  about  one  hundred  and  fifty.  The  number  of  prisoners 
taken  in  all  were  two  himdred  and  six."  This  admirable  and 
intelligent  account  of  the  battle  was  prepared  by  Captain 
Rand,  shortly  after  his  capture.  It  is  accompanied  with  a 
diagram  of  the  battle  field  made  by  Lieutenant  Woodbury 
Wheeler,  of  Latham's  Battery,  who  was  also  captiired. 

These  gentlemen  were  permitted  to  visit  the  battle  field 
from  one  end  to  the  other,  and  they  carefully  made  notes  for 
the  purpose  of  giving  an  account  of  the  battle.  Space  for- 
bids my  quoting  the  report  in  its  entirety.  I  will  only  make 
one  further  quotation:  "We  received  no  orders  to  retreat, 
neither  did  we  receive  orders  of  any  kind  during  the  whole 
course  of  the  battle.  The  woods  were  very  thick,  which, 
coupled  with  the  mist  of  the  morning,  made  it  impossible  to 
see  our  troops  on  either  side.  We  retreated  because  we  were 
exposed  to  a  cross  fire,  and  because  it  would  have  been  certain 
destruction  to  have  held  our  places  five  minutes  longer.  No 
ofiicer  or  man  dreamed  of  such  a  thing  as  being  taken  pris- 
oner. We  cou.ld  have  made  good  our  retreat  if  we  had  re- 
ceived the  order  as  others  did." 

In  justice  to  General  Branch,  on  this  point,  I  quote  from, 
his  ofiicial  report:  "Finding  the  day  was  lost,  my  next  care 
was  to  secure  the  retreat.  I  dispatched  two  couriers  to  Colo- 
nel Avery  and  two  to  Colonel  Vance,  with  orders' to  fall  back 
to  the  bridges,  etc.,  etc."  These  couriers  never  delivered  their 
orders.  This  account  "will  be  incomplete  without  making 
quotation  from  Colonel  Vance's  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Rob- 
ert F.  Hoke's  reports  of  this  battle.  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Hoke  says :  "The  regiment  moved  up  to  the  scene  of  action 
in  fine  style.  Colonel  Avery  in  command  in  the  centre,  I  of 
the  right  wing.  Major  Lewis  of  the  left.  Colonel  Avery  gave 
the  command  to  fire,  which  seemed  to  have  great  effect,  as 
the  enemy  scampered.  Major  Lewis  then  moved  to  the  right 
of  the  railroad  with  several  (four)  companies,  and  engaged 
the  enemy  from  that  time  tmtil  after  12  o'clock.  He  be- 
haved most  gallajatly,  was  in  the  hottest  of  the  whole  battle 
field.  He  repulsed  the  enemy  time  and  again,  and  twice 
charged  them  with  detachments  from  his  companies,  and 
each  time  made  them  flee.     Our  loss  was  greater  at  that 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  321 

point  than  any  other,  as  he  had  to  fight  to  his  front,  right, 
and  left,  biit  still  maintained  his  position.  Finding  the  en- 
emy were  getting  in  strong  force  on  our  right,  and  were  going 
to  turn  our  right  flank,  as  there  were  no  troops  between  our 
regiment  and  the  left  of  Colonel  Vance's  companies,  a  dis- 
tance of  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  I  moved  quickly  with  Captain 
Park's  company,  and  sent  a  messenger  to  Colonel  Avery  for 
another  company.  He  immediately  sent  me  Captain  Kes- 
ler's  company.  I  ordered  the  whole  to  fire,  which  did  great 
execution,  as  the  enemy  fell  and  fled,  but  soon  appeared  in 
strong  force  and  again  we  drove  them  back,  but  soon  they 
again  appeared  in  stronger  force,  and  engaged  us,  which  con- 
tinued until  12  :30  o'clock.  At  12  :15  o'clock  I  saw  a  United 
States  flag  flying  upon  one  of  our  works,  but  saw  Colonel 
Avery  still  fighting.  I  did  not  know  that  Colonel  Avery  and 
Major  Lewis  had  fallen  back  until  I  saw  the  enemy  upon  my 
left  with  several  regiments,  and  about  fifty  yards  to  the  rear 
of  the  position  Colonel  Avery  had  occupied.  I  ordered  the 
men  under  my  command  to  fall  back,  but  to  do  so  in  order. 
We  were  hotly  fired  at  as  we  fell  back." 

I  next  quote  from  Colonel  Z.  B.  Vance's  report  of  the  bat- 
tle :  "The  regiment  was  posted  by  Lieutenant-Colonel  Bur- 
gwyn  in  the  series  of  redans,  constructed  by  me  on  the  right 
of  the  railroad,  in  the  rear  of  Bullen's  Branch,  extending 
from  the  railroad  to  the  swamp,  about  500  yards  from  the 
road  by  Weathersby.  At  this  road  I  had  constructed  the 
night  before  a  breastwork,  commanding  the  passage  of  the 
swamp,  and  there  was  placed  a  section  of  Brem's  artillery. 
Lieutenant  Williams  commanding,  and  Captain  McEae's 
company  of  infantry,  with  a  portion  of  Captain  Hays'  and 
Lieutenant  W.  A.  Graham's  Second  Cavalry  (ISTineteenth 
JSTorth  Carolina)  dismounted.  About  2  o'clock  Friday  morn- 
ing (14  March)  I  pushed  Companies  B,  E,  and  K,  of  my 
right  wing  across  the  small  swamp  alluded  to  so  as  to  make 
my  extreme  right  rest  on  the  battery  at  the  Weathersby  road. 
During  the  day,  two  companies  of  the  Thirty-third  Regiment, 
under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Hoke,  about  9  a.  m.,  were  placed 
in  the  redans  vacated  by  my  right  companies. 

322  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

The  battle  began  on  my  left  wing  about  7:30  a.  m.,  ex- 
tending towards  my  right  by  degrees,  until  about  8  :30  a.  m., 
all  the  troops  in  my  command  were  engaged  as  far  as  the 
swamp  referred  to. 

The  fight  was  kept  up  until  about  12  o'clock,  when  infor- 
mation was  brought  me  by  Captain  J.  J.  Young,  my  Quar- 
termaster, who  barely  escaped  with  his  life  in  getting  to  me, 
that  the  enemy  in  great  force  had  turned  my  left  by  the  rail- 
road track  at  the  woods  and  the  brick  yard,  had  pillaged  my 
camp,  were  firing  in  reverse  on  my  left  wing,  and  were  sev- 
eral hundred  yards  up  the  railroad  between  me  and  New 
Bern.  Also  that  all  the  troops  were  in  full  retreat  except  my 

Without  hesitation,  I  gave  the  order  to  retreat.  My  men 
jumped  out  of  the  trenches,  rallied  and  formed  in  the  woods 
without  panic  or  confusion,  and  having  first  sent  a  messenger 
to  Lieutenant-Colonel  Burgwyn  to  follow  with  the  forces  on 
the  right,  we  struck  across  the  Weathersby's  road  to  Bryce's 
Creek.  On  arriving  at  the  creek,  found  only  one  small  boat, 
capable  of  carrying  only  three  men.  The  creek  here  is  too 
deep  to  ford  and  seventy-five  yards  wide.  Some  plunged  in 
and  swam  over,  and  swimming  over  myself,  I  rode  down  to 
Captain  Whitf  ord's  house  on  the  Trent  river,  and  through  the 
kindness  of  Mr.  Kit.  Foy,  procured  three  more  small  boats. 
Carrying  one  on  our  shoulders,  we  hurried  up  to  the  crossing. 
In  the  meantime,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Burgwyn  arrived  with 
the  forces  of  the  right  wing  in  excellent  condition,  and  as- 
sisted me  with  the  greatest  coolness  and  efficiency  in  getting 
the  troops  across,  which,  after  four  hours  of  hard  labor,  and 
the  greatest  anxiety,  we  succeeded  in  doing.  Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Burgwyn  saw  the  last  man  over  before  he  entered  the 
boat.    I  regret  to  say  that  three  men  were  drowned  in  crossing. 

"A  large  Yankee  force  were  drawn  up  in  view  of  our  scouts, 
about  one  mile  away,  and  their  skirmishers  appeared  just  as 
the  rear  got  over." 

Of  the  deaths  of  Major  Carmichael  and  Captain  Martin 
Colonel  Vance  thus  feelingly  speaks: 

"Major  A.  B.  Carmichael  fell  about  11  a.  m.  by  a  shot 
through  the  head,  while  gallantly  holding  his  post  on  the  left 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  323 

under  a  most  galling  fire.  A  braver,  nobler  soldier  never  fell 
on  field  of  battle.  Generous  and  open-hearted,  as  he  was 
brave  and  chivalrous,  he  was  endeared  to  the  whole  regiment. 
Honored  be  his  memory.  Soon  thereafter,  Captain  W.  P. 
Hartin,  of  Company  11,  also  fell,  near  the  regimental  colors. 
Highly  respected  as  a  man,  brave  and  determined  as  a  sol- 
dier, he  was  equally  regretted  by  his  command,  and  by  all 
who  Imew  him.  Lieutenant  Porter,  of  Company  A,  was  also 
left  behind  wounded.  Captain  A.  IST.  McMillan  was  badly 
wounded,  but  got  away  safely. 

"Once  across  Bryce's  Creek,  we  were  joined  by  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Hoke,  Thirty-third  Regiment,  with  a  portion  of  his 
command,  and  took  the  road  for  Trenton.  We  marched 
night  and  day,  stopping  at  no  time  for  rest  or  sleep  more  than 
four  hours.  We  arrived  at  Kinston  safely  about  noon  on  16 
March,  having  marched  fifty  miles  in  about  thirty-six 

"I  cannot  conclude  this  report,"  says  Colonel  Vance, 
"without  mentioning  in  terms  of  the  highest  praise  the  spirit 
of  determination  and  power  of  endurance  manifested  by  the 
troops  during  the  hardships  and  sufferings  of  our  march. 
Drenched  with  rain,  with  blistered  feet,  without  sleep,  many 
sick  and  wounded,  and  almost  naked,  they  toiled  on  through 
day  and  all  the  weary  watches  of  the  night  without  murmur- 
ing, cheerfully,  and  with  subordination,  evincing  most  thor- 
oughly the  high  qualities  in  adversity  which  military  men 
learn  to  value  even  more  than  courage  on  the  battle  field." 

We  close  this  account  of  the  battle  with  one  or  two  inci- 
dents. When  Bryce's  Creek  was  reached,  there  was  some 
confusion,  and  a  natural  eagerness  to  get  across,  as  the  ene- 
my's guns  were  heard  in  the  distance.  Many  attempted  to 
swim  across,  and  several  were  drowned  before  the  officers 
could  restrain  them.  Colonel  Vance,  to  inspire  confidence, 
spurred  his  horse  in  the  creek,  the  animal  refusing  to  swim, 
the  Colonel  became  unseated  and  weighed  down  with  his  ac- 
coutrements, he  sank  from  view  in  the  dark  water  of  the 
stream  and  was  about  to  be  drowned,  when  assistance  was  ren- 
dered him,  and  he  reached  the  opposite  side  in  safety.  Lieu- 
tenantColonel  Burgwyn  and  his  college-mate,  Lieutenant  W. 

324  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

A.  Graham,  Company  K,  ISTineteenth  ISTorth  Carolina  (Sec- 
ond Cavalry),  taking  their  stand  on  opposite  sides  of  a. 
path  leading  to  the  stream,  with  swords  crossed,  counted  the 
men  off  in  boat  load  lots  as  they  were  called  out,  and  in  this 
way  without  confusion  or  crowding,  all  were  successfully  fer- 
ried over  and  these  two  officers  were  the  last  to  step  aboard. 

Major  Wm.  A.  Graham,  so  widely  known  in  the  State  for 
his  prominence  in  agricultural  matters,  at  the  battle  of  'New 
Bern  was  Lieutenant  in  command  of  Company  K,  Second 
North  Carolina  Cavalry,  and  the  writer  has  been  so  fortunate 
as  to  get  him  for  an  eye  witness  account  of  that  part  of  the 
battlefield  where  his  command  was  posted,  as  follows : 

"My  company  (K)  was  dismounted  and  placed  in  the  brick 
yard.  About  sun  set  was  ordered  to  report  to  Colonel  Vance, 
Twenty-sixth  North  Carolina  Troops,  who  sent  me  to  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Burgwyn,  commanding  right  wing  of  the 
Twenty-sixth  Regiment  and  the  companies  on  the  road 
(Weathersby).  Colonel  Burgwyn  placed  my  company  on 
picket  some  half  mile  or  more  beyond  the  bridge,  and  he,  with 
writer,  scouted  on  flank  of  the  pickets.  The  axes  of  the  en- 
emy could  be  heard  cutting  a  road  along  the  railroad. 

"Next  morning  Captain  Hayes,  of  Company  A,  Second 
Cavalry,  reported.  The  pickets  were  called  in  and  every- 
thing made  ready  for  the  battle.  The  forces  at  the  road 
(Weathersby)  consisted  of  Companies  A  and  K,  Second  Cav- 
alry, a  section  of  the  Charlotte  battery.  Lieutenant  A.  B, 
Williams  in  command  and  Captain  McRae's  independent 
company  of  infantry.  Company  K  connected  the  force  in 
the  road  with  the  right  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment.  No 
enemy  appeared  in  our  front  and  when  Colonel  Burgwyn  be- 
gan forming  the  companies  of  the  TAventy-sixth  in  rear  of 
the  entrenchments,  we  had  no  idea  we  had  been  defeated,  but 
thought  it  was  probably  for  pursuit.  Going  to  him  for  or- 
ders, he  informed  me  that  we  had  been  defeated  on  the  left 
and  must  try  and  beat  the  enemy  to  New  Bern. 

"Everything  moved  off  in  fair  order  until  getting  near  the 
crossing  of  the  railroad,  a  scout  announced  the  enemy  coming 
up  the  railroad  only  a  short  distance  ojBf.  Colonel  Burgwyn 
ordered  the  artillery  and  Captain  Hayes'  company,  who  were 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  325 

mounted,  to  save  themselves,  which  they  proceeded  to  do. 
Colonel  Burgwyn,  with  the  infantry,  took  to  the  left  through 
the  woods.  He  dismounted  his  ordetly  and  gave  me  one  of 
his  horses  and  ordered  me  to  scout  to  the  left  and  forward  to 
see  if  the  bridges  were  standing.  Coming  out  at  the  camp 
of  the  Thirty-seventh  Regiment,  I  saw  both  bridges  on  fire 
and  so  reported.  We  then  struck  the  trail  of  Colonel  Vance's 
retreat  and  overtook  his  command  at  Bryee's  creek,  endeavor- 
ing to  cross  in  a  boat,  carrying  three  men.  Colonel  Vance 
had  swam  his  horse  across  the  creek  and  had  gone  to  hunt 
other  boats.  It  was  reported  that  the  enemy  were  close  upon 
us  and  at  least  half  of  the  men  threw  their  arms  in  the  creek, 
saying  they  did  not  intend  that  the  Yankees  should  have 
them.  There  was  great  confusion.  Colonel  Burgwyn  was  as 
cool  as  if  nothing  unusual  was  transpiring.  Calling  such  of 
the  officers  as  he  saw  to  him,  he  announced  he  would  hold  a 
"council  of  war,"  told  the  council  we  were  responsible  for  the 
action  of  the  men,  and  must  form  them  and  keep  order.  This 
was  done.  Men  were  sent  up  and  down  the  creek  to  hunt 

"In  the  afternoon  a  negro  man  who  belonged  to Foy, 

came  to  the  opposite  side  of  the  creek  and  announced  there 
was  a  boat  a  mile  or  so  down  the  creek  where  Colonel  Hoke 
(R.  F.)  had  crossed.  The  men  moved  off  through  the  swamp 
down  the  creek,  sometimes  up  to  the  armpit  in  the  mire.  The 
negro  went  along  on  the  other  side,  and  when  he  reached  the 
boat  he  halloed  and  we  went  to  him.  I  got  into  the  boat  and 
had  just  taken  a  seat,  when  Colonel  Burgwyn  called  me  to 
him  and  said  I  must  help  him  keep  the  men  from  overload- 
ing and  sinking  the  boat;  the  boat  would  hold,  eighteen.  I 
stood  facing  Colonel  Burgwyn,  and  each  time  as  we  counted 
eighteen  we  halted  the  column.  When  we  all  had  crossed  ex- 
cept Colonel  Burgwyn  and  myself,  I  entered  the  boat  and, 
leading  the  horse  into  the  water,  swam  him  over  along  its 
side.  The  boat  returned  and  Colonel  Burgwyn  came  over  in 
like  style.  It  was  now  near  sun  set.  Colonel  Burgwyn  took 
command  of  such  formation  as  there  was  and  held  it  until  we 
reached  Trenton  next  day,  where  we  found  Colonel  Vance 
and  several  hundred  men  of  the  different  commands  which 


North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

had  been  at  New  Bern.     Colonel  Vance  assumed  command 
and  brought  the  troops  to  Kinston." 

When  Captain  J.  J.  Yoimg  met  the  fleeing  militia,  he  tried 
to  rally  them- — exhorted  them  to  go  back  and  rejoin  their 
comrades  fighting  in  the  works,  saying,  their  conduct  would 
forever  disgrace  them ;  that  the  papers  would  be  full  of  their 
cowardice,  etc.,  etc.  One  of  them  replied :  "I  had  rather  fiU 
twenty  newspapers  than  one  grave."  Some  of  the  militia  did 
not  stop  running  until  they  reached  New  Bern.  One  was 
found  dead  on  the  rear  platform  of  the  last  train  as  it  crossed 
the  river  into  New  Bern,  expiring  as  he  reached  the  train 
just  starting,  having  run  all  the  way  from  the  battle  field, 
about  five  miles. 

To  make  this  account  historically  complete,  I  append 
list  of  the  troops  engaged  on  either  side,  and  the  casualties 




.  >,'     . 











.   c3 






















^^-^   « 







Killed                           .    . 


0  j     5 



















Missing  and  Prisoners.. 














Foster's  Bri- 
gade, 23,  24.  25 
and    27    Mass. 
and  10  Conn. 

Reno's    Bri- 
gade, 31  Mass., 
51  N.  Y.,9  N. 
J.  and  51  Pa. 

Parke's  Bri- 
gade, 4  R  L,  5 
R.  L,8and  11 


Killed. . . . 





Wounded  . 





Artillery  .  . 

3'  killed,  8  Iwounded. 



Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  327 

So  much  space  is  given  to  the  account  of  this,  the  first  hat- 
tie  in  which  the  regiment  was  engaged,  because  it  was  its  first 
battle,  and  the  conduct  of  its  officers  and  men  was  so  alto- 
gether creditable.  No  troops  could  have  borne  themselves 
better  under  the  ordeal  to  which  they  were  exposed.  The 
rapidity  of  General  Burnside's  advance  took  General  Branch 
by  surprise.  The  latter  expected  at  least  a  day's  delay  at 
Fisher's  landing,  and  at  the  Croatan  breastworks  above  Otter 
Creek,  but  there  was  no  fight  at  these  advanced  points  of  de- 
fense, and  nothing  delayed  the  enemy's  rapid  approach.  An- 
other day  and  the  brick  yard  would  have  been  defended  by 
artillery,  and  this  point  secure.  General  Burnside  would  have 
failed  in  his  attempt  to  capture  New  Bern.  The  disparity  of 
forces  was  great,  but  General  Foster,  with  his  five  regiments, 
opposed  by  Colonels  Campbell  and  Lee,  with  their  three, 
could  make  no  headway  on  the  Confederate  left;  and  General 
Keno,  with  his  four  regiments,  assisted  by  General  Parke, 
was  regularly  driven  back  by  the  Twenty-sixth  and  Thirty- 
third  Regiments  on  the  right.  One  regiment  to  have  replaced 
the  350  militia,  and  the  Thirty-fifth  Regiment,  would  have 
stood  as  firm  as  the  others,  and  there  would  have  been  no  un- 
defended part  of  the  line  to  let  the  enemy  through ;  and  rein- 
forcements, which  were  hurrying  to  General  Branch's  assist- 
ance, would  have  reached  him  during  the  day. 

General  Burnside  well  won  his  promotion  as  Major-Gen- 
eral,  which  was  the  result  of  his  victory,  whereas  on  the  Con- 
federate side,  this  battle  introduced  to  the  military  world 
names  to  become  distinguished  in  the  annals  of  the  war. 

The  press  of  the  State  heaped  eulogies  upon  the  officers 
and  men  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment  and  recruits  flocked 
to  its  standard. 

Governor  Vance  applied  for  and  received  permission  to  re- 
cruit his  regiment  to  a  legion,  and  was  in  a  fair  way  to  suc- 
ceed, several  companies  having  arrived  in  camp,  and  others 
were  at  home  drilling,  when  he  gave  up  the  attempt  in  dis- 
gust at  what  he  thought  was  "the  opposition  to  the  scheme  on 
the  part  of  the  State  and  Confederate  authorities,"  and  the 
companies  were  disbanded. 

While  resting  at  Kinston,  after  the  battle  of  New  Bern, 

328  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

Captain  If.  P.  Eankin,  of  Company  F,  was  elected  Majorvice 
Carmichael,  killed;  and  First  Lieutenant  Clement  Dowd 
elected  Captain  of  Company  H,  vic«  Martin,  killed;  First 
Lieutenant  Joseph  E.  Ballew  was  promoted  to  be  Captain  of 
Company  F. 

The  troops  around  Kinston  were  now  reorganized.  Brig- 
adier-General French,  on  16  March,  reached  Groldsboro  and 
relieved  General  Branch  of  the  command  of  the  District  of 
Pamlico;  and  19  March  General  Gatlin  was  relieved  of  com- 
mand on  account  of  ill  health,  and  Major-General  Theo.  H. 
Holmes,  assigned  to  the  command  of  the  Department  of 
ISTorth  Carolina.  On  17  March  Brigadier-General  Robert 
Ransom  was  ordered  to  Goldsboro  "for  duty  with  troops  in 
the  field,"  and  a  brigade  was  formed  for  him  consisting  of  the 
Twenty-fourth,  Twenty-fifth,  Twenty-sixth,  Thirty-fifth, 
Forty-eighth  and  Forty-ninth  North  Carolina  Regiments. 
Under  this  gallant  and  accomplished  soldier  and  disciplina- 
rian, numerous  drills  and  strict  camp  regulations  prevailed 
until  on  20  June,  1862,  the  brigade  was  ordered  to  Virginia 
to  join  Lee's  army,  then  confronting  McClellan  below  Rich- 


The  Twenty-sixth  Regiment  was  a  twelve-months  regiment, 
and  in  the  Spring  of  1862  re-enlisted  for  the  war.  The  men 
in  the  ranks  were  given  the  right  to  elect  their  company  offi- 
cers, and  the  latter  the  right  to  elect  field  ofiicers. 

Many  changes  took  place  in  the  regiment  at  its  reoi'ganiza- 
tion.  Colonel  Vance  was  always  most  popular  with  his  men. 
He  sought  and  obtained  to  the  fullest  extent  the  love  of  his 
soldiei-s,  was  always  solicitous  of  their  welfare  and  comfort, 
leaving  chiefly  to  his  second  in  command  matters  of  drill  and 
discipline.  At  no  time  was  there  any  doubt  as  to  his  re- 

As  to  Lieutenant-Colonel  Burgwyn,  had  the  election  taken 
place  before  the  regiment  had  in  actual  battle  experienced  the 
benefit  of  drill  and  strict  obdience  to  orders,  he  could  not  have 
been  re-elected.  Says  an  officer  of  the  regiment  (Captain 
Thomas  J.  Cureton) :     "Colonel  Burgwyn  was  emphatically 

Twenty-Sixth  Hegiment.  329 

a  worker  in  camp,  careful  of  the  comforts  of  his  men,  con- 
stantly drilling;  he  believed  in  discipline  and  endeavored  to 
bring  his  regiment  to  the  highest  state  of  efficiency.  I  always 
found  him  strict  in  camp,  so  much  so,  that  up  to  the  battle  of 
New  Bern  he  was  very  unpopular,  and  I  often  heard  the  men 
say  if  they  ever  got  into  a  fight  with  him  what  they  would 
do,  etc.,  etc." 

The  morning  before  the  fight,  Burnside's  gunboats  were 
coming  up  the  river,  shelling  the  banks.  Colonel  Vance  was 
placed  in  command  of  the  right  of  our  line,  or  in  other  words, 
acting  Brigadier-General.  Lievitenant-Colonel  Burgwyn  was, 
therefore,  in  command  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment.  He 
suspected  the  feelings  of  the  men  towards  him.  He  formed 
the  regiment  at  the  point  where  the  breastworks  crossed  the 
railroad,  and  addressed  them  in  substance  as  follows:  "Sol- 
diers !  the  enemy  are  before  you,  and  you  will  soon  be  in 
combat.  You  have  the  reputation  of  being  one  of  the  best 
drilled  regiments  in  the  service.  Now  I  wish  you  to  prove 
yourselves  one  of  the  best  fighting.  Men,  stand  by  me,  and  I 
will  by  you."  The  response  was  unanimous — "We  will," 
from  the  men.  Next  day  the  battle  was  fought.  Only  the 
left  companies  of  the  regiment  under  the  command  of  Major 
Carmichael,  and  Captains  Rand  and  Martin  were  most  ac- 
tively engaged,  and  suffered  heavily.  The  right  companies, 
when  they  found  the  enemy  on  their  flank  and  getting  in 
their  rear,  had  to  fall  back  to  find  the  bridge  across  the  Trent, 
on  fire,  our  troops  all  gone,  and  the  only  way  of  escape  was  to 
cross  Bryce's  Creek. 

When  we  got  there  only  a  small  boat  that  would  parry  two 
people  at  a  time  could  be  found.  Colonel  Vance  rode  his 
horse  in  the  creek,  which  refused  to  swim,  and  the  colonel 
was  very  nearly  drowned  before  assistance  reached  him.  Sev- 
eral of  the  men  were  drowned  trying  to  swim  the  creek.  When 
the  boat  reached  the  bank  we  were  on,  an  officer  called  to  Col- 
onel Burgwyn  to  get  in  first.  He  was  met  with  the  reply: 
"I  will  never  cross  until  the  last  man  of  my  regiment  is  over." 
Nor  did  he  till  the  last  man  was  over. 

We  retreated  up  to  Trenton  Court  House  and  expected 
pursuit.     Colonel  Burgwyn  was  always  in  the  rear.     From 

330  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

this  time  on  he  had  the  entire  confidence  of  his  men  and  was 
their  pride  and  love.  Colonel  Vance  and  Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Burgwyn  received  practically  the  unanimous  vote  of  the 


First  Lieutenant  James  S.  Kendall,  Company  K,  was  elec- 
ted Major.  This  gallant  officer  and  accomplished  soldier 
only  survived  his  promotion  a  few  weeks,  dying  before  the 
regiment  left  for  Virginia,  from  yellow  fever,  contracted  at 
Wilmington  while  on  furlough. 

First  Lieutenant  William  Wilson  became  Captain  of  Com- 
pany B ;  Second  Lieutenant  James  T.  Adams,  Captain  of 
Company  D ;  Second  Lieutenant  John  T.  Jones,  Captain  of 
Company  I;  Second  Lieutenant  John  C.  McLauchlin,  Cap- 
tain of  Company  K.,  and  First  Lieutenant  S.  W.  Brewer, 
Captain  of  Company  E. 


While  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment  was  in  camp  in  and 
around  Kinston,  after  the  battle  of  New  Bern,  many  recruits 
joined  the  command.  Among  them  were  two  young  men, 
giving  their  names  as  L.  M.  and  Samuel  Blalock.  They  en- 
listed in  Captain  Ballew's  company  (F)  and  were  brought  to 
the  regiment  by  private  James  D.  Moore,  of  Company  F. 
On  the  way  from  their  home,  in  Caldwell  County,  to  join  the 
regiment,  Moore  was  informed  in  strict  confidence  by  L.  M. 
(Keith)  Blalock,  that  Samuel  was  his  young  wife,  and  that 
he  would  only  enlist  on  condition  that  his  Avife  be  allowed  to 
enlist  with  him.  This  was  agreed  to  by  Moore,  who  was  act- 
ing as  recruiting  officer,  and  Moore  also  promised  not  to 
divulge  the  secret.  Sam  Blalock  is  described  as  a  good  look- 
ing boy,  aged  16,  weight  about  130  pounds,  height  5  feet  and 
4  inches,  dark  hair;  her  husband  (Keith)  was  over  6  feet  in 
height.  Sam  Blalock's  disguise  was  never  penetrated.  She 
drilled  and  did  the  duties  of  a  soldier  as  any  other  member 
of  the  company,  and  was  very  adept  at  learning  the  manual 
and  drill. 

In  about  two  months  her  husband,  who  was  suffering  from 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  331 

hernia  and  from  poison  from  sumac,  was  discharged,  and 
Sam  informed  his  Captain  and  Colonel  Vance,  that  he  was  a 
woman,  whereupon  she  was  discharged  and  permitted  to  join 
her  husband. 

On  returning  home,  Keith  Blalock  and  his  wife,  now 
knoAvn  by  her  real  name,  "Malinda,"  joined  Kirk's  com- 
mand, an  organized  body  of  Union  troops,  made  up  largely  of 
deserters  and  bushwhackers,  operating  in  the  Western  part 
of  the  State. 

In  the  Spring  of  1864,  while  the  said  James  D.  Moore  was 
at  home  at  his  father's,  at  a  place  called  the  Globe,  recovering 
from  the  wound  he  had  received  at  Gettysburg,  the  house 
was  attacked  by  Keith  and  Malinda  Blalock,  and  their  gang, 
and  Carroll  Moore,  his  father,  severely  wounded.  Several  of 
the  marauders  were  wounded,  and  among  them  Malinda. 

Again  in  the  fall  of  1864,  Keith  and  his  raiders  attacked 
Mr.  Carroll  Moore's  house,  and  were  again  driven  off.  This 
time  Keith  was  shot  in  the  head,  and  one  eye  put  out. 

After  the  war,  Keith  attempted  merchandizing  in  Mitchell 
County  and  was  a  candidate  for  the  Legislature  on  the  Re- 
publican ticket,  but  was  defeated,  and  about  1892  he  and  his 
wife  went  to  Texas.  They  subsequently  returned  to  North 
'  Carolina,  and  at  this  time  (1901)  are  living  in  Mitchell 
county.  Malinda  Blalock's  maiden  name  was  Pritchard,  and 
her  brother,  Riley  Pritchard,  was  United  States  Commis- 
sioner in  President  Harrison's  Administration. 

MALVEE,N  HILL^  JULY  1,  1862. 

Ordered  to  Virginia,  20  June,  1862.  Ransom's  Brigade 
was  directed  to  report  to  General  Huger  on  the  Williamsburg 
road,  and  a  little  before  dark  on  the  night  of  25  June,  Colo- 
nel Vance's  Regiment  relieved  the  Twenty-fourth  JSTorth  Car- 
olina Regiment  on  picket  duty  in  front  of  the  enemy. 

The  night  was  very  dark,  and  with  no  one  to  direct  them, 
the  regiment  took  position  on  one  side  of  a  rail  fence  and  in 
front  of  a  hedge  row.  As  it  happened,  the  enemy  were  lying 
down  in  line  of  battle  on  the  opposite  side,  and  abiding  their 
time.     After  the  Twenty-sixth  had  gotten  quieted  dovm  for 

332  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

the  night,  in  entire  ignorance  of  the  presence  of  the  enemy, 
the  latter  suddenly  arose,  thrust  their  guns  through  the  fence 
rails  and  opened  fire.  So  close  were  they  to  us,  says  a  mem- 
ber of  the  regiment,  that  the  beards  of  many  of  the  men  were 
singed.  The  surprise  was  so  great  that  seven  of  the  compa- 
nies on  the  right  of  the  regiment  went  to  the  rear ;. however, 
Companies  G,  H  and  K,  undaunted  by  the  nearness  and  num- 
bers of  the  enemy,  remained  on  the  field.  On  the  next  morn- 
ing those  companies  were  highly  complimented  by  their  field 
ofiicers  for  their  exceedingly  creditable  conduct  in  holding 
their  lines  during  the  night  under  such  trying  circumstances. 
Again,  on  picket,  on  the  27  June,  the  Twenty-sixth  Regi- 
ment was  pushed  to  the  front  and  took  possession  of  some 
unfinished  works  of  the  enemy.  Just  as  it  was  about  to  be  re- 
lieved, it  was  attacked,  but  returned  the  fire  so  briskly  and 
with  such  effect  as  to  drive  the  enemy  back. 

Quoting  from  so  much  of  Brigadier-General  Robert  Ran- 
som's report  of  the  part  his  brigade  took  in  the  battle  of  Mal- 
vern Hill,  as  applies  to  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment,  he  says : 
"At  7  p.  m.  (July  1,  1862)  I  received  the  third  request  from 
General  Magruder,  that  he  must  have  aid,  if  only  one  regi- 
ment. The  message  was  so  pressing  that  I  at  once  directed 
Colonel  Clarke  to  go  with  his  regiment  ( Twenty-fourth  North 
Carolina).  The  brigade  was  at  once  put  in  motion,  Colonel 
Clarke  had  already  gone.  Colonel  Rutledge  next,  then  Colonel 
Ransom,  Colonels  Ramseur  and  Vance,  all  moved  to  the 
scene  of  conflict  at  the  double  quick.  As  each  of  the  three 
first  named  regiments  reached  the  field,  they  were  at  once 
thrown  into  action  by  General  Magruder's  orders.  As  the 
last  two  arrived,  they  were  halted  by  me  to  regain  their 
breath,  and  then  pushed  forward  under  as  fearful  fire  as  the 
mind  can  conceive. 

"Ordering  the  whole  to  the  right  so  as  to  be  able  to  form 
under  cover,  I  brought  the  brigade  in  line  within  200  yards 
of  the  enemy's  batteries.  It  was  now  twilight ;  the  line  was 
put  in  motion  and  moved  steadily  forward  to  within  less  than 
100  yards  of  the  batteries.  The  enemy  seemed  unaware  of 
our  movements.  Masses  of  his  troops  appeared  to  be  moving 
from  his  left  towards  his  right.     Just  at  this  instant  the  bri- 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  333 

gade  raised  a  tremendous  shout,  and  the  enemy  at  once 
wheeled  into  line  and  opened  upon  us  a  perfect  sheet  of  fire 
from  muskets  and  the  batteries.  We  steadily  advanced  to 
within  twenty  yards  of  the  guns.  The  enemy  had  concen- 
trated his  forces  to  meet  us.  Our  onward  movement  was 
checked ;  the  line  wavered  and  fell  back  before  a  fire,  the  in- 
tensity of  which  is  beyond  description.  It  was  a  bitter  disap- 
pointment to  be  compelled  to  yield  when  their  guns  seemed 
almost  in  our  hands." 

The  losses  sustained  by  Ransom's  Brigade  from  26  June  to 
1  Jxily,  186'2,  inclusive,  embraced .  three  Colonels  wounded, 
one  Lieutenant-Colonel  killed,  several  field  officers  and  many 
company  officers,  and  a  total  of  499  privates  killed  and 

Casualties  separately  stated : 

Regiments  24th. 

Killed 9 

Wounded 42 


During  the  charge  of  the  regiment  at  Malvern  Hill,  Cap- 
tain Lane,  of  Company  G,  had  the  pocket  of  his  coat  cut  open 
by  a  ball,  and  the  contents  fell  on  the  ground.  Among  these 
was  a  package  wrapped  in  newspaper,  containing  the  month's 
pay  of  his  company.  Next  morning  Captain  Lane  discovered 
his  loss,  obtained  permission  to  go  and  hunt  for  it,  and  strange 
to  say,  found  the  package  untouched,  lying  in  the  open  ground 
where  it  had  fallen  among  the  dead  and  wounded. 

After  the  regiment  had  taken  its  position  for  the  night 
after  the  charge,  and  the  officers  and  men  were  resting  on  their 
arms.  Captain  Lane  lay  down  between  two  of  his  soldiers  and 
fell  asleep,  l^ext  morning  when  he  awoke  the  man  on  his 
right  and  left  had  both  been  killed  by  the  enemy's  fire  while 
asleep,  and  their  deaths  not  discovered.  They  awoke  to  the 
sound  of  the  "reveille"  in  another  world. 

While  the  men  were  lying  down  in  line  of  battle,  waiting 
the  order  to  charge,  they  were  subjected  to  a  furious  shelling, 
and  there  was  more  or  less  dodging  of  the  head  as  the  missiles 













334  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

whizzed  by.  "Why  are  you  so  polite  in  the  presence  of  the 
enemy,"  remarked  Colonel  Vance.  A  rabbit  was  flushed  by 
the  line  as  it  advanced,  which  caused  the  men  to  raise  a  shout 
as  it  ran  past  them,  whereupon  Colonel  Vance  joined  in  the 
cry,  saying:  "Go  it  cotton  tail.  If  I  had  no  more  reputation  to 
lose  than  you  have,  I  would  run  too." 

On  7  July  Kansom's  Brigade  was  ordered  back  to  General 
Holmes'  command,  and  on  31  July,  1862,  Major-General  D. 
H.  Hill  relieved  General  Holmes  in  command  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  North  Carolina,  and  11  August  Brigadier-General  J. 
Johnston  Pettigrew,  who  had  been  severely  wounded  and 
captured  at  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines,  1  June,  1862,  was  as- 
signed to  the  command  of  Petersburg,  and  given  the  brigade 
then  under  the  command  of  Colonel  Junius  Daniel. 


Colonel  Vance's  election  as  Governor  in  August,  1862, 
caused  a  vacancy  in' the  Colonelcy  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Regi- 
ment. The  LieutenantColonel  was  not  21  years  of  age,  and 
the  opposition  of  General  Ransom  to  his  promotion  on  account 
of  his  age,  the  General  saying:  "He  wanted  no  boy  Colonel 
in  his  brigade,"  was  well  known  to  the  regiment,  and  indig- 
nantly resented. 

Application  was  made  through  the  proper  channels  for  a  " 
transfer  to  some  other  brigade,  and  on  26  August,  1862,  by 
special  order  No.  199,  from  the  A.  &  I.  G.  office,  at  Rich- 
niond,  the  Twenty-sixth  Regimont  was  detached  and  ordered 
to  report  to  Brigadier-General  S.  G.  French,  at  Petersburg, 
Va.,  for  duty  with  the  brigade  formerly  commanded  by  Brig- 
adier-General J.  G.  Martin. 

Referring  to  the  election  of  Colonel  Vance  as  Governor, 
one  of  the  regiment  writes  as  follows:  "Though  rejoicing 
that  he  had  been  chosen  Governor  of  the  State  by  such  a  com- 
plimentary majority,  with  a  pang  of  regret  we  saw  Colonel, 
now  Governor-elect  Z.  B.  Vance,  exchange  the  sword  for  the 
helm  of  State.  He  received  almost  the  unanimous  support 
of  the  regiment,  there  being  only  seven  votes  cast  against  him, 
which  well  attests  his  popularity  among  his  troops. 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  335 

"His  separation  from  us  was  quite  sad,  all  feeling  the 
heavy  loss  to  the  regiment.  In  his  farewell  address  to  the 
regiment,  he,  with  his  usual  truthfulness  and  sincerity,  scorn- 
ed to  hold  out  any  false  promises  to  those  who  had  been  under 
his  command,  telling  them  plainly,  that  all  they  could  expect 
was  'War !  War ! !  War ! ! !     Fight  till  the  end.' 

"But  in  the  promotion  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Burgwyn  to 
the  Colonelcy  of  the  regiment,  we  gained  an  officer,  young, 
gallant  and  brave,  and  eminently  fitted  to  fill  the  vacancy." 

Speaking  of  the  transfer  of  the  regiment  to  Pettigrew's  Bri- 
gade, this  writer  goes  on  to  say:  "Never  was  there  a  more 
fortunate  change.  It  seemed  as  if  Pettigrew  and  Burgwyn 
were  made  for  each  other.  Alike  in  bravery,  alike  in  action, 
alike  in  their  militai-y  bearing,  alike  in  readiness  for  battle 
and  in  skillful  horsemanship,  they  were  beloved  alike  by  the 
soldiers  of  the  Twenty-sixth.  Each  served  as  a  pattern  for 
the  other,  and  in  imitating  each  other  they  reached  the  high- 
est excellence  possible  of  attainment  in  every  trait  which  dis- 
tinguishes the  ideal  soldier."  It  will  be  of  pathetic  interest  to 
state  in  addition  to  the  above  eloquent  panegyric,  that  both 
General  Pettigrew  and  Colonel  Burgwyn  were  akimni  of  the 
State  University,  and  fell  on  the  field  of  battle  within  a  few 
days  of  each  other,  the  one  on  Gettysburg's  gory  field,  1  July, 
1863  ;  the  other,  commanding  the  rear  guard  of  the  army  on 
its  retreat  across  the  Potomac  at  Falling  Waters,  14  July, 

The  promotion  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Burgwyn,  and  the 
death  of  Major  Kendall,  who  had  been  sick  since  his  election, 
required  the  filling  of  the  positions  of  Lieutenant-Colonel 
and  Major.  A  board  of  examination  having  been  appointed 
to  pass  upon  the  qualifications  of  all  officers  before  their  pro- 
motion. Captain  John  K.  Lane,  of  Company  G,  and  Captain 
John  T.  Jones,  of  Company  I,  were  summoned  for  examina- 
tion, and  obtaining  the  favorable  report  of  the  board,  which 
was  composed  of  Colonel  H.  K.  Burgwyn,  of  the  Twenty- 
sixth;  Colonel  Thomas  Singletary,  of  the  Forty-fourth,  and 
Lieutenant-Colonel  T.  L.  Hargrave,  of  the  Forty-seventh 
North  Carolina  Regiments,  duly  received  their  commissions 
as  Lieutenant-Colonel  and  Major,  respectively.     About  this 

336  North  Carolina  Troops,   l861-'65. 

time,  Captain  Ballew,  of  Company  F,  resigned  and  First 
Lieutenant  E.  M.  Tuttle  was  promoted  to  be  Captain  of  this 
company,  to  become  famous  above  all  other  companies  in  the 
army,  from  the  fact  that  every  member  present,  numbering 
ninety-one,  was  killed  or  wounded  in  the  battle  of  Gettys- 
burg. Captain  Steele,  of  Company  B,  also  resigned,  and 
First  Lieutenant  Thomas  J.  Cureton  became  Captain,  and 
served  most  gallantly  to  the  end.  Lieutenants  H.  C.  Albright 
and  N.  G.  Bradford  were  promoted  to  be  Captains  of  Com- 
panies H  and  I,  respectively. 


This  brigade  to  become  so  famous  in  military  annals,  was 
composed  of  the  Eleventh,  Twenty-sixth,  Forty-fourth,  Forty- 
seventh  and  Fifty-second  North  Carolina  Regiments. 

Of  the  commander  of  this  brigade,  later  on  in  this  sketch 
a  more  extended  notice  will  be  given.  He  was,  at  the  time 
of  its  organization,  convalescent  from  the  severe  wound  re- 
ceived on  1  June,  1862,  at  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines,  and  was 
placed  in  command  of  Petersburg  in  the  fall  of  1862.  Dur- 
ing the  months  of  September,  October,  November  and  De- 
cember, 1862,  Pettigrew's  Brigade  was  either  on  duty  in 
Virginia  or  North  Carolina. 

The  faithfulness  with  which  Colonel  Burgwyn  disciplined 
the  regiment,  much  improved  its  efficiency,  and  it  became 
known  as  one  of  the  best  drilled  regiments  in  the  service.  In 
his  labors  in  this  behalf,  he  was  ably  seconded  by  his  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, John  R.  Lane,  who  manifested  extraordinary 
abilities  as  a  drill  master,  and  disciplinarian.  "This  perfec- 
tion of  drill,  to  which  the  excellent  music  of  Captain  Mickey's 
band  greatly  added,  was  a  cause  of  just  pride  to  every  member 
of  the  regiment,  officers  and  men  alike.  Never  was  any 
man  prouder  of  his  regiment  and  of  his  band,  considered  the 
finest  in  the  army  of  Northern  Virginia,  than  Colonel  Bur- 
gwyn," writes  a  member  of  the  regiment. 

EAWLS'  MILLSj  2  NOVBMBEK^  1862. 

The  first  opportunity  afforded  the  Twenty-sixth  regiment 
to  show  of  what  stuff  it  was  made,  acting  in  an  independent 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  337 

command,  occurred  in  the  engagement  at  Eawls'  Mills,  in 
Martin  County,  N.  C,  in  resisting  General  J.  G.  Foster's 
attempt  to  capture  the  regiment  while  on  a  reconnoissance  in 
the  neighborhood  of  Washington,  Beaufort  County. 

In  his  report  of  the  expedition,  General  John  G.  Foster, 
commanding  the  Federal  troops  in  North  Carolina,  with 
headquarters  at  New  Bern,  says  he  set  out  on  31  October, 
1862,  from  New  Bern  to  capture  the  three  regiments  (Seven- 
teenth, Twenty-sixth  and  Fifty-ninth  North  Carolina)  forag- 
ing through  the  Eastern  counties  of  the  State.  He  took  three 
brigades,  21  pieces  of  artillery  and  cavalry,  with  ample  wagon 
train,  total  5,000  men. 

On  2  November,  1862,  Foster  left  Washington  for  Wil- 
liamston.  On  the  same  evening  he  encountered  the  Twenty- 
sixth  Regiment  at  Little  Creek.  He  says :  "I  ordered  Colo- 
nel Stevens,  commanding  Second  Brigade,  to  drive  them 
away.  The  engagement  lasted  one  hour,  when  the  enemy 
being  driven  from  their  rifle  pits  by  the  effective  fire  of  Bel- 
ger's  Rhode  Island  Battery,  retired  to  Rawls'  Mill.  One 
mile  further  on,  where  they  made  another  stand  in  a  recently 
constructed  field  work,  Belger's  battery  and  two  batteries  of 
the  Third  New  York  artillery,  after  half  an  hour,  succeeded 
in  driving  the  enemy  from  their  works,  and  across  the  bridge, 
which  they  burned.  We  bivouacked  on  the  field,  and  next 
day  proceeded  to  Williamston." 

The  only  Confederate  troops  to  oppose  these  5,000  of  Fos- 
ter were  six  companies  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment,  under 
Colonel  Burgwyn.  Leaving  four  companies  under  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Lane,  at  Williamston,  on  the  Roanoke  river.  Col- 
onel Burgwyn  started  out  on  a  reconnoissance  to  go  as  far  as 
Washington,  N.  C.  He  stationed  two  companies  at  Rawls' 
Mills,  under  Captain  McLauchlin,  of  Company  K,  with  or- 
ders to  fortify  the  position  and  proceeding  with  the  remaining 
four,  reached  the  vicinity  of  Washington,  N.  C,  just  as  Gen- 
eral Foster  was  starting  out  to  capture  him. 

Colonel  Burgwyn  had  no  cavalry  or  artillery.  There  were 
two  parallel  roads  leading  out  of  Washington  for  William- 
ston. Again,  it  was  necessary  to  delay  the  Federal  advance 

338  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

as  much  as  possible,  to  give  time  to  Colonel  Ferebee,  of  the 
Fifty-ninth  Regiment  (Fourth  Cavalry)  and  LieutenanlhCol- 
onel  Lamb,  in  command  of  the  Seventeenth  Regiment,  who 
were  in  the  neighborhood  of  Plymouth,  to  retrace  their  steps. 
Dispatching  a  messenger  to  Colonels  Lamb  and  Ferebee,  warn- 
ing them  of  their  danger,  and  one  to  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lane, 
with  an  order  to  join  him  at  Rawls'  Mills,  Colonel  Burgwyn 
determined  to  resist  Foster's  advance  at  that  point. 

As  soon  as  it  was  ascertained  which  of  the  two  roads  the 
enemy  had  selected.  Colonel  Burgwyn  chose  the  other  and 
started  out  in  the  race  for  Rawls'  Mills.  On  reaching  the 
Mills,  he  ordered  Captain  McLauchlin  to  go  down  the  road  on 
which  Foster  was  advancing,  and  hold  him  in  check  at  Little 
Creek.  Captain  McLauchlin,  with  Companies  K  and  I, 
reached  Little  Creek  just  as  the  enemy's  cavalry  began  to 
cross,  and  attacked  them  with  his  handful  of  men. 

Colonel  Burgwyn,  placing  his  four  companies  in  the  hastily 
constructed  breastworks  at  the  Mills,  awaited  Foster's  ad- 
vace.  After  Captain  McLauchlin  had  been  for  some  time 
engaged  with  the  enemy  at  Little  river,  successfully  defend- 
ing the  passage  of  the  stream  against  Colonel  Stevenson's  bri- 
gade with  cavalry  and  artillery.  Colonel  Burgwyn  sent  Com- 
panies D  and  F,  under  command  of  Major  Jones,  to  Cap- 
tain McLauchlin's  support.  Fearing  that  a  longer  resist- 
ance by  so  small  a  force  would  result  in  its  capture.  Colonel 
Burgwyn,  after  the  fight  had  lasted  over  an  hour,  ordered 
Captain  McLauchlin  to  join  him  at  the  Mills.  Here  Gen- 
eral Foster  brought  into  action  three  batteries  of  artillery 
against  the  six  companies  at  the  Mills,  and  succeeded,  "ac- 
cording to  the  General's  report,"  after  half  an  hour,  in  driv- 
ing the  enemy  from  his  works,  and  across  the  bridge,  which 
they  burned.  The  fact  was.  Colonel  Burgwyn,  having  re- 
ceived advices  that  Colonels  Ferebee  and  Lamb  were  safe, 
and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lane  having  joined  him  from  Wil- 
liamston,  conckided  to  retire  in  the  night,  so  as  not  to  disclose 
the  paucity  of  his  force,  and  at  his  leisure  fell  back  in  the 
direction  of  Tarboro,  first  burning  the  bridge  at  the  Mill. 
Captain  McLauchlin  lost  one  killed,   and  three  wounded. 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  339 

General  Foster's  report  admits  a  loss  of  six  killed  and  eight 

After  proceeding  to  within  ten  miles  of  Tarboro,  "owing 
to  the  exposed  condition  of  his  men  and  want  of  provisions," 
says  General  Foster,  he  abandoned  any  further  advance,  and 
countermarched  to  Washington,  and  thence  to  New  Bern. 

It  was  a  singular  coincidence  that  the  Federal  General 
(Foster)  had  been  the  tutor  of  his  youthful  antagonist  (Bur- 
gwyn),  when  the  latter  was  a  student  at  West  Point,  in  1856, 
awaiting  appointment  in  that  institution,  at  which  General 
Foster,  then  Captain  Foster,  was  one  of  the  professors.  The 
art  of  war  as  taught  by  the  professor  was  in  this  instance  ap- 
plied to  his  discomfiture  by  the  pupil. 

Foster's  expedition  against  goldsboeo. 

In  December,  1862,  General  Foster  started  out  from  New 
Bern  to  destroy  the  railroad  bridge  over  the  Neuse  river,  and 
capture  Goldsboro,  N.  C.  Major-General  S.  G.  French,  who 
was  in  command  of  the  Department  of  North  Carolina,  under 
Major-General  G.  W.  Smith,  commanding  at  Richmond,  as- 
sembled his  forces  to  oppose  him.  On  17  December,  1862,  a 
spirited  engagement  took  place  near  Goldsboro,  in  which  Gen- 
eral Foster  was  driven  back,  and  he  hastily  retreated  to  New 
Bern.  Pettigrew's  brigade  was  not  seriously  engaged  in  this 
action,  but  pursued  General  Foster  on  the  latter's  retreat. 


On  7  February,  1863,  Major-General  G.  W.  Smith  re- 
signed and  Major-General  D.  H.  Hill  was  again  placed  in 
command  of  the  troops  in  North  Carolina.  General  Hill  re- 
solved on  the  capture  of  New  Bern.  General  Pettigrew  was 
given  command  of  the  troops  on  the  north  side  of  the  Neuse, 
and  General  Hill  had  charge  of  those  to  operate  on  the  south 

General  Pettigrew  with  his  brigade,  started  from  Golds- 
boro on  9  March,  1863.  By  rapid  marches  he  reached  the 
enemy's  works  at  Barrington's  Ferry,  near  New  Bern.  The 
Twenty-sixth  Regiment  was  ordered  at  daylight  into  position 

340  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

to  carry  the  place.  Three  20-poun(l  Parrott  guns  relied  upon 
to  destroy  the  gunboats  guarding  the  water  approaches  to 
ISTew  Bern,  proved  utterly  worthless.  One  burst,  the  ammu- 
nition was  defective  and  their  fire  proved  more  injurious  to 
the  Confederates  than  to  the  enemy.  There  was  nothing  to 
do  but  to  withdraw.  "The  only  question,"  says  General  Pet- 
tigrew  in  his  report,  "was  whether  I  should  carry  the  works 
before  withdrawing.  The  Twenty-sixth  Regiment  had  been 
in  waiting  ever  since  daylight,  and  would  have  done  it  in  five 
minutes.  The  works  we  could  not  hold.  There  would  be  a 
probable  loss  of  a  certain  number  of  men  sixty  miles  from  a 
hospital.  I  decided  against  it.  It  cost  me  a  struggle  after 
so  much  labor  and  endurance  to  give  up  the  eclat,  but  I  felt 
that  my  duty  to  my  country  required  me  to  save  my  men  for 
some  operation  in  which  sacrifice  would  be  followed  by  conse- 
quences. I  therefore  withdrew  the  whole  command  except 
the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment,  which  remained  within  about 
500  yards  of  the  place,  in  order  to  cover  the  withdrawal  of 
Captain  Whitf ord's  men.  I  cannot  refrain  from  bearing  tes- 
timony to  the  unsurpassed  m.ilitary  good  conduct  of  those 
under  me.  In  seven  days  they  marched  12Y  miles ;  waded 
swamps,  worked  in  them  by  night  and  day,  bivouaced  in  the 
rain,  some  times  without  fire,  never  enjoyed  a  full  night's  rest 
after  the  first,  besides  undergoing  a  furious  shelling,  and 
discharging  other  duties.  All  this  without  murmuring  or 
even  getting  sick." 

It  was  not  long  before  General  Pettigrew  had  another 
chance  at  the  enemy,  in  which  he  was  more  fortunate.  Gen- 
eral Hill,  with  all  his  available  forces,  on  30  March,  1863, 
invested  General  Foster  in  Washington,  IST.  C.  On  9  April, 
1863,  at  Blount's  Creek,  Pettigrew's  brigade  met  and  defeated 
General  Spinola  in  the  latter's  attempt  to  raise  the  siege. 
Finding  it  impossible  to  capture  the  place  after  the  enemy's 
gun  boats  had  succeeded  in  passing  the  batteries  at  Rodman's 
Point,  and  thus  reinforcing  General  Foster,  after  fourteen 
days  investment.  General  Hill  withdrew,  having  failed  in  this 
attempt  to  capture  the  town. 


1.  James  T.  Adams,  Lieut  -Colonel.  4.    Stephen  "W.  Brewer,  Captain.  Co.  E. 

2.  Samuel  P.  Wagg,  Captain,  Co.  A.  6.    Jos.  R.  Ballew,  Captain,  Co.  F. 

3.  'William  Wilson,  Captain,  Co.  B.  6.    R.  M.  Tuttle,  Captain,  Co.  F. 

7.    H.  C.  Albright,  Captain,  Co.  G. 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  341 


On  1  May,  1863,  Pettigrew's  Brigade  was  ordered  to  Rich- 
mond to  be  ever  thereafter  attached  to  the  Army  of  ISTothem 
Virginia.  Taking  position  first  at  Hanover  Junction,  to 
protect  that  important  point  in  the  enemy's  attempts  to  cap- 
ture Richmond,  the  brigade,  leaving  the  Forty-fourth  Regi- 
ment behind  at  the  junction,  as  a  guard,  proceeded  to  Fred- 
ericksburg, and  now  attached  to  Heth's  Division,  set  out  on 
15  June  on  the  memorable  march  to  invade  Pennsylvania. 

Heth's  Division,  as  then  organized,  was  composed  of  Arch- 
er's Tennessee,  Davis'  Mississippi,  Brockenborough's  Vir- 
ginia, and  Pettigrew's  North  Carolina  Brigades. 

The  division  commander  was  a  native  of  Virginia,  a  gradu- 
ate of  West  Point,  had  served  with  distinction  in  the  war  with 
Mexico,  and  against  the  Indians  on  the  frontier,  and  had  re- 
signed from  the  United  States  Army  to  accept  service  under 
his  native  State.  Promoted  from  Colonel  of  the  Forty-fifth 
Virginia  Regiment  to  the  command  of  a  Virginia  Brigade,  he 
won  additional  promotion  by  his  services  in  the  Chancellors- 
ville  campaign  (Spring  of  1863),  and  was  now  at  the  head  of 
a  command  ever  to  bear  his  name  and  to  serve  under  him  until 
he,  with  its  shattered  remnants,  surrendered  at  Appomattox. 
"His  earnest  praise  of  the  great  qualities  of  his  North  Caro- 
lina soldiers  was  imstinted.  Even  to  the  last,  there  was  a 
peculiar  tension  and  quiver  of  the  mouth  when  he  would 
speak  of  their  almost  God-like  heroism  at  Gettysburg,  and 
the  unheard  of  and  never  equalled  slaughter  that  checked,  but 
never  terrified  them." 


Says  a  member  of  the  regiment :  "What  a  fine  appearance 
the  regiment  made  as  it  marched  out  from  its'  bivouac  near 
Fredericksburg  that  beautiful  June  morning.  The  men 
beaming  in  their  splendid  uniforms ;  the  colors  flying,  and  the 
drums  beating ;  everything  seemed  propitious  of  success.  On 
this  march  it  was  a  real  pleasure  to  see  with  what  joy  the  peo- 
ple who  had  hitherto  been  under  the  domination  of  the  Fed- 
erals, received  us.     We  marched  by  way  of  Harper's  Ferry, 

342  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

where  the  gallows  on  which  the  notorious  John  Brown  waa 
hanged,  was  pointed  out  to  us.  Our  Colonel  was  one  of  the 
cadets  at  the  Virginia  Military  Institute  at  the  time,  and  one 
of  those  who  had  guarded  John  Brown  while  awaiting  his  ex- 

We  crossed  the  Potomac  at  Shepherdstown  and  continued 
our  march  and  rested  beyond  the  little  town  of  Fayetteville, 
Pa.,  on  Sunday,  28  June,  1863.  At  this  place  the  Chaplains 
held  services. 

Alas,  the  last  Sunday  on  earth  to  many  a  noble  soul  then 
beating  with  such  high  hopes  and  aspirations.  At  this  place 
some  of  the  men  of  our  brigade  robbed  a  farmer  of  a  few  of 
his  bee  hives.  This  was  regretted,  for  strict  orders  had  been 
given  that  on  this  great  march  into  the  enemy's  country,  noth- 
ing should  be  taken  except  such  provisions  as  the  commissa- 
ries might  require  to  be  issued  as  rations  and  for  which  they 
were  willing  to  pay.  It  being  suggested  that  some  of  the 
men  of  the  Twenty-sixth  got  some  of  the  honey,  Colonel  Bur- 
gwyn  and  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lane  sought  out  the  owner  and 
paid  him  for  it.  The  farmers  along  our  line  of  march  were 
quietly  reaping  and  housing  their  grain.  They  did  not  seem 
to  be  in  the  least  frightened  or  dismayed  by  our  presence,  and 
were  left  by  us  in  the  quiet  and  undisturbed  possession  of 
their  crops. 

On  30  June,  we  halted  at  a  little  village  named  Cashtown, 
on  the  Chambersburg  Turnpike,  about  nine  miles  from  Get- 
tysburg, and  were  mustered  preparatory  to  payment,  and  later 
in  the  afternoon  proceeded  to  within  about  three  and  one-half 
miles  of  Gettysburg,  just  this  side  of  a  little  creek,  crossed  by 
a  stone  bridge,  where  we  filed  to  the  right  and  bivouacked  in  a 
-beautiful  grove.  That  night  Lietitenant-Colonel  Lane  was 
entrusted  with  the  charge  of  the  picket  lines.  After  the  es- 
tablishment of  the  line,  two  ladies,  much  distressed  and 
alarmed,  because  they  were  cut  off  from  their  houses,  ap- 
proached Colonel  Lane  who,  assuring  them  that  the  Confeder- 
ate soldier  did  not  make  war  upon  women  and  children,  but 
ever  esteemed  it  his  duty  and  privilege  to  protect  them,  ad- 
vanced the  picket  line  beyond  their  homes,  which  lay  close  by. 

The  same  day  General  Pettigrew,  with  three  regiments  of 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  343 

his  brigade,  kept  on  to  Gettysburg  to  procure  shoes  and  other 
army  supplies  for  his  men ;  but  meeting  a  strong  force  of  the 
enemy's  cavalry  (two  brigades  of  Buford's  Division),  and 
instriicted  not  to  bring  on  an  engagement,  General  Pettigrew 
retraced  his  steps  and  rejoined  the  rest  of  the  division  in 
bivouac  on  the  Ohambersburg  Turnpike,  about  three  and  a 
half  miles  distant  from  the  village  of  Gettysburg.  That 
night  the  men  of  Heth's  Division  quietly  dreamed  of  home 
and  loved  ones  in  blissful  ignorance  of  the  momentous  fact 
that  Meade's  great  army  was  almost  within  their  hearing. 

GETTYSBUEG,  1-3  JULY,  1863. 

A  warning  carbine  shot  from  a  vidette  of  Buford's  Cavalry 
Division  on  the  bridge  over  Marsh  Creek,  fired  in  the  early 
misty  mom  at  the  head  of  a  column  of  infantry  marching 
rapidly  down  the  Chambersburg  Turnpike,  was  the  opening 
of  the  battle  of  Gettysburg  This  infantry  column  was  the 
head  of  Heth's  Division,  marching  to  "feel  the  enemy"  of 
whose  presence  the  skirmish  of  the  afternoon  before,  had  ap- 
prised them.  At  once  the  leading  brigade  (Archer's)  was 
filed  to  the  right,  formed  in  line  of  battle,  its  left  resting  on 
the  turnpike  and  advanced  to  the  front.  Davis'  brigade, 
forming  in  a  similar  manner  on  the  left  of  the  pike,  with  its 
right  resting  on  the  pike,  also  advanced.  Pettigrew's  and 
Brockenborongh's  Brigades,  for  the  present,  were  held  in  re- 
serve. Says  a  member  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment:  "As 
the  head  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment  reaches  the  summit 
of  the  hill  beyond  the  bridge  crossing  Marsh  Creek,  the  enemy 
opens  fire,  sweeping  the  road  with  their  artillery.  There 
is  some  little  excitement,  but  it  soon  disappears  as  Colonel 
Burgwyn  riding  along  the  line  in  his  grandest  style,  com- 
mands in  his  clear,  firm  voice,  'Steady  boys,  steady.'  " 

The  regiment  filed  off  to  the  right  about  a  hundred  yards, 
when  General  Pettigrew  and  staff  appeared  on  the  field.  He 
was  mounted  on  his  beaiitiful  dappled  gray.  ISTever  before 
had  he  appeared  to  greater  advantage.  His  command  was 
"echelon  by  battalion,  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment  by  the  left 
flank."  Colonel  Burgwyn  gave  his  Regiment  the  command, 
March !     Then,  as  each  regiment  of  the  brigade  marching  to 

344  North  Carolina  Tkoops,  1861 -'65. 

the  right,  uncovered  the  regiment  in  its  front,  its  commander 
gave  the  order  "By  the  left  flank,  March,"  and  thus  in  a  few 
moments,  and  by  the  quickest  tactical  movement  the  brigade 
was  in  line  of  battle,  marching  to  the  front  in  the  following 
order  from  left  to  right,  Twenty-sixth  Eegiment,  Eleventh 
Eegiment,  Forty-seventh  Eegiment,  and  Fifty-second  Eegi- 
ment, each  under  the  command  of  its  respective  Colonel. 

Advancing  in  line  of  battle,  the  brigade  was  halted  to 
await  orders.  Let  us  turn  now  to  see  what  the  Federals  were 

On  the  night  of  30  June,  1863,  General  Buford,  in  com- 
mand of  the  advance  division  of  cavalry  of  the  Federal  army, 
bivouacked  his  division  on  the  western  side  of  McPherson's 
ridge,  which  slopes  down  by  a  gentle  descent  to  Willoughby's 
Eun  at  the  bottom.  This  ridge  ran  north  and  south,  and 
about  400  yards  to  the  west  of  the '  Seminary,  which  is  about 
one-quarter  of  a  mile  to  the  west  of  Gettysburg.  About  11  a. 
m.  on  30  June,  General  Buford  had  entered  Gettysburg  by 
the  Emmetsburg  road,  just  as  the  head  of  Pettigrew's  brigade 
was  coming  up  on  the  Chambersburg  turnpike,  and  as  here- 
tofore stated,  there  was  a  skirmish,  and  General  Pettigrew 
withdrew,  not  wishing  to  bring  on  an  engagement.  At  10  :30 
that  night,  General  Buford  telegraphed  General  Meade  "he 
is  satisfied  that  A.  P.  Hill's  Corps  is  massed  just  back  of 
Cashtown."  As  Archer's  Brigade  advanced,  it  met  Bviford's 
pickets  stretching  along  Willoughby  run.  Driving  them  in 
and  rapidly  advancing  across  the  run,  he  struck  Buford's  main 
line — Gamble's  Brigade  composed  of  the  Eighth  New  York, 
Eighth  Illinois,  two  squadrons  Twelfth  Illinois,  three  squad- 
rons Third  Indiana  Cavalry  and  Calif's  Horse  Artillery  of 
six  3-inch  rifle  guns,  now  dismounted  and  acting  as  infantry, 
and  posted  along  McPherson's  ridge  and  in  McPherson's 
woods.  These  troops  Archer  was  steadily  driving  back  up 
the  slope,  when  he  suddenly  found  himself  enveloped  between 
the  extended  lines  of  Meredith's  (Iron)  Brigade,  of  Wads- 
worth's  Division  of  the  First  Army  Corps  just  arrived  on 
the  scene  at  double  quick.  Major-General  A.  Doubleday  in 
his  report  of  the  battle  of  Gettysburg,  thus  describes  this  ac- 

TWKNTY-SlXTH   Regiment.  345 

"The  enemy  (Archer's  Brigade)  were  already  in  the  woods 
and  advancing  at  double  quick  to  seize  this  central  important 
position  (McPherson's  woods).  The  Iron  Brigade  led  by 
the  Second  Wisconsin,  in  line  followed  by  the  other  regi- 
ments, deployed  en  echelon,  and  without  a  moment's  hesita- 
tion charged  with  the  utmost  steadiness  and  fury  and  hurled 
the  enemy  back  into  the  run,  and  captured,  after  a  sharp  and 
desperate  conflict,  nearly  one  thousand  prisoners,  including 
General  Archer.  (General  Heth  places  the  number  captured 
at  60  or  70.)  General  Archer  was  captured  by  Private  Pat- 
rick Maloney,  Company  G,  of  the  Second  Wisconsin.  Malo- 
ney  was  subsequently  killed."  "On  the  left,"  says  General 
Heth,  "Davis'  Brigade  advanced  driving  the  enemy  and  cap- 
turing his  batteries,  but  was  unable  to  hold  the  position,  the 
enemy  concentrating  on  his  front  and  flank  an  overwhelming 
force.  The  Brigade  held  its  position  until  every  field  ofiicer 
save  two  was  shot  down."  By  reference  to  General  Wads- 
worth's  report,  it  is  seen  that  it  was  Cutler's  Brigade,  assisted 
by  Second  Maine  Battery  that  was  attacked  by  Davis'  Bri- 
gade. General  Wadsworth  says :  "The  right  became  sharply 
engaged  before  the  line  was  formed.  At  this  time,  10:15  a. 
m.,  our  gallant  leader  (General  John  F.  Reynolds,  command- 
ing the  First  Corps,  Army  of  the  Potomac)  fell  mortally 
wounded.  The  regiments  encountered  heavy  force,  were  out- 
numbered, outflanked  and  after  a  resolute  contest,  fell  back 
in  good  order  to  Seminary  Ridge  near  town.  As  they  fell 
back,  followed  by  the  enemy,  the  Fourteenth  ISTew  York  State 
Militia,  Sixth  Wisconsin  and  Ninety-fifth  Wew  York  Volun- 
teers, gallantly  charged  on  the  advancing  enemy  and  captured 
a  large  number  of  prisoners,  including  two  entire  regiments 
with  their  fiags."  Lieutenant-Colonel  Rufus  R.  Dawes,  com- 
manding the  Sixth  Wisconsin,  says  in  his  report:  "Major 
John  A.  Blair,  commanding  the  Second  Mississippi  Volun- 
teers, upon  my  demand,  surrendered  his  sword  and  regiment 
to  me,  7  officers  and  225  men." 

From  this  severe  round,  to  use  a  pugilist's  expression,  both 
sides  took  a  breathing  spell  and  reformed  to  renew  the  at- 
tack. Says  General  Heth :  "The  enemy  had  now  been  felt 
and  the  division  now  was  formed  in  line  of  battle  on  the  right 

346  North  Caroijna  Troops,  1861-'65. 

of  the  road  as  follows.  Archer's,  now  commanded  by  Colonel 
B.  D.  Fry,  of  the  Thirteenth  Alabama,  on  the  right;  Petti- 
grew  in  the  centre,  and  Brockenborough  on  the  left.  Davis 
Brigade  was  kept  oh  the  left  of  the  road  to  collect  its  strag- 
glers ;  from  its  shattered  condition  it  was  not  deemed  advisable 
to  bring  it  into  action  again  on  that  day."  It  did,  however,  par- 
ticipate later  in  the  action.  After  resting  in  line  for  an  hour 
or  more,  orders  came  to  attack  the  enemy  in  my  front  with 
the  notification  that  Pender's  Division  would  support  me." 
Let  us  glance  a  moment  at  the  character,  numbers  and  posi- 
tion of  the  enemy  which  General  Heth  was  now  to  assault 
with  his  two  sound  and  one  crippled  brigade,  and  make,  con- 
sidering the  fierceness  with  which  it  was  made,  the  obstinacy 
with  which  it  was  met  and  the  fearful  loss  in  killed  and 
wounded  sustained  on  both  sides,  the  most  notable  charge  in 
all  the  battles  of  the  war  between  the  States. 

A  recent  writer,  John  M.  Vanderslice,  author  of  a  work 
called  "Gettysburg.  Then  and  ISTow,"  a  gallant  Union  sol- 
dier, places  the  relative  positions  of  the  opposing  forces  at  11 
a.  m.,  1  July,  1863,  as  follows:  Heth's  division  occupied  the 
extreme  right,  with  Archer's  Brigade  on  the  right ;  next  Pet- 
tigrew's,  then  Brockenborough's,  then  Davis'.  Facing  these 
Confederate  troops,  there  was  Meredith's  Iron  Brigade,  occu- 
pying McPherson's  woods.  On  the  left  of  the  woods  was 
placed  Biddle's  Brigade  and  on  the  right  of  the  woods  was 
Stone's  Brigade.  The  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-first  Penn- 
sylvania Regiment  of  Biddle's  Brigade  was  in  reserve,  so 
there  were  three  regiments  of  that  Brigade  with  Cooper's 
Battery  in  the  action  at  the  beginning.  These  several  bri- 
gades were  organized  as  follows:  Meredith's  Iron  Brigade, 
Nineteenth  Indiana,  Twenty-fourth  Michigan,  Second,  Sixth 
and  Seventh  Wisconsin  Regiments 

Biddle's  Brigade,  Eightieth  New  York,  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-first,  One  Hundred  and  Forty-second  and  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fifty-first  Pennsylvania  Regiments. 

Stone's  Brigade,  One  Hundred  and  Forty-third,  One  Hun- 
dred and  Forty-ninth  and  One  Himdred  and  Fiftieth  Penn- 
sylvania Regiments. 

These  regiments  in  these  brigades  were  posted  as  follows : 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  347 

Counting  from  left  to  right.  Biddle's  extreme  left  regi- 
ment One  Hundred  and  Twentieth  Pennsylvania.  Next  on 
right  Eightieth  New  York,  then  Cooper's  Battery,  then  One 
Hundred  and  Forty-second  Pennsylvania.  Meredith's  Iron 
Brigade,  extreme  left  regiment  Nineteenth  Indiana;  next 
Twenty-fourth  Michigan,  next  Seventh  Wisconsin,  and  on 
the  extreme  right  Second  Wisconsin.  The  Sixth  Wisconsin 
was  in  reserve.  Stone's  Brigade  was  not  engaged  with  any  of 
Pettigrew's  men,  but  confronted  the  remnants  of  Davis'  Bri- 
gade and  the  Forty-seventh  and  Fifty-fifth  Virginia  Regi- 
ments of  Brockenborough's.  Archer's  Brigade  on  the  Con- 
federate extreme  right  overlapped  Biddle's  Brigade  on  the 
Fedeiral  extreme  left,  but  Pettigrew's  Brigade  of  four  regi- 
ments, being  in  full  ranks,  and  Biddle's  three  regiments  not 
large,  the  two  left  regiments  of  Pettigrew's  lapped  over  and 
confronted  the  left  of  the  Iron  Brigade,  bringing  the  Twen- 
ty-sixth North  Carolina  Regiment  with  its  800  muskets  in 
front  of  the  Nineteenth  Indiana  and  the  Twenty-fourth  Mich- 
igan, numbering  together  784,  rank  and  file. 

The  position  of  the  Iron  Brigade  in  McPherson's  woods 
was  not  a  straight  line ;  the  Nineteenth  Indiana  and  Twenty- 
foixrth  Michigan  formed  nearly  a  straight  line  parallel  with 
Willoughby  Run,  but  its  next  regiment,  the  Seventh  Wiscon- 
sin, on  the  right  of  the  Twenty-fourth  Michigan,  was  formed 
obliquely  to  the  rear  to  confront  an  enemy  attacking  from  its 
right  flank,  and  also  so  as  not  to  get  outside  of  the  protection 
of  the  woods,  which  General  Doiibleday  says  in  his  report 
"possessed  all  the  advantages  of  a  redoubt."  Then  on  the 
right  of  the  Seventh  Wisconsin,  the  Second  Wisconsin  was 
formed  connecting  with  the  left  of  Stone's  Brigade.  Thus  it 
appears  the  Twenty-sixth  North  Carolina  regiment  faced  the 
front  of  the  Iron  Brigade,  which  consisted  of  the  two  regi- 
ments, the  Nineteenth  Indiana  and  the  Twenty-fourth  Mich- 
igan, but  the  Confederate  troops  charging  these  two  regi- 
ments in  the  woods  were  subjected  to  the  fire  from  the  men  of 
Biddle's  Brigade  and  of  Cooper's  battery  on  their  right ;  and 
it  was  from  the  fire  of  this  battery,  one  of  the  best  batteries  of 
the  Federal  forces,  that  the  Twenty-sixth  regiment  suffered 

348  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

severely,  especially  while  charging  across  Willoughby  Eun, 
and  reforming  thereafter. 

The  situation  then  at  2  o'clock  p.  m.,  1  July,  1863,  is 
this:  The  Iron  Brigade  in  line  of  battle  in  McPherson's 
woods  is  waiting  the  assault  of  Pettigrew's  brigade,  with  the 
Twenty-sixth  JSTorth  Carolina  Eegiment  of  said  brigade 
directly  in  their  front,  separated  by  Willoughby  Run  and 
disant  about  300  yards. 

The  regiments  of  Pettigrew's  Brigade  were  in  line  by 
echelon,  the  Twenty-sixth  being  in  the  advance  and  the  Elev- 
enth on  its  right  some  distance  in  the  rear ;  the  Forty-seventh 
regiment  in  rear  of  the  Eleventh,  and  the  Fifty-second  in 
rear  of  the  Forty-seventh.  This  made  the  Confederate  troops 
appear  to  the  enemy's  vision,  as  in  several  lines  of  battle, 
whereas  there  was  only  one  line  of  battle,  and  as  the  fight 
progressed,  these  regiments  came  up  successively  and  formed 
one  single  line  in  the  attack.  They  had,  however,  as  their 
support  Pender's  division,  some  distance  in  the  rear. 


The  author  of  the  History  of  the  Twenty-fourth  Michigan 
Regiment  of  this  Brigade,  thus  accounts  for  its  name  and 
gives  its  record.  Its  cognomen,  "Iron  Brigade,"  was  given 
them  by  General  McClellan  for  intrepidity  in  the  battle  of 
South  Mountain,  15  September,  1862.  In  proportion  to  its 
numbers  it  sustained  the  heaviest  loss  of  any  brigade  in  the 
Union  army.  Its  loss  at  Gettysburg,  first  day's  fight,  was 
1,153  out  of  1,883  engaged,  or  61  per  cent.  The  Second  Wis- 
consin sustained  the  greatest  percentage  of  loss  in  killed  and 
wounded  of  all  the  2,000  regiments  in  the  Union  army.  Its 
loss  at  Gettysburg  was  77  per  cent,  of  those  engaged. 

The  Sixth  Wisconsin  had  a  total  loss  of  867  killed  and 
wounded  during  the  war,  and  the  officer  in  command  of  the 
Second  Mississippi  Regiment  of  Davis'  Brigade  with  232  of 
his  regiment  and  its  colors,  surrendered  to  this  regiment  in 
the  early  part  of  the  first  day's  fight. 

The  Seventh  Wisconsin  met  with  the  greatest  loss  of  any 
regiment  in  the  Union  army  at  the  battles  of  the  Wilder- 
ness, and  had  1,016  men  killed  and  wounded  during  the  war. 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  349 

The  Nineteenth  Indiana  in  its  first  battle  at  Manassas,  sus- 
tained a  loss  of  61  per  cent.,  259  out  of  423  engaged,  and  the 
Twenty-fourth  Michigan  sustained  the  greatest  loss  of  any 
regiment  in  the  Union  army  at  Gettysburg,  80  per  cent,  viz. 
397  out  of  496. 

m'pheeson's  woods. 

General  Doubleday  says :  "On  the  most  westerly  of  these 
ridges  (McPherson's)  General  Reynolds  had  directed  his  line 
to  be  formed.  A  small  piece  of  woods  (in  the  shape  of  a  rec- 
tangular parallelogram)  cut  the  line  of  battle  in  about  two 
equal  parts.  These  woods  possessed  all  the  advantage  of  a 
redoubt  strengthening  the  centre  of  the  line  and  enfilading 
the  enemy's  columns  should  they  advance  in  the  open  spaces 
on  either  side.  I  deemed  the  extremity  of  the  woods  which 
extended  to  the  summit  of  the  ridge,  to  be  the  key  of  the 
position,  and  urged  that  portion  of  Meredith's  (Iron)  Bri- 
gade— the  western  men  assigned  to  its  defense — to  hold  it  to 
the  last  extremity.  Full  of  the  memory  of  their  past  achieve- 
ments, they  replied  cheerfully  and  proudly :  'If  we  can't  hold 
it,  where  will  you  find  the  men  who  can  ?'  " 

Major  John  T.  Jones,  of  the  Twenty-sixth  North  Caro- 
lina Regiment,  who  commanded  Pettigrew's  Brigade  after  the 
third  day's  fight,  and  made  the  ofiicial  report  for  the  brigade, 
dated  9  Axigust,  1863,  thus  describes  the  field: 

"In  our  front  was  a  wheat  field  about  a  fourth  of  a  mile 
wide,  then  came  a  branch  (Willoughby  Run)  with  thick  un- 
derbrush and  briers  skirting  the  banks.  Beyond  this  again 
was  an  open  field  with  the  exception  of  a  wooded  hill  (Mc- 
Pherson's woods)  directly  in  front  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Regi- 
ment, and  about  covering  its  front.  Skirmishers  being 
thrown  out,  we  remained  in  line  of  battle  until  2  p.  m.,  when 
orders  to  advance  were  given." 


The  Twenty-sixth  was  the  extreme  left  regiment  of  Petti- 
grew's Brigade.     It  directly  faced  McPherson's  woods  and 
its  front  about  covered  the  width  of  the  woods.     The  Iron 
■  Brigade  occupied  these  woods ;  the  open  space  on  the  left  of 

350  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

the  woods  (Confederate  right)  was  defended  by  Biddle's 
Pennsylvania  Brigade  of  four  regiments  with  Cooper's  Bat- 
tery in  the  centre,  the  open  space  on  the  right  of  the  woods 
(Confederate  left)  was  defended  by  Stone's  Pennsylvania 
Brigade  with  three  regiments.  Stewart's  Battery  B,  Fourth 
United  States  Artillery  attached  to  the  Iron  Brigade,  was 
posted  on  the  right  and  rear  supporting  Stone's  Brigade,  but 
in  a  position  to  sweep  any  part  of  the  iield.  A  ITorthern 
writer  says :  "There  is  no  doubt,  more  men  fell  at  Stewart's 
guns  than  in  any  other  battery  in  the  Union  armies."  Com- 
pany F,  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment,  was  on  the  left  of  the 
colors.  Company  E  on  the  right  and  Companies  A  and  G 
near  the  centre.  The  position  of  these  companies  nearest  the 
flag  accounts  for  their  disproportionate  losses  in  the  battle. 

A  member  of  the  Twenty-sixth  regiment  thus  describes 
the  situation :  "While  we  were  still  lying  down  impatiently 
waiting  to  begin  the  engagement,  the  right  of  the  regiment 
was  greatly  annoyed  by  some  sharpshooters  stationed  on  the 
top  of  a  large  old  farm  house  to  our  right.  Colonel  Burgwyn 
ordered  a  man  sent  forward  to  take  them  down,  when  Lieuten- 
ant J.  A.  Lowe,  of  Company  G,  volunteered.  Creeping  for- 
ward along  a  fence  until  he  got  a  position  from  whence  he 
could  see  the  men  behind  the  chimney  who  were  doing  the 
shooting,  he  soon  silenced  them. 

During  all  this  time.  Hill  was  bringing  up  his  Corps  and 
placing  it  in  position.  Colonel  Burgwyn  became  quite  impa- 
tient to  engage  the  enemy,  saying  we  were  losing  precious 
time ;  but  Hill  did  not  come,  and  we  had  nothing  to  do  but  to 
wait  for  his  arrival  on  the  field.  However,  we  were  keeping 
our  men  as  quiet  and  comfortable  as  possible,  sending  details 
to  the  rear  for  water,  and  watching  the  movements  of  the  en- 
emy. The  enemy's  shai*pshooters  occasionally  reminded  us 
that  we  had  better  cling  close  to  the  bosom  of  old  mother 

Many  words  of  encouragement  were  spoken  and  some  jokes 
were  indulged  in.  Religious  services  were  not  held,  as  they 
should  have  been,  owing  to  the  absence  of  our  Chaplains.  All 
this  time  the  enemy  were  moving  with  great  rapidity. 
Directly  in  our  front  across  the  wheat  field  was  a  wooded  hill 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  351 

(McPherson's  woods).  On  this  hill  the  enemy  placed  what  we 
were  afterwards  informed  was  their  famous  "Iron  Brigade." 
They  wore  tall,  hell-crowned  black  hats,  which  made  them 
conspicuous  in  the  line.  The  sun  was  now  high  in  the  heav- 
ens. General  Ewell's  Corps  had  come  up  on  our  left  and  had 
engaged  the  enemy.  Never  was  a  grander  sight  beheld.  The 
lines  extended  more  than  a  mile,  all  distinctly  visible  to  us. 
When  the  battle  waxed  hot,  now  one  of  the  armies  would  be 
driven,  now  the  other,  while  neither  seemed  to  gain  any  ad- 
vantage. The  roar  of  artillery,  the  crack  of  musketry  and 
the  shouts  of  the  combatants,  added  grandeur  and  solemnity 
to  the  scene.  Suddenly  there  came  down  the  line  the  long 
awaited  command  "Attention."  The  time  of  this  command 
could  not  have  been  more  inopportune ;  for  our  line  had  in- 
spected the  enemy  and  we  well  knew  the  desperateness  of  the 
charge  we  were  to  make ;  but  with  the  greatest  quickness  the 
regiment  obeyed.  All  to  a  man  were  at  once  up  and  ready, 
every  officer  at  his  post,  Colonel  Burgwyn  in  the  center,  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Lane  on  the  right.  Major  Jones  on  the  left. 
Our  gallant  standard-bearer,  J.  B.  Mansfield,  at  once  stepped 
to  his  position — four  paces  to  the  front,  and  the  eight  color 
guards  to  their  proper  places.  At  the  command  "Forward, 
march !"  all  to  a  man  stepped  off,  apparently  as  willingly  and 
as  proudly  as  if  they  were  on  review.  The  enemy  at  once 
opened  fire,  killing  and  wounding  some,  but  their  aim  was 
too  high  to  be  very  effective.  All  kept  the  step  and  made  as 
pretty  and  perfect  a  line  as  regiment  ever  made,  every  man 
endeavoring  to  keep  dressed  on  the  colors.  We  opened  fire  on 
the  enemy.  On,  on,  we  went,  our  men  yet  in  perfect  line,  until 
we  reached  the  branch  (Willoughby's  Run)  in  the  ravine. 
Here  the  briers,  reeds  and  underbrush  made  it  difficult  to  pass, 
and  there  was  some  crowding  in  the  centre,  and  the  enemy's 
artillery  (Cooper's  Battery)  on  our  right,  getting  an  enfilade 
fire  upon  us,  our  loss  was  frightful ;  but  our  men  crossed  in 
good  order  and  immediately  were  in  proper  position  again, 
and  up  the  hill  we  went,  firing  now  with  better  execution. 

The  engagement  was  becoming  desperate.  It  seemed  that 
the  bullets  were  as  thick  as  hail  stones  in  a  storm.  At  his 
post  on  the  right  of  the  regiment  and  ignorant  as  to  what  was 

352  North  Carolina  Troops,   ]861-'65. 

taking  place  on  the  left,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lane  hurries  to 
the  center.  He  is  met  by  Colonel  Burgwyn,  who  informs 
him  "it  is  all  right  in  the  centre  and  on  the  left;  we  have 
broken  the  first  line  of  the  enemy,"  and  the  reply  comes,  "we 
are  in  line  on  the  right,  Colonel." 

At  this  time  the  colors  have  been  cut  down  ten  times,  the 
color  guard  all  killed  or  wounded.  We  have  now  struck  the 
second  line  of  the  enemy  where  the  fighting  is  the  fiercest  and 
the  killing  the  deadliest.  Suddenly  Captain  W.  W.  Mc- 
Creery,  Assistant  Inspector  General  of  the  Brigade,  rushes 
forward  and  speaks  to  Colonel  Burgwyn.  He  bears  him  a 
message.  "Tell  him,"  says  General  Pettigrew,  "his  regiment 
has  covered  itself  with  glory  today."  Delivering  these  en- 
couraging words  of  his  commander,  Captain  McCreery,  who 
had  always  contended  that  the  Twenty-sixth  would  fight  bet- 
ter than  any  regiment  in  the  brigade,  seizes  the  flag,  waves  it 
aloft  and  advancing  to  the  front,  is  shot  through  the  heart 
and  falls,  bathing  the  flag  in  his  life's  blood.  Lieutenant 
George  Wilcox,  of  Company  H,  now  rushes  forward,  and  pull- 
ing the  flag  from  under  the  dead  hero,  advances  with  it.  In 
a  few  steps  he  also  falls  with  two  wotinds  in  his  body. 

The  lines  hesitates ;  the  crisis  is  reached ;  the  colors  must 
advance.  Telling  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lane  of  the  words  of 
praise  from  their  brigade  commander  just  heard,  with  orders 
to  impart  it  to  the  men  for  their  encouragement.  Colonel  Bur- 
gwyn seizes  the  flag  from  the  nerveless  grasp  of  the  gallant 
Wilcox,  and  advances,  giving  the  order  "Dress  on  the  colors." 
Private  Frank  Honeycutt,  of  Company  B,  rushes  fromi  the 
ranks  and  asks  the  honor  to  advance  the  flag.  Turning  to 
hand  the  colors  to  this  brave  young  soldier.  Colonel  Burgwyn 
is  hit  by  a  ball  on  the  left  side,  which,  passing  through  both 
lungs,  the  force  of  it  ttirns  him  around  and,  falling,  he  is 
caught  in  the  folds  of  the  flag  and  carries  it  with  him  to  the 
ground.  The  daring  Honeycut  survives  his  Colonel  but  a 
moment  and  shot  through  the  head,  now  for  the  thirteenth 
time  the  regimental  colors  are  in  the  dust. 

Kneeling  by  his  side,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lane  stops  for  a 
moment  to  ask :  "My  dear  Colonel,  are  you  severely  hurt  ?" 
A  bowed  head  and  motion  to  the  left  side  and  a  pressure  of 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  353 

the  hand  is  the  only  response;  but  "he  looked  as  pleasantly  as 
if  victory  was  on  his  brow."  Reluctantly  leaving  his  dying 
commander  to  go  where  duty  calls  him,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Lane  hastens  to  the  right,  meets  Captain  McLauchlin,  of 
Company  K,  tells  him  of  General  Pettigrew's  words  of  praise, 
but  not  of  his  Colonel's  fall ;  gives  the  order  "Close  your  men 
quickly  to  the  left.  I  am  going  to  give  them  the  bayonet" ; 
hurries  to  the  left,  he  gives  a  similar  order,  and  returning  to 
the  center  finds  the  colors  still  down.  Colonel  Burgwyn  and 
the  brave  boy  private,  Franklin  Honeycut,  lying  by  them. 
Colonel  Lane  raises  the  colors.  Lieutenant  Blair,  Company 
I,  rushes  out,  saying:  "No  man  can  take  these  colors  and 
live."  Lane  replies :  "It  is  my  time  to  take  them  now"  ;  and 
advancing  with  the  flag,  shouts  at  the  top  of  his  voice: 
"Twenty-sixth,  follow  me."  The  men  answer  with  a  yell  and 
press  forward.  Several  lines  of  the  enemy  have  given  away, 
but  a  most  formidable  line  yet  remains,  which  seems  deter- 
mined to  hold  its  position.  Volleys  of  musketry  are  fast 
thinning  out  those  left  and  only  a  skeleton  line  now  remains. 
To  add  to  the  horrors  of  the  scene,  the  battle  smoke  has  set- 
tled down  over  the  combatants  making  it  almost  as  dark  as 
night.  With  a  cheer  the  men  obey  the  command  to  advance, 
and  rush  on  and  upward  to  the  summit  of  the  hill,  when 
the  last  line  of  the  enemy  gives  way  and  sullenly  retires  from 
the  field  through  the  village  of  Gettysburg  to  the  heights  be- 
yond the  cemetery. 

Just  as  the  last  shots  are  firing,  a  sergeant  in  the  Twenty- 
fourth  Michigan  Regiment  (now  the  President  of  the  Iron 
Brigade  Veteran  Association,  Mr.  Charles  H.  McConnell,  of 
Chicago),  attracted  by  the  commanding  figure  of  Colonel 
Lane  carrying  the  colors,  lingers  to  take  a  farewell  shot,  and 
resting  his  musket  on  a  tree,  he  waits  his  opportunity.  When 
about  thirty  steps  distant,  as  Colonel  Lane  turns  to  see  if  his 
regiment  is  following  him,  a  ball  fired  by  this  brave  and  reso- 
lute adversary,  strikes  him  in  the  back  of  the  neck  just  below 
the  brain,  which  crashes  through  his  jaw  and  mouth,  and  for 
the  fourteenth  and  last  time  the  colors  are  down.     The  red 


354  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

field  was  won,  but  at  what  a  cost  to  the  victor  as  well  as  to 
the  vanquished. 


Pettigrew's  brigade  was  opposed  on  the  first  day  at  Get- 
tysburg to  the  best  troops  in  the  Federal  army,  viz :  Biddle's 
Pennsylvania  and  Meredith's  (Iron)  Brigade  of  Western 
troops.  The  Twenty-sixth  Eegiment  fought  at  one  or  an- 
other period  of  the  charge,  the  Nineteenth  Indiana  and 
Twenty-fourth  Michigan,  of  the  Iron  Brigade,  and  the  One 
Hundred  and  Fifty-first  Pennsylvania,  of  Biddle's  Brigade, 
which  came  to  the  support  of  the  Federal  second  line.  Says 
the  author  of  "Gettysburg,  Then  and  Now,"  published  in 
1899  :  "While  the  fighting  had  been  going  on  upon  the  Fed- 
eral right  Pettigrew  also  made  a  desperate  attack  on  Biddle's 
Brigade.  The  Fifty-second  North  Carolina  overlapping  the 
line  had  attacked  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-first  Penn- 
sylvania on  the  left  fiank,  compelling  it  to  change  front  and 
the  Forty-seventh  and  Eleventh  North  Carolina  encountered 
the  Twentieth  New  York  and  One  Hundred  and  Forty-sec- 
ond Pennsylvania,  while  at  the  same  time  the  Twenty-sixth 
North  Carolina  fighting  its  way  up  the  woods,  was  penetrat- 
ing a  gap  between  the  One  Hundred  and  Forty-second  Penn- 
sylvania and  the  Nineteenth  Indiana,  of  Meredith's  (Iron) 
Brigade,  the  left  of  which  had  been  forced  back. 

At  this  juncture  the  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-first  Penn- 
sylvania which  was  in  reserve  near  the  Seminary,  rushed  to 
the  front  and  met  the  Twenty-sixth  North  Carolina  in  one  of 
the  bloodiest  struggles  that  took  place  on  the  field,  as  will  be 
noticed  when  the  losses  of  these  regiments  are  stated." 

Quoting  again  from  Major  Jones'  official  report  of  the  part 
taken  by  Pettigrew's  Brigade  in  the  battle  of  Gettysburg,  he 

"The  Brigade  moved  forward  in  beautiful  style,  in  quick 
time,  on  a  line  with  the  brigade  on  our  left  commanded  by 
Colonel  Brockenborough.  When  nearing  the  branch  (Wil- 
loughby  Kun)  the  enemy  poured  a  galling  fire  into  the  left 
of  the  brigade  from  the  opposite  bank  where  they  had  massed 
in  heavy  force,  while  we  were  in  line  of  battle  awaiting  the 

Twenty-Sixth  Kegiment.  355 

order  to  advance.  The  Forty-seventh  and  Fifty-second  North 
Carolina,  although  exposed  to  a  hot  fire  from  artillery  and 
infantry,  lost  but  few  men  in  comparison  with  the  Eleventh 
and  Twenty-sixth.  On  went  the  command  across  the  branch 
and  up  the  opposite  slope,  driving  the  enemy  at  the  point  of 
the  bayonet  back  upon- their  second  line. 

"The  second  line  was  encountered  by  the  Twenty-sixth  reg- 
iment, while  the  other  regiments  vs^ere  exposed  to  a  heavy  ar- 
tillery shelling.  The  enemy's  single  line  in  the  field  on  our 
right,  was  engaged  principally  with  the  right  of  the  Eleventh 
jSTorth  Carolina  and  the  Forty-seventh  Worth  Carolina.  The 
enemy  did  not  perceive  the  Fifty-second  North  Carolina, 
which  flanked  their  left  until  the  Fifty-second  discovered 
themselves  by  a  raking  and  destructive  fire  by  which  the  en- 
emy's line  was  broken. 

"On  the  second  line  the  fighting  was  terrible,  our  men  ad- 
vancing, the  enemy  stubbornly  resisting,  until  the  two  lines 
were  pouring  volleys  into  each  other  at  a  distance  not  greater 
than  twenty  paces.  At  last  the  enemy  were  compelled  to  give 
way.  They  again  made  a  stand  in  the  woods,  and  the  third 
time  they  were  driven  from  their  positions  losing  a  stand  of 
colors  which  was  taken  by  the  Twenty-sixth  regiment,  but 
owing  to  some  carelessness,  they  were  left  behind  and  were 
picked  up  by  some  one  else." 

Let  us  quote  now  from  the  other  side  in  obedience  to  the 
maxim  "Fas  est  ah  hoste  docen."  Colonel  Henry  A.  Morrow, 
Twenty -fourth  Michigan,  a  native  of  Warren  ton,  Va.,  who  as 
a  young  man  moved  to  Detroit,  Mich.,  and  was  a  City  Judge 
there  in  1862,  and  raised  the  regiment  of  which  he  was  ap- 
pointed to  the  command,  in  his  report  of  the  battle,  says :  "I 
gave  directions  to  the  men  to  withhold  their  fire  until  the  en- 
emy should  come  within  short  range  of  our  guns.  This  was 
done.  Their  advance  was  not  checked  and  they  came  on  with 
rapid  strides  yelling  like  demons.  The  Nineteenth  Indiana, 
on  our  left,  fought  most  gallantly,  but  was  forced  back.  The 
left  of  my  regiment  was  now  exposed  to  an  enfilade  fire  and 
orders  were  given  for  this  portion  of  the  line  to  swing  back  so 
as  to  face  the  enemy  now  on  our  flank.     Pending  the  execu- 

356  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

tion  of  this  movement,  the  enemy  compelled  me  to  fall  back 
and  take  a  new  position  a  short  distance  in  the  rear. 

"The  second  line  was  promptly  formed  and  we  made  a  des- 
perate resistance,  but  we  were  forced  to  fall  back  and  take  up 
a  third  position  beyond  a  slight  ravine.  My  third  color- 
bearer  was  killed  on  this  line.  Augustus  Ernst,  Company  K. 

"By  this  time  the  ranks  were  so  diminished  that  scarcely  a 
fourth  of  the  force  taken  into  action  could  be  rallied.  Cap- 
tain Andrew  Wagner,  Company  F,  one  of  the  color  guard, 
took  the  colors  and  was  ordered  by  me  to  plant  them  in  a  po- 
sition to  which  I  designed  to  rally  the  men.  He  was  wounded 
in  the  breast  and  left  the  field.  I  now  took  the  flag  from  the 
ground  where  it  had  fallen  and  was  rallying  the  remnant  of 
my  regiment,  when  Private  William  Kelly,  of  Company  E, 
took  the  colors  from  my  hands,  remarking  as  he  did  so,  'The 
Colonel  of  the  Twenty-fourth  Michigan  shall  never  carry  the 
colors  while  I  am  alive.'  He  was  killed  instantly.  Private 
Lilburn  A.  Spaulding,  Company  K,  seized  the  colors  and 
bore  them  for  a  time.  Subsequently  I  took  them  from  him  to 
rally  the  men  and  kept  them  until  I  was  wounded. 

"We  had  inflicted  severe  loss  on  the  enemy,  but  jve  were  un- 
able to  maintain  our  position,  and  were  forced  back  step  by 
step,  contesting  every  foot  of  the  ground  to  the  barricade  west 
of  the  Seminary  building.  The  field  over  which  we  fought 
from  our  first  line  of  battle  in  McPherson's  woods  to  the 
barricade  near  the  Seminary,  was  strewn  with  the  killed  and 

"Our  losses  were  very  large,  exceeding  perhaps  the  losses 
sustained  by  any  regiment  of  equal  size  in  a  single  engage- 
ment of  this  or  any  other  war.  The  strength  of  the  regi- 
ment on  1  July,  1863,  was  28  officers  and  468  rank  and 
file,  total  496.  We  lost,  killed  8  officers  and  59  men. 
Wounded,  13  officers  and  197  men.  Missing  or  captured,  3 
officers  and  83  men.  ISTearly  all  our  wounded,  myself  among 
them,  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy.  The  flag  of  the  regi- 
ment was  carried  by  no  less  than  nine  persons,  four  of  the 
number  were  killed  and  three  wounded.  All  the  color  guard 
were  killed  or  wounded." 

Returning  to  Confederate  sources  for  accounts  of  the  he- 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  357 

roic  conduct  of  the  Twenty-sixtli  North  Carolina  Regiment, 
I  quote  from  his  official  report  of  the  battle,  made  by  Major- 
General  Heth,  commanding  the  division : 

"PettigreVs  Brigade  under  the  leadership  of  that  gallant 
officer  and  accomplished  scholar,  Brigadier-General  J.  John- 
ston Pettigrew  (now  lost  to  his  country),  fought  as  well  and 
displayed  as  heroic  courage,  as  it  was  ever  my  fortune  to  wit- 
ness on  a  battlefield.  The  number  of  its  own  gallant  dead 
and  wounded  as  well  as  the  large  number  of  the  enemy's  dead 
and  wounded  left  on  the  field  over  which  it  fought,  attests  bet- 
ter than  any  communication  of  mine,  the  gallant  part  it 
played  on  1  July.  In  one  instance,  when  the  Twenty-sixth 
North  Carolina  Regiment  encountered  the  second  line  of  the 
enemy,  its  (Twenty-sixth  Regiment's)  dead  marked  its  line 
of  battle  with  the  accuracy  of  a  line  at  dress  parade." 

Under  date  of  9  July,  1863,  less  than  a  week  before  his 
fatal  wounding  at  Falling  Waters  (14  July,  1863),  General 
Pettigrew  writes  Governor  Vance  as  follows:  "Knowing 
that  you  would  be  anxious  to  hear  from  your  old  regiment,  the 
Twenty-sixth,  I  embrace  an  opportunity  to  write  you  a  hasty 
note.  It  cavered  itself  with  glory.  It  fell  to  the  lot  of  the 
Twenty-sixth  to  charge  one  of  the  strongest  positions  possible. 
They  drove  three,  and  we  have  every  reason  to  believe,  five 
regiments  out  of  the  woods  with  a  gallantry  unsurpassed. 
Their  loss  has  been  heavy,  very  heavy,  but  the  missing  are  on 
the  battlefield  and  in  the  hospital.  Both  on  the  first  and 
third  days  yoiir  old  command  did  honor  to  your  associa- 
tion with  them  and  to  the  State  they  represent." 

Captain  J.  J.  Yoimg,  regimental  Quartermaster  of  the 
Twenty-sixth  regiment,  under  date  of  4  July,  1863,  writes 
Governor  Vance  as  follows : 

"The  heaviest  conflict  of  the  war  has  taken  place  in  this 
vicinity.  It  commenced  July  1st,  and  raged  furiously  until 
late  last  night.  Heth's  Division,  A.  P.  Hill's  Corps,  opened 
the  ball  and  Pettigrew's  Brigade  was  the  advance.  We  went 
in  with  over  800  men  in  the  regiment.  There  came  out  of 
the  first  day's  fight  216  all  told,  unhurt.  Yesterday  they 
were  again  engaged,  and  now  have  only  about  80  men  for 
duty.     To  give  you  an  idea  of  the  frightful  loss  in  officers, 

358  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

Heth  being  wounded,  Pettigrew  commanded  the  division 
(Pettigrew  had  the  bones  of  his  left  hand  crushed  by  a  grape 
shot,  but  remained  on  the  iield  with  his  hand  in  splints),  and 
Major  Jones  our  brigade.  (Jones  was  also  slightly  wounded, 
but  refused  to  leave  the  field).  Eleven  men  were  shot  down 
the  first  day  with  the  colors  (afterwards  ascertained  to  te 
fourteen).  Yesterday  they  were- lost.  Poor  Colonel  Bur- 
gwyn  was  shot  through  both  lungs  and  died  shortly  after- 
ward. His  loss  is  great,  for  he  had  few  equals  of  his  age. 
Captain  W.  W.  McCreery,  Inspector  on  General  Pettigrew's 
staff,  was  shot  through  the  heart  and  instantly  killed.  As- 
sistant Adjutant-General  IST.  Collins  Hughes  mortally 
wounded.  Lieutenant  Walter  M.  Eobertson,  Brigade  Ord- 
nance Officer,  severely  wounded ;  with  them,  Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Lane  through  the  neck,  jaw  and  mouth,  I  fear  mortally; 
Adjutant  James  B.  Jordan  in  the  hip,  severely;  Captain  J. 
T.  Adams,  shoxilder,  seriously ;  Stokes  McRae,  thigh  broken ; 
Captain  William  Wilson,  killed;  Lieutenants  W.  W.  Rich- 
ardson and  J.  B.  HoUoway  have  died  of  their  wounds.  It  is 
thought  Lieutenant  M.  McLeod  and  Captain  ]^f.  G.  Bradford 
will  die;  Captain  J.  A.  Jarrett,  wounded  in  face  and  hand. 
Yesterday  Captain  S.  P.  Wagg  was  shot  through  by  grape, 
and  instantly  killed.  Alex.  Saunders  was  wounded  and  J. 
R.  Emerson  left  on  the  field  dead.  Captain  H.  C.  Albright  is 
the  only  Captain  left  in  the  regiment.  Lieutenants  J.  A. 
Lowe,  M.  B.  Blair,  T.  J.  Cureton  (this  ofiicer  was  wounded 
in  shoulder),  and  C.  M.  Sudderth  are  the  only  officers  not 
WQunded.  Major  Jones  was  struck  by  a  fragment  of  a  shell 
on  the  1st  and  knocked  down  and  stunned  on  the  3rd,  but  re- 
fused to  leave  the  field. 

"Our  whole  division  numbers  only  1,500  or  1,600  effective 
men  as  officially  reported,  but,  of  course,  a  good  many  will 
still  come  in.  The  division  at  the  beginning  niunbered  about 
8,000  effective  men.  Yesterday  in  falling  back  we  had  to 
leave  the  wounded,  hence  the  uncertainty  of  a  good  many 
being  killed  yesterday  evening." 

Going  into  particulars  of  losses :  Company  F,  from  Cald- 
well County,  commanded  by  Captain  R.  M.  Tuttle  (now  a 
Presbyterian  minister  at  Collierstown,  Va.),  went  into  the 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  359 

battle  with  three  officers  and  88  muskets.  Thirty-one  were 
killed  or  died  of  wounds  received  in  the  battle.  Sixty  were 
wounded,  fifty-nine  of  whom  were  disabled  for  duty.  Ser- 
geant Robert  Hudspeth  was  the  only  man  able  to  report  for 
duty  after  the  fight,  and  he  had  been  knocked  down  and 
stunned  by  the  explosion  of  a  shell.  In  this  company  were 
three  sets  of  twin  brothers,  at  the  close  of  the  battle,  five  of 
the  six  lay  dead  on  the  field. 

Companies  I  and  F  of  this  regiment  were  from  Caldwell 
County.  The  men  composing  these  companies  had  been 
reared  along  the  slopes  of  the  Great  Grandfather  Mountain. 
They  had  been  accustomed  from  boyhood  to  hunt  deer,  the 
bear,  and  the  wolf  in  the  lonely  forests  surrounding  their 
homes.  They  were  enured  to  hardship,  self-reliant,  indefat- 
igable and  insensible  to  danger.  Company  F  was  on  the  left 
of  the  colors,  and  Company  E  on  the  right.  This  latter  com- 
pany (Company  E)  suffered  nearly  as  badly  as  Company  F, 
It  carried  82  officers  and  men  into  the  fi^ht,  and  brought  out 
only  two  untouched. 

Going  into  the  particxilars  of  the  loss  of  Company  E,  18 
men  were  Icilled  or  mortally  wotinded,  and  52  wounded  on 
the  first  day,  and  on  the  third  day  only  two  escaped.  Every 
officer  in  the  company  was  wounded. 

Company  G  lost  12  men  killed  and  58  wounded  and  miss- 
ing, but  the  losses  on  each  day  are  not  given  by  Captain  Al- 

Company  H  had  17  Idlled  and  55  wounded  in  the  two  days 
battles.  ^ 

The  men  composing  these  three  companies  were  from  the 
historic  counties  of  Chatham  and  Moore.  Their  ancestors 
had  fought  at  Alamance  and  Moore's  Bridge  and  Guilford 
Court  House,  and  from  their  youth  up  they  had  handled  the 
rifle  in  hunting  the  deer  and  wild  turkey,  and  as  General 
Pettigrew  said  of  them,  "they  shot  as  if  they  were  shooting  at 

Company  A,  from  Ashe  County,  the  same  class  of  moim- 
taineers  of  whom  we  have  spoken  above  in  referring  to  Com- 
panies F  and  I,  took  into  action  92,  rank  and  file.  Eleven 
were  killed  and  66  wounded  in  the  first  day's  fight,  and  on  the 

360  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

third  day,  its  Captain  (Wagg)  was  killed,  and  ten  wounded 
and  missing  out  of  fourteen  taken  into  the  fight.  Lieutenant 
J.  A.  Polk,  commanding  Company  K  when  the  muster  roll 
was  signed  31  August,  1863,  states  every  officer  was  wounded 
at  Gettysburg,  16  men  killed  and  50  wounded  and  missing. 
He  does  not  give  the  number  taken  into  action. 

As  to  the  loss  sustained  by  the  regiment  as  a  whole,  we  may 
rely  upon  the  statements  of  Northern  writers  who  have  com- 
piled them  from  the  official  records  in  the  War  Department 
at  Washington,  D.  C.  Colonel  William  F.  Fox,  of  Albany, 
H.  Y.,  in  his  book,  "Regimental  Losses  in  the  Civil  War,"  a 
work  of  recognized  authority — places  the  loss  of  the  Twenty- 
sixth  Eegiment  in  the  first  day's  fight  at  86  killed  and  502 
wounded,  out  of  800  taken  into  action.  He  says:  "On  the 
third  day's  fight  in  Pickett's  charge,  they  lost  120,  recorded 
as  missing."  In  a  letter  to  the  writer  dated  30  September, 
1889,  Colonel  Fox  says:  "My  figures  for  the  loss  of  the 
Twenty-sixth  North  Carolina  at  Grettysburg,  are  taken  from 
the  official  report  of  Surgeon-General  Lafayette  Guild,  C.  S. 
A.,  who  obtained  his  figures  from  the  nominal  lists  of  the 
killed  and  wounded  made  out  in  the  field  hospitals.  In  my 
opinion,  the  120  missing  should  also  be  included  in  the  killed 
and  wounded;  but  as  they  were  not  so  reported  officially,  I 
cannot  substitute  my  opinion  for  official  statistics.  In  a  sec- 
ond edition,  which  is  now  going  through  the  press,  I  added  the 
losses  for  Bristoe  Station,  having  obtained  them  from  the  War 
Department  since  the  publication  of  the  first  edition.  In 
these  losses  for  Bristoe,  I  was  surprised  to  see  that  the  Twen- 
ty-sixth North  Carolina  again  heads  the  list.  I  took  great  pains 
to  verify  the  loss  of  the  Twenty-sixth  North  Carolina  at  Get- 
tysburg, for  I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  in  time  this  regi- 
ment will  become  as  well  known  in  history  as  the  Light  Bri- 
gade at  Balaklava." 

Colonel  Fox  further  states  in  his  book  that  this  loss  of  the 
Twenty-sixth  Regiment  was  the  greatest  in  numbers  and 
greatest  in  per  cent,  of  those  taken  into  action  of  all  the  regi- 
ments on  either  side  in  the  Civil  War  in  any  one  battle.  Mr. 
John  M.  Vanderslice,  Director  of  the  Gettysburg  Memorial 
Association,  who  was  a  private  in  Company  D,  Eighth  Penn- 
sylvania, was  gazetted  for  distinguished  services  in  action  at 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment. 


Hatcher's  Enin,  6  February,  1865,  in  his  book,  "Gettysburg, 
Then  and  Now" — writes  thus:  "The  loss  of  the  Twenty- 
sixth  North  Carolina  Regiment  should  be  584  on  the  first 
day  and  of  the  remaining  216,  130  were  lost  on  the  third,  its 
total  loss  in  the  battle  being  588  killed  and  wounded  and  126 
missing  out  of  800  engaged.  This  brigade  (Pettigrews's) 
lost  over  500  additional  on  the  third  day." 

As  a  matter  of  historical  interest,  I  append  a  list  of  the 
losses  in  the  several  brigades  that  fought  in  and  around  Mc- 
Pherson's  woods  on  the  first  day  at  Gettysburg: 




r      Meredith  s  Iron  Brigade- 

2  Wisconsin . 

6  Wisonsin   . 

7  Wisconsin 
19  Indiana, . 
34  Michigan 

Biddle's  Brigade— 

80  New  York 
131  Pennsylvania  . 
143  Pennsylvania. 
151  Pennsylvania  . 

Stone's  Brigade  . . 


L  Gamble's  Cavalry. 

f  Davis'  Mississippi  Brigade 

Archer's  Tennessee  Brigade 

Brockenborough's  Virginia  Brigade 

Pettigrew's  No-th  Carolina  Brigade — 

11  North  Carolina  Regitnent. 
26  North  Carolina  Regiment. 
47  North  Carolina  Regiment. 
52  North  Carolina  Regiment. 

—   O 







J  588 
]  161 













362  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-'65. 

THIRD  day's  battle  AT  GETTTSBUEG^  3  JULT,  1863. 

Quoting  again  from  Major  John  T.  Jones'  report:  "The 
night  of  the  first  day's  fight  (1  July,  1863)  the  brigade 
bivouacked  in  the  woods  they  had  occupied  previously  to 
making  the  charge.  We  remained  in  this  position  until  the 
evening  of  the  2nd,  when  we  moved  about  a  mile  to  our  right 
and  took  position  in  rear  of  our  batteries  facing  the  works 
of  the  enemy  on  Cemetery  Hill.  We  remained  here  until 
about  12  o'clock  on  the  3rd,  when  our  batteries  opened  upon 
the  enemy's  works.  About  2  o'clock  we  were  ordered  to  ad- 

A  member  of  the  regiment  thus  writes : 

"On  the  second  day,  Pettigrew's  entire  brigade  rested.  Gen- 
eral Pettigrew  showed  great  energy  in  recruiting  his  thinned 
ranks.  He  commanded  that  all  those  not  too  severely  wounded 
shoiild  return  to  active  duty  and  armed  all  the  cooks  and  extra 
duty  men  and  every  other  man  in  any  way  connected  with  the 
regiment.  The  regimental  band  (Captain  Mickey's  band)  was 
ordered  to  play  inspiring  music  to  cheer  the  soldiers,  whose 
spirits  were  depressed  at  the  loss  of  so  many  of  their  com- 
rades, and  in  every  way  the  condition  of  things  was  enliv- 
ened. On  the  evening  of  the  2nd,  General  Pettigrew  marched 
his  command  to  the  place  in  the  line  from  which  the  grand 
charge  was  to  be  made  next  day.  To  the  great  surprise  of 
every  one,  the  brigade  seemed  as  ready  for  the  fray  on  the 
morning  of  the  third  day,  as  it  had  been  on  that  of  the 


Quoting  from  the  author  of  "Gettysburg,  Then  and  ISTow"  : 
"There  were  two  hours  of  comparative  silence  until  1  o'clock 
p.  m.  when  the  signal  gun  was  fired  from  Seminary  Ridge, 
by  the  Washington  Artillery  of  ISTew  Orleans,  and  there  was 
opened  between  the  138  Confederate  and  the  80  Federal  guns 
the  heaviest  and  most  terrible  artillery  fire  ever  witnessed 
upon  any  battle  field  in  this  country,  if  upon  any  in  the  world. 
It  opened  so  suddenly  that  the  men  were  torn  to  pieces  before 
they  could  rise  from  the  ground  upon  which  they  had  been 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  363 

lolling.  Some  were  stricken  down  with  cigars  in  their  mouths. 
One  young  soldier  was  killed  with  the  portrait  of  his  sister  in 
his  hand.  The  earth  was  thrown  up  in  clouds.  Splinters 
flew  from  fences  and  rocks,  and  mingled  with  the  roar  of  the 
artillery  were  the  groans  of  wounded  men  and  the  fierce 
neighing  of  mangled  horses. 

"In  the  meantime  the  fresh  troops  of  Pickett's  Confederate 
division  had  been  massed  under  cover  of  the  slight  ridge  run- 
ning between  Seminary  Ridge  and  the  Emmettsburg  road  in 
rear  of  the  artillery.  While  Pettigrew's  Division  (formerly 
Heth's)  was  massed  to  their  rear  and  left  behind  Seminary 
Ridge.  In  the  rear  of  the  right  of  Pickett  were  the  brigades 
of  Wilcox  and  Perry,  with  that  of  Wright  in  reserve. 

"In  the  rear  of  the  right  of  Pettigrew  were  the  brigades  of 
Scales,  and  Lane,  of  Pender's  Division,  commanded  by 
Trimble.  When  the  artillery  ceased  firing,  these  troops 
moved  from  behind  their  cover  and  advanced  majestically 
across  the  field  towards  Cemetery  Hill.  Pickett's  Division 
on  the  right,  Pettigrew's  on  its  left  and  rear  en  echelon,  sup- 
ported by  Scales'  and  Lane's  brigades.  Pickett's  division 
was  in  line  as  follows :  Kemper's  Brigade  on  the  right,  Gar- 
nett  on  his  left,  while  Armistead  was  in  the  rear.  On  the 
left  of  Pickett  were  the  four  brigades  of  Pettigrew's  division. 
Archer's  Brigade,  commanded  by  Frye,  next  to  Pickett ;  Pet- 
tigrew's, commanded  by  Marshall,  of  the  Fifty-second  ISTorth 
Carolina  Regiment,  next  on  the  left ;  Davis  next,  and  Brock- 
enborough  on  the  extreme  left. 

"In  the  rear  of  Frye  and  Marshall,  there  were  Scales'  Bri- 
gade, commanded  by  Lowrance,  and  Lane's  Brigade,  these 
under  Major-General  Trimble,  from  Maryland.  Together  the 
assaulting  columns  numbered  14,000.  The  point  of  direc- 
tion was  the  small  copse  of  trees  to  the  left  of  Ziegler's  Grove, 
held  by  Gibbon's  Division  of  the  Second  Corps.  After  ad- 
vancing some  distance  the  three  brigades  of  Pickett's  division 
made  a  half  wheel  to  the  left  in  order  to  move  toward  the  ob- 
jective point.  McGilvery's  forty  guns  (Federal  artillery) 
on  the  left,  with  those  of  the  two  batteries  on  Round  Top, 
opened  a  terrible  fire  upon  them.  As  the  division  neared  the 
wall,  it  was  joined  on  its  left  by  Frye's  Brigade,  and  at  the 

364  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-65. 

same  time  Lowrance's  North  Carolina  Brigade  rushed  from 
its  rear  and  joined  Frye's  and  Garnett  at  the  angle  of  the 
wall.  The  two  guns  of  Cushing's  battery  at  the  wall  were 

"The  left  of  that  charging  column  under  Pettigrew  and 
Trimble,  suffered  as  severely  as  the  right  under  Pickett. 
Great  injustice  has  been  done  these  troops  by  the  prevailing 
erroneous  impressions  that  they  failed  to  advance  with  those 
of  Pickett. 

"Such  is  not  the  fact,  as  they  were  formed  behind  Seminary 
Kidge  they  had  over  1,300  yards  to  march  under  the  terri- 
ble fire  to  which  they  were  exposed,  while  Pickett's  Division 
being  formed  under  cover  of  the  intermediate  ridge,  had  but 
900  yards  to  march  under  fire.  At  first,  the  assaulting  col- 
umns advanced  en  echelon,  but  when  they  reached  the  Em- 
mettsburg  road,  they  were  on  a  line,  and  together  they  crossed 
the  road.  The  left  of  Pettigrew's  command  becoming  first 
exposed  to  the  fearful  enfilading  fire  upon  their  left  flank 
from  the  Eighth  Ohio,  and  other  regiments  of  Hay's  Division 
and  of  Woodruff's  Battery  and  other  troops,  the  men  on  thp+ 
part  of  the  line  (Brockenborough's  Brigade)  either  broke  to 
the  rear  or  threw  themselves  on  the  ground  for  protection. 

"But  Pettigrew's  other  brigades,  Davis,  Marshall  andFrye, 
with  the  brigades  of  Lowrance  and  Lane,  under  Trimble,  ad- 
vanced with  Pickett  to  the  stone  wall  and  there  fought  desper- 
ately. As  the  assaulting  column  reached  the  wall,  Wilcox's 
Alabama  and  Perry's  Florida  Brigade  to  the  right,  marching 
according  to  order,  but  becoming  separated  from  Pickett, 
had  resumed  the  march  to  the  left,  and  were  now  advancing 
from  the  top  of  the  crest,  from  behind  which  Pickett  had 
emerged,  directly  towards  McGilvery's  batteries  and  the 
Third  Corps,  btit  received  by  a  severe  fire  from  Stannard's 
Vermonters,  who  had  changed  front  again,  and  exposed  to  a 
severe  artillery  fire  and  seeing  the  commands  of  Pickett,  Pet- 
tigrew and  Trimble  repulsed,  they  withdrew  under  cover  of 
the  hill.  Thus  ended  this  reckless  and  ever  renowned  effort 
to  carry  Cemetery  Hill  by  direct  assault  in  the  face  of  100 
cannon  and  the  Federal  Army." 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  365 

Quoting  from  Major  Jones'  report,  he  says: 

"About  2  o'clock  we  were  ordered  to  advance.  It  was  an 
open  field  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  in  width.  In 
moving  off  there  was  some  confusion  in  the  line,  owing  to  the 
fact  that  it  had  been  ordered  to  close  in  on  the  right  on  Pick- 
ett's division,  while  that  command  gave  way  to  the  left.  This 
was  soon  corrected,  and  the  advance  was  made  in  perfect  or- 
der. When  about  half  across  the  intermediate  space  the  ene- 
my opened  on  us  a  most  destructive  fire  of  grape  and  canister. 
When  within  about  250  or  300  yards  of  the  stone  wall  behind 
which  the  enemy  was  posted,  we  were  met  by  a  perfect  hail 
storm  of  lead  from  their  small  ar'ms.  The  brigade  dashed  on 
and  many  had  reached  the  wall  when  we  received  a  deadly  vol- 
ley from  the  left.  The  whole  line  on  the  left  had  given  way, 
and  we  were  being  rapidly  flanked,  and  with  our  thinned 
ranks  and  in  such  a  position  it  would  have  been  folly  to  stand 
against  such  odds. 

"After  this  day's  fight  but  one  field  officer  was  left  in  the 
brigade,  and  regiments  that  went  in  Avith  Colonels  came  out 
commanded  by  Lieutenants." 

A  member  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment  thus  describes  the 
charge : 

"As  soon  as  the  fire  of  the  artillery  ceased,  General  Pct- 
tigrew,  his  face  lit  up  with  the  bright  look  it  always  wore 
when  in  battle,  rode  up  to  Colonel  Marshall,  in  command  of 
the  brigade,  and  said:  'Now  Colonel,  for  the  honor  of  tne 
good  Old  JSTorth  State.  Forward.'  Colonel  Marshall  promptly 
repeated  the  command,  which  taken  up  by  the  regimental 
commanders,  the  Twenty-sixth  marched  down  the  hill  into 
the  valley  between  the  two  lines.  As  the  forward  march  con- 
tinued, our  artillery  would  occasionally  fire  a  shot  over  the 
heads  of  the  troops  to  assure  them  that  they  had  friends  in 
the  rear. 

"The  brigade  had  not  advanced  far  when  the  noble  Mar- 
shall fell,  and  the  command  of  the  brigade  devolved  on  Major 
Jones,  of  the  Twenty-sixth,  while  that  of  the  regiment  on 
Captain  S.  W.  Brewer,  of  Company  E,  a  man  who  proved  on 

366  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

that  day  as  he  has  often  since,  that  he  was  thoroughly  quali- 
fied to  lead. 

"The  Confederate  line  was  yet  unbroken  and  still  perfect, 
when  about  half  a  mile  from  their  works  the  enemy's  artillery 
opened  fire,  sweeping  the  field  with  grape  and  canister ;  but 
the  line  crossed  the  lane  (Emmettsburg  road)  in  good  order. 
When  about  300  yards  from  their  works  the  musketry  of  the 
enemy  opened  on  us,  but  nothing  daunted  the  brave  men  of 
the  Twenty-sixth  pressed  quickly  forward  and  when  the  regi- 
ment reached  within  about  forty  yards  of  the  enemy's  works, 
it  had  been  reduced  to  a  skirmish  line.  But  the  brave  rem- 
nant still  pressed  ahead  and  the  colors  were  triumphantly 
planted  on  the  works  by  J.  ii .  Brooks  and  Daniel  Thomas,  of 
Company  E,  when  a  cry  came  from  the  left,  and  it  was  seen 
that  the  entire  left  of  the  line  had  been  swept  away. 

"The  Twenty-sixth  now  exposed  to  a  front  and  enfilade  fire, 
there  was  no  alternative  but  to  retreat,  and  the  order  was  ac- 
cordingly given.  Captain  Cureton,  of  Company  B,  and  oth- 
ers, attempted  to  form  the  shattered  remnants  of  the  regiment 
in  the  lane  (Emmettsburg  road)  but  pressed  by  the  enemy, 
the  attempt  was  abandoned. 

General  Pettigrew  had  his  horse  shot  under  him  during  the 
charge,  and  though  woiinded  (bones  of  his  left  hand  shattered 
by  a  grape  shot)  he  was  one  of  the  last  men  of  his  division  to 
leave,  and  was  assisted  off  the  field  by  Captain  Cureton, 
whom  he  ordered  to  rally  and  form  Heth's  division  behind  the 
guns  for  their  siipport.  Pettigrew's  brigade  promptly  re- 
sponded and  formed  when  told  where  to  go. 

"By  night  a  very  good  skirmish  line  had  been  collected  and 
the  gallant  old  Twenty-sixth  had  67  privates  and  3  officers 
present  on  the  night  of  8  July,  1863,  out  of  800  who  went 
into  battle  on  the  morning  of  1  July.  In  this  enumeration 
the  cooks  and  extra  duty  men  and  others  who  had  been  armed 
are  not  counted.  These  70  officers  and  men  remained  to  sup- 
port the  artillery  that  night  and  all  next  day." 

As  of  historical  interest,  I  append  the  losses  of  Pickett's, 
Pettigrew's  and  Trimble's  Division  on  this  third  day's  fight 
at  Gettysburg. 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment. 


Pickett's  Division — 
Garnett's  Brigads,  8,  18,  19,  28  and  56  Virginia  Regis . . . 
Armistead's  Brigade,  9,  14,  38,  53  and  57  Virginia  Regts. 
Kemper's  Brigade,  1,  3,  7,  11  and  24  Virginia  Reg^s 

Pettigrew's  Division- 
Archer's  Brigade 

Pettigrew's  JBrigade  . . . 
Davis'  Brigade 

Trimble's  Division- 
Lane's  Brigade 

Scales'  Brigade 



—   O 

















Adding  the  killed  and  wounded  of  Pettigrew's  Brigade  on 
the  third  day's  fight,  viz.,  300 ;  to  its  killed  and  wounded  on 
the  first  day's  fight,  viz.,  1,105 ;  and  it  makes  a  total  loss  of 
1,405  killed  and  wounded  sustained  by  these  four  ITorth  Car- 
olina Regiments,  which  is  within  33  of  the  loss  in  killed  and 
wounded  sustained  by  the  fifteen  Virginia  Regiments  of 
Pickett's  Division. 


Quoting  again  from  the  author  of  "Gettysburg,  Then  and 
Now" :  "But  why  call  this  Pickett's  charge  ?  In  this  as- 
sault there  were  engaged  forty-two  Confederate  Regiments. 
In  Pickett's  Division  there  were  15  "Virginia  Regiments.  In 
Pettigrew's  and  Trimble's  there  were  15  ISTorth  Carolina  Reg- 
iments, 3  Mississippi,  3  Tennessee,  2  Alabama  and  4  Vir- 
ginia Regiments.  In  addition  to  the  artillery  fire,  they 
(Pettigrew  and  Trimble)  encountered  9  Regiments  of  ITew 
York,  5  of  Pennsylvania,  3  of  Massachusetts,  3  of  Vermont, 
1  Michigan,  1  Maine,  1  Minnesota,  1  New  Jersey,  1  Connect- 
icut, 1  Ohio,  and  1  Delaware,  in  all  27  regiments. 

368  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

"Some  prominent  writers,  even  historians  like  Swinton 
and  Lossing,  have  said  that  the  left  of  the  line  (Pettigrew's 
and  Trimble's  Divisions)  did  not  advance  as  was  expected, 
and  that  it  was  because  these  troops  were  not  of  the  same 
'fine  quality'  as  those  upon  the  right;  that  they  were  raw 
and  undisciplined,  etc.,  etc.  Yet,  but  two  days  before,  these 
same  soldiers  of  Pettigrew  and  Trimble  had  fought  around 
Eeynold's  Grove  (McPherson's  woods)  for  six  hours  in  a 
struggle  with  the  First  Corps  that  is  unsurpassed  for  bravery 
and  endurance,  and  where  so  many  of  their  numbers  had 
fallen.  There  were  in  fact  no  better  troops  in  the  Confed- 
eracy than  they.  Is  history  repeating  herself  ?  If  the  event 
is  correctly  recorded,  there  were  at  Thermopylas  300  Spar- 
tans, YOG  Thespians,  and  300  Thebans.  It  is  said  the  lat- 
ter went  over  to  the  enemy,  but  the  Thespians  died  to  a  man 
at  the  pass  with  the  Spartans.  Yet  for  nearly  twenty-four 
centuries.  Epic  song  and  story  have  well  preserved  the  mem- 
ory of  the  Spartans,  while  the  devoted  Thespians  are  for- 


On  the  first  day  while  the  Twenty-sixth  Eegiment  was  in 
line  awaiting  the  order  to  charge  the  enemy  in  McPherson's 
woods,  Lieutenant-Colonel  Lane,  who  had  been  up  all  the 
night  previous  in  charge  of  the  division  skirmish  line,  and  had 
eaten  but  little,  but  had  drunken  freely  of  muddy  water,  was 
seized  with  an  intolerable  naiisea  and  vomiting.  Colonel 
Lane  thus  speaks  of  the  incident:  "I  asked  permission  of 
Colonel  Burgwyn  to  go  to  the  rear.  The  latter  replied :  'Oh, 
Colonel,  I  can't,  I  can't,  I  can't  think  of  going  into  this  battle 
without  you ;  here  is  a  little  of  the  best  French  brandy  which 
my  parents  gave  me  to  take  with  me  in  the  battle ;  it  may  do 
you  good.'  I  took  a  little  of  it  under  the  circumstances,  though 
I  had  not  drunk  any  during  the  war,  and  I  may  add,  neither 
had  Colonel  Burgwyn.  In  a  few  minutes  I  was  somewhat 
relieved  and  said:  'Colonel  Burgwyn,  I  can  go  with  you.' 
With  his  usual  politeness,  he  replied :  'Thank  you.  Colonel, 
thank  you.'  Continuing  the  conversation,  he  said:  'Colonel, 
do  you  think  that  we  will  have  to  advance  on  the  enemy  as 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  369 

they  are?  Oh,  what  a  splendid  place  for  artillery.  Why 
don't  they  fire  on  them  ?'  He  saw  and  realized  the  very  de- 
cided advantage  their  position  gave  them  over  us." 

James  D.  Moore,  private  in  Company  F,  was  the  85th  man 
of  his  company  shot  on  the  first  day's  fight.  A  ball  passed 
through  his  leg.  When  taken  to  the  field  hospital  the  sur- 
geon said  he  had  been  fighting  cavalry,  as  the  wound  was, 
made  by  a  carbine  44  calibre,  and  not  by  an  Enfield  rifle,  56- 
calibre.  After  the  war  Moore  went  to  live  in  Indiana  at  a 
place  called  Winnaniac.  He  there  met  a  man  named  Hayes 
who  was  a  member  of  the  Twenty-fourth  Michigan  Regiment 
and  in  the  battle  of  Gettysburg.  Hayes  had  lost  his  Enfield 
rifle  on  the  forced  march  of  the  night  before,  and  as  his  regi- 
inent  was  going  into  action  on  the  morning  of  1  July, 
he  picked  up  a  carbine  dropped  by  one  of  Buford's  cavalry, 
and  used  it  during  the  fight.  It  was  the  only  carbine  in  the 
Twenty-fourth  Regiment  and  just  before  he  retreated,  when 
the  colors  of  the  regiment  charging  him  was  fifteen  or  twenty 
paces  distant,  he  fired  in  their  direction.  Moore  at  the  time 
was  alongside  the  flag  and  received  Hayes'  shot.  They  be- 
came good  friends  and  Hayes  was  of  material  assistance  to 
Moore  so  long  as  the  latter  lived  in  his  town. 

When  taken  from  the  fleld,  Colonel  Lane  was  carried  to 
the  field  hospital,  a  brick  house.  A  wotinded  Georgia  oflicer, 
who  was  lying  near  the  door  of  the  room  in  which  Colonel 
Lane  was,  had  been  delirious  all  the  morning.  He  finally  be- 
came quiet  about  1  p.  m.  and  after  a  silence  of  some  minutes. 
Colonel  Lane  heard  him  say  in  a  perfectly  rational  tone  of 
voice :  "There  now,  there  now.  Vicksburg  has  fallen,  Gen- 
eral Lee  is  retreating  and  the  South  is  whipped.  The  South 
is  whipped."  He  ceased  speaking  and  in  a  few  moments  an 
attendant  passed  by  and  said  he  was  dead.  General  Lee  did 
not  retreat  from  Gettysburg  until  the  evening  of  the  4th  of 
July,  and  Vicksburg  was  not  surrendered  until  the  4th  of 

It  is  stated  in  Volume  67,  page  514,  Official  Records  Union 
and  Confederate  Armies,  that  on  4  July,  1863,  at  6 :35  a.  m., 
General  Lee  proposed  to  General  Meade  "to  promote  the  com- 

370  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861-'65. 

fort  and  convenience  of  the  officers  and  men  captured  by  the 
opposing  amiies,  that  an  exchange  be  made  at  once."  At 
8  :25  a.  m.,  General  Meade  replied :  "It  is  not  in  my  power  to 
accede  to  the  proposed  arrangement." 


When  the  army  retreated  from  Gettysburg,  the  wounded 
were  sent  off  in  long  trains  chiefly  of  the  wagons  which  Gen- 
eral Stuart  had  captured  in  his  raid  around  Meade's  army. 
These  invited  the  attack  of  the  enemy's  cavalry,  and  many 
wounded  Confederate  officers  and  soldiers  were  in  this  way 
captured  before  the  army  got  across  the  Potomac  river. 

The  wagon  train  in  which  Colonel  Lane  was  carried,  was 
one  of  those  attacked.  He  at  once  got  out  of  the  wagon, 
mounted  his  horse  and  made  his  escape,  though  he  was  at  the 
time  unable  to  speak  or  to  receive  nourishment  in  the  nat- 
ural way.  He  was  unable  to  take  any  nourishment  for  nine 
days,  owing  to  the  swollen  and  inflamed  condition  of  his 
throat  and  mouth,  and  it  was  thought  impossible  for  him 
ever  to  get  well. 


Posterity  will  wish  to  know  as  much  as  possible  of  the  per- 
sonnel of  this  regiment,  and  we  append  a  list  of  the  officers  of 
the  regiment  who  participated  in  the  battle  of  Gettysburg. 
This  we  are  enabled  to  do  from  a  very  remarkable  fact. 

As  stated  above,  the  proximity  of  Meade's  army  was  not 
known  on  30  June,  1863,  and  on  that  day  the  regiment  was 
mustered  as  it  bivouacked  after  the  day's  march.  These  mus- 
ter and  pay  rolls  were  made  out  in  triplicate,  one  to  be  sent  to 
the  Adjutant  General  of  the  army,  one  to  be  kept  by  the  com- 
pany commander,  and  one  by  the  Quartermaster  of  the  regi- 
ment, who  was  also  the  paymaster.  Captain  J.  J.  Young,  the 
regimental  Quartermaster  from  the  beginning  to  the  end  of 
the  war,  has  preserved  these  muster  and  pay  rolls.  The 
writer  has  had  access  to  the  same,  and  now  copies  from  them 
the  names  of  the  officers  of  the  regiment  who  were  present  in 
camp  on  the  afternoon  of  30  June,  1863,  and  the  number  of 


1.    John  Tuttle,  Sergeant,  Co.  F. 

3.    Wm.  N.  SnellinK,  2d  Lieut.,  Co.  D. 

3.  L  L.  Polk,  Sergeant  Major 

4.  W.  W.  Edwards,  Private,  Co.  E. 

6.  J.  D.  Moore.  Private,  Co.  F.  (The  85th 
man  in  his  Company  wounded  at 
Gettysburg,  July  1st,  1863.) 

6.  H    C.  Co£Eey,  Private,  Co.  F.      (The 

86th  man  in  his  Company  wounded 
at  Gettysburg,  July  1st,  1863.) 

7.  Laban  Ellis,  Private,  Co.  E. 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  371 

those  present  for  duty  in  each  company  as  shown  hy  its  mus- 
ter and  pay  roll  for  that  day. 


Haeey  King  Buegwyn^  Jr.,  Colonel. 
John  Randolph  Lane,  Lieutenant-Colonel. 
John  Thomas  Jones,  Major. 
James  B.  Joedan,  Adjutant. 
Llewellyn  P.  Waeeen,  Surgeon. 
William  W.  Gaithee,  Assistant  Surgeon. 
Joseph  J.  Young,  Quartermaster. 
Phineas  Hoeton,  Commissary. 
MoNTFOED  S.  McRea,  Sergeant  Major. 
Benjamin  Hind,  Hospital  Steward. 
Abeam  J.  Lane,  Quartermaster  Sergeant. 
Jesse  F.  Peeguson,  Commissary  Sergeant. 
E.  H.  HoENADAY,  Ordnance  Sergeant. 


Company  A — Captain,  Samuel  P.  Wagg;  First  Lieuten- 
ant, A.  B.  Duvall ;  Second  Lieutenant,  J.  B.  Houek ;  Junior 
Second  Lieutenant,  L.  C.  Gentry;  present  for  duty,  97. 

Company  B — ^Captain,  Wm.  Wilson;  First  Lieutenant, 
Thos.  J.  Cureton;  Second  Lieutenant,  W.  W.  Richardson; 
Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  Edward  A.  Breitz;  present  for 
duty,  92. 

Company  C — Captain  J.  A.  Jarrett ;  First  Lieutenant,  W. 
Porter ;  Second  Lieutenant, ;  Junior  Second  Lieuten- 
ant, R.  D.  Horton ;  present  for  duty,  80. 

Company  D- — Captain,  J.  T.  Adams;  First  Lieutenant, 
Gaston  Broughton;  Second  Lieutenant,  J.  G.  M.  Jones; 
Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  Orren  A.  Hanner;  present  for 
duty,  79. 

Company  E^ — Captain,  S.  W.  Brewer;  First  Lieutenant, 
John  R.  Emerson;  Second  Lieutenant,  W.  J.  Lambert; 
Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  Oran  A.  Hanner;  present  for 
duty,  104. 

Company  F — Captain,  R.  M.  Tuttle ;  First  Lieutenant,  C. 

372  North  Carolina  Troops,  1861 -'65. 

M.   Sudderth;   Second  Lieutenant, ;   Jumoi' 

Second  Lieutenant,  J.  B.  HoUoway;  present  for  duty,  91. 

Company  G— Captain,  H.  C.  Albright;  First  Lieutenant, 
J.  A.  Lowe;  Second  Lieutenant, ;  Junior  Sec- 
ond Lieutenant,  Wm.  G.  Lane;  present  for  duty,  91. 

Company  H— Captain, ;  First  Lieutenant, 

M.  McLeod;  Second  Lieutenant,  George  Willcox;  Junior 
Second  Lieutenant,  J.  H.  McGilvery ;  present  for  duty,  78. 

Company  I— Captain,  N.  G.  Bradford ;  First  Lieutenant, 
M.  B.  Blair;  Second  Lieutenant,  J.  C.  Grier;  Junior  Sec- 
ond Lieutenant,  J.  G.  Sudderth ;  present  for  duty,  74. 

CoMPAifY  K — Captain,  James  G.  McLauchlin ;  First  Lieu- 
tenant,  Thomas  Lilly;   Second  Lieutenant, \ 

Junior  Second  Lieutenant,  J.  L.  Henry ;  present  for  duty,  99. 

The  total  number  present  for  duty  was  885. 

Of  those  absent,  Captain  James  D.  Mclver  of  Company  H, 
Second  Lieutenant  A.  B.  Hays  of  Company  F,  and  Second 
Lieutenant  A.  K.  Jordan  of  Company  G,  were  absent  on  de- 
tached duty,  Second  Lieutenant  Wm.  L.  Ingram  of  Company" 
K,  was  on  sick  furloiigh,  and  Second  Lieutenant  J.  M.  Har- 
ris of  Company  C,  who  was  subsequently  captured  at  Bristoe 
Station  (14  October,  1863)  is  marked  "absent  with  leave." 

Of  the  above  list  those  killed  or  mortally  wounded  in  the 
two  days'  fighting,  were  as  follows :  Colonel,  H.  K.  Burgwyn ; 
Captains  S.  P.  Wagg,  Wm.  Wilson ;  Lieutenants,  John  E. 
Emerson,  W.  W.  Richardson,  J.  B.  HoUoway. 

All  the  other  ofiicers  except  Captain  Albright  and  Lieuten- 
ants J.  A.  Lowe,  C.  M.  Sudderth  and  ii.  B.  Blair,  were 
wounded.  Adjutant  J.  B.  Jordan  and  Sergeant-Major  M. 
S.  McRea,  of  the  Regimental  Staff,  both  severely  wounded. 
Major  Jones  and  Lieutenant  T.  J.  Cureton.  were  wounded,, 
but  refused  to  leave  the  field. 


Captains,  Bradford  and  Brewer.  I^ieutenants,  Brietz, 
Broughton,  Hanner,  McLeod,  and  Adjutant  Jordan. 

On  31  August,  1863,  while  the  regiment  was  in  camp  near 
Orange  Court  House,  it  was  again  mustered.     The  writer  has- 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  373 

these  rolls  before  him.  In  some  companies  the  record  of 
events  since  30  June,  1863  (last  muster)  is  specific;  in  some, 
no  details  are  given  other  than  vi^hat  appears  opposite  the 
name  of  the  individual. 

Captain  Duval,  of  Company  A,  reports  that  his  company 
went  into  action  at  Gettysburg  with  92  men  and  lost,  killed 
11,  and  wotinded  66,  on  the  first  day,  and  on  the  third  day, 
1  killed.  Captain  Wagg,  and  10  wounded  and  missing; 
total,  88. 

First  Lieutenant  W.  J.  Lambert,  of  Company  E,  says  his 
company  took  into  the  battle  82  men  and  lost,  killed  and  mor- 
tally wounded  18,  and  wounded  52,  on  the  first  day,  and  on 
the  second  day's  fight  only  two  men  escaped. 

Captain  Albright,  of  Company  G,  reports  the  loss  of  his 
company  at  12  killed  and  58  wounded  and  missing. 

Captain  Mclver,  of  Company  H,  reports  17  killed  and  55 
wounded  at  Gettysburg. 

Lieutenant  Polk,  of  Company  K,  says  he  recrossed  the 
Potomac  at  Falling  Waters  with  16  men,  having  crossed  that 
river  in  June  on  the  way  to  Gettysburg,  with  103,  rank  and 

Captain  Tuttle,  of  Company  F,  declares  that  every  man 
was  killed  or  wounded  in  his  company  that  he  took  into  the 

The  following  is  tlie  number  killed  and  wounded  and  miss- 
ing at  Gettysburg,  ascertained  from  the  reports  as  given  on 
the  muster  rolls  of  the  companies,  dated  31  August,  1863 : 
"Killed  and  mortally  wounded,  139.  Wounded  and  miss- 
ing, 535." 

This  enumeration  omits  some  wounded  who  had  returned 
to  duty  prior  to  31  August,  1863,  the  date  of  the  muster. 

The  muster  rolls  for  30  June,  1863,  make  the  aggregate 
present  for  duty,  enlisted  men,  885 ;  allowing  10  per  cent, 
for  extra  duty  and  details,  it  would  leave  about  800  muskets 
taken  into  battle  at  Gettysburg  on  the  first  day.  Of  this 
number  708  were  killed,  wounded  and  missing  as  the  losses 
in  the  first  and  third  day's  fighting  at  Gettysburg.  Over  88 
per  cent — and  of  the  officers,  34  out  of  39  were  killed  or 
wounded.     Over  87  per  cent. 

374  North  Carolina  Troops,   1861-65. 

coloe  beaeees  at  gettysbueg. 

It  is  possible  at  this  late  day  that  the  name  of  some  gallant 
soldier  who  carried  the  flag  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Eegiment 
during  the  battle  of  Gettysburg  may  be  omitted  from  the  list 
below,  but  every  effort  has  been  made  to  include  in  this  hon- 
orable mention  all  entitled,  for  no  one  took  the^flag  in  that 
battle  without  the  certainty  of  being  shot  down,  and  not  one 

The  color  guard  consisted  of  a  Sergeant  and  eight  pri- 
vates. After  these  nine  had  fallen,  the  others  were  volun- 

FIEST  day's  I-IGHT^  1  JTJLY^  1863. 

Colonel,  H.  K.  Burgwyn,  Jr.,  killed. 

Captain  Wm.  W.  McCreery,  killed. 

Private  Franklin  Honeycutt,  Company  B,  killed. 

"  John  E..  Marley,  Company  Gr,  killed. 

"         William  Ingram,  Company  K,  killed. 
Lieutenant-Colonel  John  E.  Lane,  wounded. 
Lieutenant  Greorge  Willcox,  wounded. 
Color  Sergeant  J.  Mansfield,  wounded. 
Sergeant  Hiram  Johnson,  Company  Gr,  wounded. 
Private  John  Stamper,  Company  A,  wounded. 

"         G.  W.  Kelly,  Company  D,  wounded. 

"         L.  A.  Thomas,  Company  F,  wounded. 

"         John  Vinson,  Company  G,  wounded. 

thied  day's  fight^  3  JULY^  1863. 

Sergeant  W.  H.  Smith,  Company  K,  killed. 
Private  Thomas  J.  Cozart,  Company  F,  killed. 
Captain  S.  W.  Brewer,  Company  E,  wounded. 
Private  Daniel  Thomas,  Company  E,  wounded. 

As  First  Sergeant  James  M.  Brooks,  Company  E,  and 
Daniel  Thomas,  the  latter  carrying  the  flag,  reached  the  en- 
emy's works,  the  Federals  called  out  to  them,  "Come  over  on 
this  side  of  the  Lord,"  and  took  them  prisoners  rather  than 
fire  at  them. 

Twenty-Sixth  Regiment.  375 


These  men  kept  right  up  with  the  regiment.     I  have  only 
been  able  to  locate  the  following  name^ : 
Private  Weill  B.  Staton,  Company  B. 

"         Jackson  Baker,  Company  D. 

"         John  A.  Jackson,  Company  H. 


On  the  night  of  4  July,  1863,  General  Lee  withdrew  his 
army  from  confronting  Meade  at  Gettysburg,  and  Heth's 
Division  marched  to  Hagerstown,  where  it  entrenched.  "On 
the  evening  of  13  July,"  says  General  Heth  in  his  ofScial  re- 
port, "I  received  orders  to  withdraw  at  dark  and  move  in  the 
direction  of  Falling  Waters.  The  night  was  dark,  roads 
ankle  deep  in  mud  and  raining.  It  took  twelve  hours  to 
march  seven  miles.  On  reaching  an  elevated  and  command- 
ing ridge  of  hills,  one  mile  from  Falling  Waters,  I  was  or- 
dered by  General  A.  P.  Hill  to  put  my  division  in  line  of  bat- 
tle on  either  side  of  the  road  and  to  put  Pender's  Division  in 
rear  of  mine  in  column  of  brigades.  At  this  point  we  halted 
to  let  the  wagons  and  artillery  get  over  the  river.  About  11 
a.  m.  14  July,  1863,  received  orders  to  move  Pender's  divis- 
ion across  the  river  following  Anderson's  Division.  About 
15  or  20  minutes  after  getting  these  orders,  and  while  they 
were  in  execution,  a  small  body  of  cavalry,  numbering  40  or 
45,  made  their  appearance  in  our  front.  They  were  at  once